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(bkixo  a  continuation  of  the  'annals' combined  with  loudon  and 


C  0  N  D  U  C  T  E  D    B  Y 

ALBERT  C.  L.  G.  GUNTHER,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S., 









"Oinne»  res  creatiE  sunt  diTinae  sapienti^  et  potentiae  testes,  diTitirc  felicitatis 
humanae: — ex  harum  usu  bonitas  Creatoris;  ez.  pulcbritudine  sapient ia  Domini ; 
ex  oeconomiA  in  conserratione,  proportione,  renoratione,  potentia  majestatia 
elucet.  Earum  itaque  indagatio  ab  hominibus  sibi  relictis  semper  a-stimata ; 
h  Tere  eruditis  et  sapientibus  semper  exculta ;  male  doctis  et  barbaris  semper 
inimica  fuit." — Linnaeus. 

"Quel  que  soit  le  principe  de  la  vie  animale,  il  ne  faut  qu'ouTrir  lesyeui  pour 
voir  qu'elle  est  le  chef-d'oeuTre  de  la  Toute-puissance,  et  le  but  auquel  se  rappor- 
tent  toutes  ses  operations." — BitucKNEii,  Thiorie  du  Si/steme  Animal,  Leyden, 

The  sylyan  powers 

Obey  our  summons ;  from  their  deepest  dells 

The  Dryads  come,  and  throw  their  garlands  wild 

And  odorous  branches  at  our  feet ;  the  Nymphs 

That  press  with  nimble  step  the  mountain-thyme 

And  purple  heath-flower  come  not  empty-handed, 

But  scatter  round  ten  thousand  forms  minute 

Of  velvet  moss  or  lichen,  torn  from  rock 

Or  rifted  oak  or  cavern  deep :  the  Naiads  too 

Quit  their  loved  native  stream,  from  whose  smooth  face 

They  crop  the  lily,  and  each  sedge  and  rush 

That  drinks  the  rippling  tide:  the  frozen  poles. 

Where  peril  waits  the  bold  adventurer's  tre^d. 

The  burning  sands  of  Borneo  and  Cayenne, 

All,  all  to  us  unlock  tlieir  secret  stores 

And  pay  their  cheerful  tribute. 

J.  Taylor,  Norwicfi,  1818. 



su.  7 



NUiMBEK  cm. 


I.  On  a  Tootli  of  Ceratodiis  and  a  Diiiosaurian  Claw  fiom  the  Lower 
Jurassic  of  Victoria,  Australia.  B}^  A.  Smith  Woodward,  LL.D., 
F.ll.S.,  of  tlie  British  Museum.     (Plate  I.) 1 

II.  Notes  on  Irish  Ilydrachuida ;  with  Descriptions  of  a  new 
Genus  and  Two  new  Species.     By  J.  N.  Halbert.     (Plate  II.)    .  .       4 

III.  Preliminary  Descriptions  of  new  Species  of  Amphipoda  from 
the  '  Discovery  '  Antaiciic  Expedition,  191)2-11)04.  By  Alfred  U. 
AV'alker,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S 13 

IV.  Rhynchotal  Notes.— XXXVIII.     By  W.  L.  Distant 18 

V.  On  some  West-African  Species  of  Barbus.  By  G.  A. 

VI.  Description  of  a  new  Barbus  from  the  Uganda  Protectorate. 

By  G.  A.  BouLENGER,  F.R.S 3(3 

VII.  Description  of  a  new  Mormyrid  Fish  from  South  Cameroon. 

By  G.  A.  Boui-ENGER,  F. U.S ih. 

VIII.  Description  of  a  new  Tree- Viper  from  Mount  Ruwenzori. 

By  G.  A.  BouLENGER,  F.R.S 37 

IX.  Alternation  of  Generations,  Metamorphosis,  and  Direct 
Development.     By  W.  WEDEKi>fD      38 

X.  Natural  History  Notes  from  the  R.I.M.S.  Ship  'Investigator,' 
Capt.  T.  H.  Heming,  R.N.,  commanding. — Series  HI.,  No.  13.  Two 
new  Barnacles  dredged  in  1905-6.  By  N.  Annaxdale,  D.Sc, 
Indian  Museum,  Calcutta   41 



XI.  Description  of  a  new  Species  of  Parnassius.     Bj-  F.  AIoohe, 
D.Sc,  F.Z.S 47 

XII.  On   Three  remarkable   new   Melolonthid   Coleoptera   from 
Sumatra  and  Borneo  in  the  British  Museum.  By  Gilbert  J.  Arrow,     48 

XTTI.  On  the  liits  of  the  Genera  Micronycteris  and  Glyphonycteris. 
By  KxLD  Andersen 50 

XIV.  Descriptions  of  Five  new  Freshwater  Fishes  from  Sarawak, 
Borneo,  collected  by  Dr.  C.  Hose.     By  C.  Tate  Regan,  B.A 66 

XV.  Descriptions   and   Records    of    Bees. — XII.     By  T.   D.  A. 
CocKERELL,  University  of  Colorado    69 

XVI.  Descriptions  of  Two  new  Species  of  Acrceidce  from  Entebbe, 
Uganda.    By  Emily  Mary  Sharpe   75 


XVII.  Dtscriptions  of  some  new  Species  of  Ileterocera  from 
Tropical  South  America.     By  Herbert  Dhuce,  F.L.S.  &c 77 

XVIII.  Notes  on  the  Genus  ii'^'Wiatojtio^a  of  the  Family  Tahanula 
in  the  British  Museum  Collection.  By  Gertrude  Ricardo. 
(Plates  III.- VI.) 94 

XIX.  On  Lamellicom  Coleoptera  from  Portuguese  West  Africa, 
with  Descriptions  of  new  Species.    By  Gilbert  J.  Arrow 127 

XX.  Descriptions  of  new  Mammals  from  Mount  Ruwenzori.  By 
Oldfield  Thomas     136 

XXI.  On  a  second  Species  of  the  Silurid  Genus  Mochocus.     By 

G.  A.  BovLKNGEU,  F.R.S ".   147 

XXII.  On  a  new  Pigmy  Antelope  obtained  by  Col.  J.  J.  Harrison 

in  the  Semliki  Forest.     By  Ulufield  Thomas     148 

XXIII.  Preliminary  Descriptions  of  new  Species  of  Amphipoda 
from  the  'Discovery'  Antarctic  Expedition,  1902-1^04.  By 
Alfred  0.  Walker,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S ".   150 

XXIV.  Description  of  a  new  Cyprinodont  Fish  of  the  Genus 
Jotynsiu  from  Argentina.     By  C.  Tate  Regan,  B.A lo4 

Neiv  Books: — The  Fauna  of  British  India,  including  Ceylon  and 
ikirma.  Published  under  the  authority  ot'tlie  Secretary  of  t^tate 
for  India  in  Council.  Edited  by  Ll.-l.'ol.  C.  T.  Bingham.  Rhyu- 
chota.  \'ol.  III.  (Ileteroptera — llonioptera).  By  W.  L.  Distant. 
— A  Synonyiiiic  Catalogue  of  Ilomoptera.  Piut  I.  Cuatiidre. 
By  NV.'L.  IMSTANT loo 

Locusts  in  Hungary,  by  W.  F.  Kirby l^ti 




XXV.  Natural  History  Notes  from  R.I.M.S.  'Investigator.'— 
Series  III.,  No.  10.  On  Mollusca  from  the  JJay  of  Bengal  and  the 
Arabian  JSea.     By  Edgau  A.  Smith,  I.S.U 157 

XXVI.  Notes  on  the  Genus  Tamarrha,  Wkr.  [Lep. — Tineixa]. 

By  the  Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Walsinoham,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 175 

XXVII.  Description  of  a  new  Tiueid  Moth  infesting  Cotton-pods 
iu  Egypt.  Bv  the  Rt.  IIou.  i^onD  Walsinoham,  M.A.,  LL.D., 
E.R.S .'. 178 

XXVin.  On  new  Species  of  Ilisteiidcc  and  Notices  of  others. 
By  G.  Lewis,  F.L.S 180 

XXIX.  Rhynchotal  Notes.— XXXIX.     By  W.  L.  Distant 191 

XXX.  Description  of  a  new  Species  of  Mangabey  {Cercocehus 
llamli/ni).  By  Ji.  I.  rucocK,  E.L.S.,  F.Z.S.,  Superintendent  of  the 
Zoological  Society's  Gardens.     (Plate  VII.)   208 

XXXI.  On  a  new  Species  of  Coral-infesting  Crab  taken  by  the 
R.I.M.S.  'Investigator'  at  the  Andaman  Islands.  By  J.  R.  Hen- 
DEBSON,  M.B.,  E.L.S.,  Professor  of  Biologv,  Madras  Christian 
College.     (Plate  VIII.)   '. 21 1 

XXXII.  Three  new  Palajarctic  Mammals.  By  Oldfield  Thomas.  220 

XXXIII.  Two  new  Genera  of  small  Mammals  discovered  by 
Mrs.  Holms-Tarn  iu  British  East  Africa.     By  Oldfield  Thomas  .  .   222 

XXXIV.  The  Morphology  of  the  Madreporaiia.— VIII.  The 
Primary  Sepia  of  tlie  Rugosa.  By  J.  E.  Duekden,  Ph.D.,  A.R.C.S. 
(Lond.j,  Professor  of  Zoology,  Rhodes  University  College,  Grahams- 
town,  Cape  Colony 226 

XXXV.  Notes  on  the  Habits  of  T.«etse-fiies.  By  Dr.  F. 
Creighton  Wellman,  Benguella,  West  Africa 242 

Proceedings  of  the  Geological  Society 244 


XXXVI.  Natural  History  Notes  from  R.I  M.S.  '  Investigator.' — 
Series  III.,  No.  10.  On  Mollusca  from  the  Bay  of  Bengal  and  the 
Arabian  Sea.     By  Edgar  A.  Smith,  I.S.O 245 

XXXVII.  Notes  on  the  Genus  Oto^nys.     By  R.  C.  Wroughton.  264 

XXXVIII.  On  the  Genus  Cercocehus,  with  a  Key  to  the  known 
Species.  By  R.  I.  Pocock,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S.,  Superintendent  of  the 
Zoological  Society's  Gardens 278 


XXXIX.  On  some  Ethiopian  Rhynchota,  and  Synonyuiical  Notes. 
By  W.  L.  Distant     286 

XL.  On  some  African  Bats  and  Rodents.    By  Oldfiei.d  Thomas.  294 

XLI.  New  Mammals  collected  in  North-east  Africa  by  Mr.  Zaphiro, 
and  presented  to  the  British  Museum  by  W.  N.  McMillan,  Esq. 
By  Oldfield  Thomas,  F.R.S .' 300 

XLII.  Natural  History  Notes  from  the  R.I. M.S.  Ship  'Investi- 
gator,' Capt.  T.  U.  lleming,  R.N.  (retiredj,  commaudiiicr. — Series  III., 
No.  14.  Notes  on  the  Skull  of  the  Genus  Aulaitoniatonioi-pha,  with 
Descriptions  of  some  new  Deep-sea  Fish.  By  R.  E.  Lloyl»,  M.B., 
B.Sc,  Capt.  I.M.S.,  Surgeon-Naturalist,  Marine  Survey  of  India     .  .   306 

XLIII.  The  Relations  of  Palaeontology  to  Biology.  By  A. 
Smith  Woodward,  LL.D.,  F.R.S '. 312 

New  Books : — A  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  the  Tertiary  Vertebrata  of 
the  Fayiim,  Egypt.  By  Charles  William  Andrews,  D.Sc. 
— Die  Tierischtn  Liifte.     Von  Edwin  Stanton  Facst    . .  318,  3l'0 


XLIV.  Brachiopod  Nomenclature.     By  S.  S.  Bctckman,  F.G.S.  .  321 

XLV.  The  Flying-fish  Problem.  By  Lieut.-Colonel  C.  D. 
Dl'rnford  327 

XLVI.  On  a  new  Race  of  Sciurus  lokriodes  from  Burma.  By 
J.  Lewis  Boniiote,  M.A ".  308 

XLVIL  Descriptions  of  African  Lepidoptera.  By  George  T. 
Bethune-Baker,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S 339 

XLVIII.  Descrijition  of  a  new  Chameleon  of  tlie  Genus  Rhampho- 
lean  from  Mashonaland.     By  G.  A.  Boulenger,  F.R.S 346 

XLIX.  Description  of  a  new  Silurid  Fish  of  tlie  Genus  Doumea, 
Salvage,  from  Angola.     By  G.  A.  Boulknger,  F.R  S 317 

L.  On  the  Presence  of  Two  Species  of  Anahis  in  the  ^^'hite  Nile 
and  the  Bahr-el-Gebel.     By  G.  A.  I^oulenger,  F.R.S 348 

LI.  Rhyuchotal  Notes.— XL.     By  W.  L.  Distant 349 

LIl.  The  Primary  Septal  Plan  of  the  Rugo.-<a.  By  \L  G. 
Carruthers.     (Plate  IX.)   " 3,"56 

Llll.  Oriental  Reduviidce.     By  W.  L.  Distant    3.;3 

LIV.  Note  on  the  Type  Specimen  of  the  Bat  M icrouydens  microtis, 
Miller.     By  Marc  is  W.  Lyon,  Jun '. 371 

LV.  Descriptions  of  new  Pt/ralid(t>  of  the  Subfamilies  Hi/dro- 
rani]ii)uf  and  Scojiarian<e.  By  Sir  George  F.  IlAMr.-^oN.  i>art., 
B.A.,  F.Z.S.,  &c 373 


LVI.  Note  oil   Doliichthiis  stclhiluK,  S.iuvage.     By    L.  8.  Bmik; 
(St.  Peterdbur-.'-)    " -'^''-'i 

LVII.  Description  of  a  new  Species   of  Leucor/ohio   from  Korea. 
By  L.  S.  JJeug  (St.  I'etersbui-)    ' 304 

Proceedings  of  the  Geological  Society     395,  39G 


LVIII.  On  new  Species  of  HisteridcB  and  Notices  of  others.  By 
(i.  Lkavis,  F.L.S 397 

LIX.  New  and  little-known  Species  of  Eastern  and  Australian 
Ileterocera.     By  Colonel  C.  Swinhoe,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  &c 403 

LX.  On  Myriolepis  hibernicn,  a  Palaeoniscid  Fish  from  the  Irisli 
Coal-Measures.  By  A.  Smith  Woodwahd,  LL.D.,  E.R.S. 
(Plate  X.)     416 

LXI.  Brief  Diagnoses  of  a  new  Genus  and  Ten  new  Forms  of 
Stenodermatous  Bats.    By  Knud  Andersex    419 

LXII.  On  a  new  Species  of  Li/conus  from  the  North-east  Atlantic. 
By  E.  W.  L.  Holt  and  L,  W.  Byrne    423 

LXIII.  Natural  History  Notes  from  the  R.I.M.S.  Ship  'Investi- 
gator,' Capt.  T.  H.  Heniing,  R.N.,  commanding. — Series  III.,  No.  15. 
Second  Preliminary  Report  on  the  Deep-sea  Alcyonaria  collected 
in  the  Indian  Ocean.  By  Prof.  J.  Arthur  Thomson,  M.A.,  and 
W.  D.  Henderson,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  Carnegie  Research  Fellow, 
University  of  Aberdeen 427 

LXIV.  On  the  Land  Molluscan  Subgenus  Ccelorus,  Pilsbrv.  By 
G.  K.  GuDE,  F.Z.S ' '.433 

LXV.  Descriptions  of  gome  new  Sharks  in  the  British  Museum 
Collection.     By  C.  Tate  Regan,  B.A 43-5 

LXVI.  De.scription  of  a  new  Lizard  and  a  new  Snake  from 
Australia.     By  G.  A.  Boulenger,  F.R.S 440 

LXVn.  Description  of  a  new  Snake  of  the  Genus  Glauconia,  from 
Somaliland.     By  G.  A.  Boulenger,  F.R.S 441 

LXVIII.  Notes  on  South-American  Rodents.  By  Oldfield 
Thomas    442 

LXIX.  A  new  Species  of  Pteridium  (Scopoli)  from  the  North- 
east Atlantic.     By  L.  W.  Byrne    448 

LXX.  A  Collection  of  Fishes  from  the  King  River,  Western 
Australia,     By  C.  Tate  Regan,  B.A .' 450 

LXXI.  Description  of  a  Second  new  Species  of  Mangabey  {Cerco- 
cehus  Jcnnrachi).  By  R.  I.  PocoCK,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S. ,  Superintendent 
of  the  Zoological  Society's  Gardens.     (Plate  XI.)      454 


LXXII.  Deseriptions  of  uew  Pifrafida  of  the  Subfamilies  Kiiro- 
campina;  and  Scopar lance.      By   Sir  George   F.   Hampso.v,  Btrt., 
B.A.,  F.Z.S.,  &c 4", 

LXXriI.  On  a  new  Chameleon  from   Mount  Rawenzori.      By 
G.  A.  BouLEXGER,  F.R.S '.  473 

A  common  British  Starfish,  bv  F.  Jeffrey  Bell ;  A  Correction,  by 
(t.  T.  Bethune-Baker ;  Trichoniscus  pyi^ni^us,  G.  0.  Sar3,  a 
Woodlouse  new  to  the  British  Fauna,  by  Richard  3.  Bigna'.l, 
F.E.S 473,  474 

Index 47C 


Plate  I.     Teeth  of  Ceratodus  and  Dinoaaurlau  claws. 
II.     Irish  Ilvdnachnida. 

IV  f 

■  >  Wings  of  species  of  Haematopota. 


VII.     Ilaoilyns  Mangabey, 
VIII.     New  species  of  coral-infesting  crab. 
IX.     Early  septa  in  Rugose  corals. 
X.     Myriolepis  hiberuica. 
XI.     Jamrach's  Mauirabev. 





" per  litora  spargite  muscuiu, 

Kaiadrs,  et  circiun  vitreos  considite  fontea : 
Pollice  virgineo  tenerog  h'lc  oarpite  florea  : 
Florlbus  ft  pictiim.  div83,  replete  canistrum. 
At  V03,  o  Nymphae  Craterides,  ite  sub  undas  ; 
Ite,  recuiTato  variata  corallia  truneo 
Vellite  museosis  e  rupibus,  et  mihi  conchas 
Ferte,  Deae  pelagi,  et  pingui  conchylia  siicco." 

N.ParthenU  Gianneitaai,  Eel.  I. 

No.  103.  JULY  1906. 

I. —  On  a  Tooth  o/Ceratolus  and  a  Dinosaurian  Claio  from 
the  Loioer  Jurassic  of  Victoria,  Australia.  By  A.  Smith 
Woodward,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  of  the  British  Museum. 

[Plate  I.] 

The  Jurassic  Vertebrate  fauna  of  the  Australian  region  is 
still  almost  unknown,  some  Ganoid  fishes  =*=  and,  perhaps,  a 
few  small  Dinosaurian  bones  f  being  the  only  fossils  repre- 
senting it  hitherto  described.  A  tooth  of  Ceratodus  and  a 
Dinosaurian  claw  discovered  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Ferguson  in  the 
Lower  Jurassic  cliffs  of  Cape  Patterson  on  the  south  coast  of 
Victoria  are  thus  of  special  interest.  I  am  indebted  to 
Prof.  J.  W.  Gregory,  F.R.S.,  for  the  opportunity  of  studying 
these  specimens. 

*  A.  S.  Woodward,  "  The  Fossil  Fishes  of  the  Talbragar  Beds,"  Mem 
Geul.  Siirv.  ^^  S.  Wales,  Palfeont.  no.  9  (1895) ;  T.  S.  Hall,  "A  uew 
Genus  and  a  new  Species  of  Fish  from  the  Mesozoic  Rocks  of  Victoria/' 
Proc.  Eoy.  Soc.  Vict.  n.  s.  vol.  xii.  (1900)  art.  xvi. 

t  IT.  G.  Seeley,  "  On  Agruscmrus  Macyillivrayi  (Seeley),  a  Sauri.schiau 
Reptile  from  th'e  X.E.  Coast  of  Australia,"  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc. 
vol.  xlvii.  (1891)  pp.  164-165,  with  figs. 

Ann<  &  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  1 

2  Dr.  A.  S.  AVoodwarcl  on  a  Tooth  o/Ceratodus 

The  tootli  of  Ceratodus  (PI.  I.  fig.  1)  is  firmly  fixed  to 
a  recognizable  piece  of  the  splenial  bone,  and  is  therefore 
proved  to  belong  to  the  left  side  of  the  lower  jaw.  It  unfor- 
tunately lacks  the  foremost  denticle,  but  clearly  agrees  with 
the  majority  of  the  Mesozoic  teetii  of  Ceratodus  in  possessing 
only  four  denticles  altogether.  It  is  thick  and  robust,  with 
the  grinding-surface  slightly  convex,  but  wavy,  and  marked 
by  a  very  prominent  coarse  network  of  ridges  (fig.  1).  It  is 
specially  remarkable  for  the  long  and  narrow  shape  of  its 
crown,  which  is  bounded  on  the  inner  side  by  a  nearly  straight 
margin,  not  angulated  opposite  the  second  or  third  denticle. 
So  far  as  can  be  determined  from  a  fragment,  the  foremost 
denticle  of  the  tooth  appears  to  have  been  relatively  large, 
while  the  others  rapidly  decrease  in  size  backwards.  The 
second  and  third  denticles  are  sharply  compressed  to  an  acute 
outer  edge,  and  are  separated  by  deep  notches  at  the  outer 
margin  (fig.  1  a),  though  not  continued  as  conspicuous  ridges 
on  the  crown.  Iheir  long  axes  are  not  oblique,  but  directed 
nearly  at  right  angles  to  the  inner  margin.  The  fourth  or 
hindmost  denticle  is  comparatively  blunt.  Fine  horizontal 
lines  of  growth  are  seen  on  the  flattened  inner  (fig.  \h)  and 
outer  faces  of  the  tootli. 

The  specimen  thus  described  differs  from  all  the  known 
Mesozoic  teeth  of  Ceratodus  in  its  narrowness,  combined  with 
the  straightness  of  its  inner  margin  and  the  direction  of  its 
second  and  third  denticles.  Jn  these  respects,  it  is  interesting 
to  observe,  the  tooth  more  nearly  approaches  that  of  the 
existing  Ctraiodus  or  JS'eoceratodus  of  Queensland  (fig.  2), 
and  its  only  striking  difference  from  the  latter  consists  in  its 
having  four  denticles  instead  of  six.  The  multiplication  of 
the  denticles  has  already  been  observed  in  the  teeth  of  certain 
sharks  as  they  are  traced  onwards  in  time  * ;  the  same 
])henomenon  obviously  occurs  in  Ceratodus. 

There  is,  therefore,  no  doubt  that  the  tooth  from  Cape 
Patterson  represents  a  new  species,  which  may  be  named 
Ceratodus  avus.  The  fossil  proves  for  the  first  time  that  the 
remarkable  Dipnoan  genus  to  which  it  belongs  had  already 
reached  the  Australian  region  so  long  ago  as  the  early  part  of 
the  Jurassic  period.  At  that  epoch  Ceratodus  was  still  living 
both  in  Europe  j  and  in  North  America  |,  while  it  survived 

*  A.  S.  "Woodward,  "  On  the  Palajontolopy  of  the  Selachian  Genus 
Notuianus,  Cuvier,"  Geol.  Mag-.  [3]  vol.  iii.  (1880)  p.  '2o7. 

t  Ceratodus  PhiUipsi,  Aga.<siz,  '  Rech.   I'oiss.  Fosi^.'  vol.  iii.  (18^=' 
p.  13o,  pi.  xix.  fig.  17  ;  A.  S.  Woodward,  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol. 
(1890)  p.  202,  pi.  iii.  fig.  5. 

X  Ceratodus  Uuenthcri,  O.  C.  Marsh,  Amer.  Jouni.  Sci.  [3]  vol.  w. 
(1878)  p.  7(5,  woodc. 

and  a  Diuosaun'an  Clan'.  'A 

in  llic  AlVican  and  South  American  regions  at  least  until  tlic 
Cretaceous  period  *. 

In  the  same  rock  as  that  from  wliich  the  tooth  of  Ceratodus 
was  obtained  at  Cape  Patterson  Mr.  Ferguson  found  the 
terminal  phalangeal  bone  shown  in  fig.  3.  Among  Jurassic 
fossils  this  specimen  can  only  be  compared  with  the  claw  of 
a  carnivorous  Dinosaur,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  it 
represents  a  genus  more  or  less  related  to  Megalosaurus  ■\. 
The  bone  has  decayed  somewhat  in  the  upper  part  of  its 
proximal  end,  but  is  otherwise  well  preserved  and  displays  its 
principal  characters.  The  phalangeal  is  laterally  com- 
pressed, so  that  its  greatest  transverse  diameter  is  somewhat 
less  than  its  original  depth  at  the  proximal  end.  The  distal 
tapering  half  of  the  bone  is  only  gently  curved  downwards, 
but  at  the  same  time  bends  slightly  to  the  left  side.  The 
distal  half  of  the  lateral  face  is  marked  with  the  usual  deep 
longitudinal  groove  connected  with  the  fixing  and  nourishment 
of  tlie  horny  claw  which  originally  ensheathed  the  bone.  The 
proximal  end  (fig.  3  o)  is  divided,  as  usual,  by  a  median 
vertical  ridge  into  two  facettes^  which  are  nearly  flat.  For 
comparison  with  this  specimen  one  of  the  finest  known 
Megalosaurian  claws  from  the  English  Wealden  is  shown  in 
fig.  4.  The  latter  is  shorter  and  stouter  than  the  former,  and 
its  deep  lateral  groove  extends  further  backwards  ;  but  the 
general  resemblance  between  the  two  fossils  is  very  striking. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  further  diligent  search  may  be  made 
at  Cape  Patterson  to  recover  the  Vertebrate  fauna  indicated 
by  these  fragmentary  fossils.  The  discovery  of  the  terrestrial 
and  freshwater  life  of  the  Australian  region  during  the 
Jurassic  period  would  supply  a  most  important  deficiency  in 
palgeontological  knowledge. 


Fi(/.  \.  Ceratodus  avus,  sp.  n. ;  left  splenial  with  lower  tooth,  from  the 
upper,  outer  {a),  and  inner  (5)  aspects.— Lower  Jurassic  ;  Cape 
Patterson,  Victoria,  Australia.     spL,  splenial  bone. 

Fig.  2.  Ceratodus  Forsteri,  Krefft  ;  left  lower  tooth  from  the  upper  and 
outer  («)  aspects. — Recent;  Queensland. 

Fif/.  3.  Ungual  phalange  of  carnivorous  Dinosaur ;  lateral  and  end  (a) 
vi^ws. — Lower  Jurassic  ;  Cape  Patterson,  Victoria. 

Fiff,  4.  Ungual  phalange  of  a  Megalosaurian ;  lateral  and  end  (a)  A-iews, 
two  thirds  nat.  size. — Wealden ;  Sussex.  [Brit.  3Iu3.  no. 
R.  al76.] 

Figs.  1-3  are  of  the  natural  size. 

1  *  Ceratodus  africanus,  E.  Hang,   '  Comptes   Rendus,'  vol.  cxxxviii. 

A)4)  p.  1529 ;  from  Djoua,  Timassanine,  Sahara.  Ceratodus  Iheringi, 
l''.  Ameghino,  Public.  Univ.  La  Plata,  no.  2  (1904),  p.  10,  fig.  1 ;  from 

t  R.  Owen,  "  Fossil  Reptilia  of  the  Wealden  and  Pm-beck  Formations," 
pt.  iii.  (Mon.  Palaeont.  Soc.  1«-j5  [1857]),  p.  19,  pi.  x. 


Mr.  J.  N.  Ilalbert  on  Irish  JlydracJiniJa. 

II. — Notes   on   Irish   HydracJinida ;    wiih    Descriptions  of  a 
new  Genus  and  Two  new  Species.     Bj  J.  N.  Halbert. 

[Plate  II.] 

The  following  paper  contains  of  some  species  of  new 
or  rare  Hydrachnida  selected  from  a  large  amount  of  material 
found  in  various  localities  in  Ireland  during  the  last  five  years. 
Of  these  species  two  appear  not  to  have  been  previously 
described  ;  one  of  them  proves  to  be  the  type  of  a  new  genus, 
while  of  the  remaining  species  eight  are  here  recorded  for  the 
fir^<t  time  from  the  Britannic  *  area. 

It  was  originally  intended  to  reserve  the  new  mites  for 
description  in  a  general  list  of  the  Irish  Hydrachnid  fauna 
which  is  being  prepared.  Before  such  a  list  can  be  com- 
pleted, however,  it  is  necessary  to  carry  out  some  further 
collecting  in  certain  parts  of  the  country,  and  it  seems  more 
satisfactory  to  record  the  new  species  without  further  delay. 

The  most  interesting  of  the  new  mites  is  one  of  which  I 
was  fortunate  enough  to  find  fully  developed  specimens  when 
collecting  last  May  in  the  south-west  of  Ireland.  The  species 
in  question  seems  to  bean  extremely  isolated  form,  possessing 
a  combination  of  diameters  which  at  once  distinguish  it  from 
any  of  the  known  genera.  It  would  be  easy  to  briefly  define 
a  new  genus  for  the  reception  of  this  mite  by  referring  to  the 
structure  of  a  very  few  organs,  sucli  as  the  palps,  legs,  &c. ; 
in  a  group  like  the  Hydrachnida,  however,  where  there  is 
such  a  great  variety  of  structural  detail,  it  seems  especially 
necessary  to  rely  on  a  combination  of  various  characters  in 
the  formation  of  new  genera. 

I  have  to  acknowledge  the  assistance  of  the  Irish  Fauna 
and  Flora  Committee  sujiported  by  the  lioyal  iSociety,  ami 
also  of  the  same  Committee  when  acting  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy  :  several  grants  enabled  me  to 
collect  in  distant  parts  of  the  country. 

The  nomcnclatui'e  used  in  the  following  list  is  that  of  the 
'Tierreich^  ("  Hydrachnidfe  und  Ilalacarida?,''  Piorsig  and 
Lohmann,  Lieferung  13,  1901). 

*  The  use  of  the  word  Britannic  instead  of  British  for  faunistie 
purposes  has  been  proposed  by  Professor  G.  II.  Carpenter,  as  the  latter 
trrni  is  now  so  frequently  used  to  distinguish  records  referring-  to  Great 
lirilain  alone  ('  Irish  Naturalist/  vol.  xv.  p.  IM). 

]\[r.  J.  N.  llalbcrt  on  In'tih  nijdrachnida.  5 

MOMONIA*,  g-cii.  nov. 

Diagnosis  of  Genus. — An  llydiaclmid  of  the  family  TIy;^ro- 
batidaj  (Kiaincr,  Wolcott,  &c.),  with  a  highly  chitiuizcd 
intoguniciit  modified  into  chitiiious  phitcs.  In  shape  re- 
sembling the  genus  Midca,  with  a  convex  dorsal  area  separated 
i'rom  a  larger  ventral  field  by  a  groove  in  which  are  a  number 
of  paired  gland- openings.  Epimeral  groups  close  together, 
occupying  most  of  the  underside  of  the  body.  Genital 
area  situated  between  the  fourth  epimera,  flanked  on  each 
side  by  a  triangular  plate,  in  which  are  imbedded  three 
genital  suckers  of  the  IJygrohates  type.  Palps  with  the 
penultimate  segment  angularly  swollen  on  the  ventral 
surface  and  armed  with  two  stout  chitinous  teeth;  fifth 
segment  ending  in  an  exceedingly  fine  point.  First  pair  of 
legs  modified,  the  terminal  segment  deeply  excavated  on  its 
upper  margin,  with  a  broad-shanked  bifid  claw  articulating 
deeply  in  the  segment,  and,  in  the  type  species,  with  a 
terminal  membrane.  The  three  posterior  pairs  of  legs  are 
provided  with  swimming-hairs. 

It  will  be  Seen  from  this  short  diagnosis  that  the  genus 
Momonia  possesses  a  very  anomalous  combination  of  characters 
which  renders  the  placing  of  it  in  a  satisfactory  position  in 
the  Hydrachnid  series  a  matter  of  some  difKculty.  On  the 
whole,  however,  it  shows  afKnities  with  the  genera  Midea, 
Mideopsis,  &c.,  and  it  seems  to  me  that  it  should  be  placed 
in  an  intermediate  position  between  these  genera  and  the 
Hi/grohates  group. 

Momonia  falcipal pis  f,  sp.  n. 
(PI.  II.  figs.  1-4.) 

Male. — Body  slightly  longer  than  broad,  evenly  rounded 
posteriorly,  and  narrowed  towards  the  front  niai-gin,  where 
there  are  two  hair-papillae.  Seen  from  the  side  the  dorsal 
outline  is  moderately  convex  and  the  ventral  surface  flat  over 
the  cpimeral  area;  thickness  of  the  body  dorso-ventrally 
about  three  fifths  of  the  total  lengtli.  Integument  highly 
chitinized,  with  a  dorsal  groove  running  round,  close  to  the 
body-margin ;  in  this  groove  are  placed  at  least  six  pairs  of 

*  M(imoiiia,  or  Mumonix,  the  ancient  Latin  name  of  the  province  of 
Mimster.  This  name  has  also  been  used  by  Mr.  R.  Lloyd  Praej^er, 
M.R.I.  A.,  to  indicate  the  group  of  plants  with  a  southern  range  in  Ireland 
(see  *  Proceed.  Royal  Irish  Academy,'  vol.  xxiv.  1902-1004). 

t  The  specific  name  is  suggested  by  the  shape  of  the  terminal  palp- 

6  Mr.  J,  N.  Ilalbeit  on  Irish  Ilydrachnida, 

cliilinous  hair-bearing  glands.  The  greater  part  of  the  dorsal 
area  is  covered  by  a  large  shield  with  sinuous  side-margins 
bounded  by  the  dorsal  groove,  the  rounded  posterior  margin 
reaching  to  the  end  of  the  body.  This  plate  is  wrinkled 
longitudinally,  and  under  a  high  magnification  it  is  seen  to 
have  a  finely  shagreened  appearance  as  well  as  polygonal 
reticulations.  In  front  of  this  large  shield  lies  a  short  broad 
plate,  emarginate  anteriorly,  and  rather  less  than  half  the 
breadth  of  the  dorsal  shield.  The  dark-pigmented  eyes, 
separated  by  an  interval  of  about  176  /i,  are  situated  close  to 
the  front  margin  of  the  body.  On  the  inner  side  of  each  eye- 
group  stands  a  conspicuous  hair-papilla. 

The  greater  part  of  the  ventral  side  is  occupied  by  the 
epimeral plates  ;  the  first  and  second  epimera  are  of  the  usual 
shape — except  that  the  first  epiraeron  is  very  narrow  and 
tapers  inwardly  into  a  ratlier  fine  point — separated  by  an 
extremely  narrow  interval  from  the  third  epimera.  The  last 
are  quadrilateral  in  outline,  with  the  front  and  hinder  margins 
sloping  downwards.  Tlie  fourth  epimeron  is  extremely  large 
and  characteristic  ;  the  inner  margin  is  continued  for  a  short 
distance  in  a  line  with  that  of  the  third  epimeron,  it  then 
bends  suddenly  outwards  and  downwards  in  a  sinuous  line  to 
near  the  hinder  margin  of  the  body,  fusing  with  the  chitinous 
integument  of  the  sides  of  the  body.  Near  the  middle  of  the 
fourth  epimeral  area  on  each  side  is  a  group  of  long  hairs. 
The  epimera  are  all  finely  shagreened  and  reticulated  in  the 
same  way  as  the  dorsal  shield. 

The  genital  area  lies  in  the  anterior  space  between  the 
fourth  epimera ;  it  is  flanked  on  each  side  by  a  long  triangular 
plate,  which  carries  three  genital  suckers,  placed  one  behind 
the  other,  similar  in  structure  to  those  found  in  Hygrohates 
and  allied  genera.  A  transverse  chitinous  plate,  in  which  is 
imbedded  the  anal  opening,  occupies  the  remaining  inter- 
epimeral  space. 

The  capitulum  is  rather  small,  projecting  downwards  for 
part  of  its  length  beyond  the  ventral  outline  of  the  body ; 
maxillary  shield  measuring  about  110  fi  in  length  (not  in- 
cluding subcutaneous  process)  and  77  /x  in  breadth. 

The  palps  are  small,  the  five  segments  measured  along 
their  dorsal  margins  are  30  fi,  75  /x,  50  /i,  85  /x,  55  fi  respec- 
tively;  segments  1,  2,  and  3  may  be  compared  with  those  of 
Mideopsis ;  2  and  3  are  furnished  with  a  number  of  rather 
stout  hairs  on  the  dorsal  surface ;  -4  is  the  longest  palp- 
segment,  it  is  slightly  convex  dorsally,  with  two  long  fine 
hairs,  ventral  surface  produced  beyond  the  middle  into  a  well- 
marked  angular  promiueuce,  on  which  are  two  short  stout 

IVIr.  J.  N.  Ilalhort  on  Irish  [fijdrachiiida.  7 

tcctli  ])l:icod  close  to  the  inner  side  of  tlie  segment ;  5  is 
iioaily  as  broad  at  base  as  the  distal  margin  ot"  4,  ta])ering 
gradually  into  a  long  sharp  point;  tlie  upper  and  lower  surfaces 
are  each  armed  with  a  long  hair  and  a  sharp  spine  ;  on  the 
outer  side  close  to  the  base  is  another  spine. 

First  pair  of  Ie</s  (length  about  814  fi)  modified,  without 
swimming-cilia,  slightly  longer  than  the  body,  the  segments 
gradually  increasing  in  length  from  1  to  5.  Segment  1  very 
short,  2  and  3  straight,  with  a  number  of  long  bristles;  4 
curved,  with  the  ventral  distal  margin  notched  ;  5  straight 
(length  2G0  fi),  broader  than  preceding  segments,  and  nar- 
rowing towards  the  distal  extremity,  on  which  are  seven  or 
eight  long  hairs.  Segment  6  (fig.  3)  articulates  with  a 
conical  projection  on  the  penultimate  segment,  short,  with 
convex  sides,  very  deeply  hollowed  out  on  its  upper  distal 
margin  ;  a  powerful  claw-like  structure  with  a  broad  shank 
and  sharply  bent  bifid  extremity  articulates  with  the  inner 
part  of  the  excavation  ;  a  few  long  hairs  and  a  peculiar  cone- 
shaped  membrane  project  from  the  extremity  of  the  segment. 
The  last  three  pairs  of  legs  do  not  present  any  remarkable 
characters  ;  they  increase  in  length  from  before  backwards 
and  are  provided  with  long  swimming-cilia ;  the  terminal 
segments  are  armed  with  two  recurved  tridentate  claws 
resembling  those  of  Brachypoda. 

During  life  the  colour  was  a  pale  yellowish  green,  marked 
on  the  dorsal  surface  with  reddish  brown  ;  Malpighian  area 
yellow,  indicated  anteriorly  by  four  lobes  arranged  across  the 


Length  of  body 7t)8 

Breadth  of  body     691 

Length  of  palp    about  270 

Length  of  leg  i 814 

1  -ength  of  leg  ii 704 

Length  of  leg  iii 792 

Length  of  leg  iv 858 

Locality. — Two  fully  developed  examples  of  this  species 
were  found  amongst  a  thick  growth  of  Callitriclie  in  Loos- 
caunagh  Lough,  about  ten  miles  from  Killarney,  j\Iay  1905. 
From  the  peculiar  moditication  of  the  first  pair  of  legs  there 
is  no  doubt  that  the  specimens  are  males. 

The  type  specimens  are  in  the  Dublin  Natural  History 
Museum  (register  no.  179,  1806). 

8  Mr.  J.  N.  Halbcrt  on  Irish  Ilydrachnida. 

Arrhenurus  octagonus^  sp.  n.      (PI.  II.  fig.  5.) 

Male. — Colour  during  life  red,  with  ill-defined  darker 
markings  on  the  back.  In  dorsal  view  the  body  is  roughly 
octagonal  in  shape,  the  posterior  half  being  somewhat  similar 
in  outline  to  the  anterior.  Front  margin  almost  straight, 
about  equal  to  half  the  width  of  the  bod}'  j  all  other  margins 
very  slightly  cmarginate.  There  are  no  conspicuous  dorsal 
humps,  but  in  the  middle  of  the  posterior  margin  there  is  a 
deep  excavation,  witli  a  prominence  on  each  side  on  which 
is  a  long  hair.  Dorsal  furrow  roughly  circular  in  form, 
enclosing  a  comparatively  small  area  (length  537  yu.)  of  the 
middle  of  the  back. 

The  aj)pendage  is  short,  measuring  about  a  sixth  of  the 
entire  length  of  the  animal  and  about  four  fifths  as  broad  ;  in 
dorsal  view  mostly  covered  by  the  hinder  part  of  the  main 
body ;  sides  of  the  appendage  hardly  constricted  at  base, 
gradually  narrowing  inwards  and  blending  with  the  hinder 
margin.  Posterior  dorsal  margin  with  a  wide  excavation 
reaching  from  side  to  side;  posterior  ventral  margin  slightly 
sinuate,  pierced  in  the  middle  by  a  narrow  deep  indentation, 
which  widens  noticeably  at  its  deepest  part  and  reaches  the 
base  of  the  appendage.  The  ijctiolus  is  composed  of  two 
finely  pointed  pieces,  which  are  closely  approximated  in  the 
living  mite,  and  project  in  the  middle  line  very  slightly 
beyond  the  margin  of  the  appendage.  There  are  five  or  six 
pairs  of  very  short  hairs  on  the  end  of  the  body. 

Genital  ^j/a^es-  large,  sinuate  anteriorly,  and  gradually 
narrowing  towards  the  sides  of  the  body,  which  they  do  not 
overreach.  J'J/jiineral  jjlates  remarkably  long  and  narrow, 
rather  closely  resembling  those  of  ^4.  sinuator,  .AluUer. 

Palps  stoutly  built,  with  prominent  distal  angles  to  the 
segments.  The  inner  surface  of  the  second  segment  seems 
to  be  without  a  hair-pad,  but  carries  a  few  stout  unfeathered 
bristles.  Fourth  segment  with  a  long  straight  spine  near  the 
inner  distal  corner  and  a  widely  forked  tactile  hair  on  the 
apical  margin. 

The  legs  do  not  present  any  unusual  characters  ;  they  are 
rather  stout,  of  moderate  length,  and  the  fourth  segment  of 
the  last  pair  is  without  a  spur. 


Length  of  body  (including  appendage). ...     1-28  niui. 

Breadth  of  body    about  ItK)  nun. 

liieadtli  i)f  appendage  at  base about  870  /i. 

Length  of  palp about  430  /t. 

Mr.  J.  N.  Ilalbcvt  on  Irish  UydrachniJa.  9 

Locality. — Found  in  a  pond  at  Fenagli,  Co.  Carlow,  by 
Mr.  Denis  R.  Pack-Beresford,  M.R.I. A.,  during  the  month 
of  August  1903. 

Type  specimen  deposited  in  the  Dublin  Natural  Ilidtory 
Museum  (register  no.  180,  1906). 

Arrhenurus  Leuckarti^  Piersig. 

Both  sexes  of  this  mite  were  collected  in  the  same  locality 
as  the  preceding  species  by  Mr.  Beresford.  It  is  apparently 
one  of  our  rarest  An'henuri,  these  being  the  only  Irish 
specimens  that  I  have  seen.  Dr.  George  includes  it  in  his 
Lincolnshire  list,  and  Mr.  Soar  reports  it  from  the  Norfolk 

Arrhenurus  Neumani,  Piersig. 

This  is  another  addition  to  the  list  of  Irish  Arrhemiri 
published  a  few  years  ago*.  I  found  several  specimens 
( cJ  and  ?  )  last  year  in  Looscaunagh  Lough  in  May,  and 
also  in  Glendalough  Lake,  Connemara,  in  the  following 
autumn.  i\Ir.  W.  Williamson  has  taken  it  in  Scotland 
(Trans.  Edinb.  Field-Nat.  and  Micros.  Soc.  Session  1905- 

Arrhenurus  Stecici,  Koenike. 
1894.  "Zur  Hydrachuiden-Sjnonymie,"  Zool.  Auz.  xvii.  p.  274,  fig.  5. 

A  male  of  this  rare  species  occurred  in  a  bog-pool  almost 
filled  with  Sphajnu?n  near  Ross,  Co.  Galway,  in  September 
1905.  This  is  the  smallest  species  of  the  genus  as  yet  found 
in  Ireland,  my  specimen  measuring  but  572  fi  in  length. 
The  colour  was  pale  yellow,  with  two  black  blotches  showing 
through  behind  the  epimera. 

Localities. — Up  to  the  present  time  this  species  has  been 
recorded  from  Switzerland,  where  it  was  found  in  a  similar 
kind  of  locality  (Moosseedorf-See  bei  Bern),  Germany,  and 
Norway  (1899).  Dr.  George  has  recorded  it  from  Lincoln- 
shire {'  The  Naturalist/  1905,  p.  25). 

Medeopsis  crassipes,  Soar. 

1904.  "  Two  new  British  Water-Mites,"  Journ.  Quekett  Micros.  Chil), 
p.  107,  fig.  2. 

Specimens  of  this  interesting  species  were  sent  to  me  by 
Mr.  W.  F.  de  Vismes  Kane,  who  collected  them,  as  long  ago 

*  '  Zoologisclier  Anzeiger,'  xxvi.  1903,  p.  272. 

10  Mr.  J.  N.  llalucrt  on  Irish  Iljdrachnid'i. 

^s>  September  1899,  in  Upper  Lough  Erne,  Co.  Fermanagh. 
The  specimens  were  mixed  with  the  commoner  Mideopsis 
orbicularis  and  were  so  overlooked.  I  have  since  taken  the 
species  in  Lough  Gill,  Co.  Sligo. 

'^Sperchon  hrevirostris,  Koenike. 

1895.  "  Neue  8percho7i-t^\i(in  aus  der  Schweiz,"  Rev.  Suisse  Zoul.  iii. 
p.  41G,  pi.  xiii.  tigs.  1-2. 

Pool  by  the  Glenshclane  River,  near  Cappoquin,  in  the 
county  of  "Waterford,  May  1900. 

Localities. — A  local  though  widespread  species  in  the  west 
of  pjurope,  having  been  recorded  from  Norway,  Switzerland, 
Saxony,  Alps  (Riiiitikon),  and  the  Azores. 

'^ Sperchon  longirostrisj  Koenike. 

1895.  "  Neue  iS^?e>-c7*o»i-Arten  aus  der  Schweiz,"  Rev.  Suisse  Zool.  iii, 
p.  420,  pi.  xiii.  figs.  3-6. 

Two  specimens  were  found  in  a  stream  at  Ballysadare, 
Co.  Sligo,  in  company  with  Panisus  Michaeli.  A  third 
specimen  was  taken  by  my  friend  Mr.  Dudley  Westropp 
near  MuUingar  in  April  1903. 

Localities. — Recorded  from  Germany  (Erzgebirge),  Switzer- 
land (Rhatikon),  and  Italy. 

^' Hygr abates  calliger,  Piersig. 

1890.  "  Einige  neue  Ilj'drachuiden  Forrnen,"  Zool.  Anz.  xix.  p.  439. 

Occurs  on  the  River  Nore,  near  Thomastown,  June  1901. 
Localities. — Recorded  from  Norway,  Saxony  (Erzgebirge), 
Italy  (Ticino),  and  Germany  (Tliiiringen). 

^Laminipes  hullata  (Sig.  Thor). 

1899.  "  Norske  HydraLlinider,   III.,"  Arch.    Xaturv.   Christiau.    xxi. 
p.  40,  pi.  xiii.  figs.  129-137. 

Pool  by  the  side  of  Lough  Leane,  Kilhirney,  June  1905. 

Fortunately  the  single  specimen  taken  is  a  male  and  shows 
the  characteristic  moditication  of  the  fourth  pair  of  legs,  as 
described  and  figured  by  Dr.  Thor.  Tiiis  appears  to  be  the 
first  record  of  the  species  since  the  original  record  from 
Norway,  and  it  seems  to  have  been  omitted  from  the  volume 
of  the  'Tierreich'  (1901)  treating  of  the  Ilydrachnida. 

*  Species  luarlied  with  an  at^torisk  arc  recorded  for  the  lirtt  time  fr.mi 
llic  Britainiic  area. 

Mr.  J.  N.  Hal  belt  on  Irish  Ilijdrnchnida.  11 

*Laminipes  scaurus  (Kocn.). 

1892.  "  Anmerkungeu  zu  Pier.figs  Beitragen  zur  IlydraclinidenkundL-," 
Zool.  Auzeigor,  xv.  p.  1^06,  iig.  1. 

Several  males  taken  in  bog-pools  on  lower  slopes  of  Braguti 
]\IouMtain,  between  the  counties  Monaglian  and  Tyrone,  by- 
Mr.  W.  F.  Je  Visnies  Kane  in  July  1900. 

Localities. — Norway  and  Germany  ('  Tierreicli  '). 

^Tiphj/s  mutatus  (Piersig). 

1893.  Acerais  brevipes,  Zool.  Anz.  xvi.  p.  394. 

1901.  Tiphys  mutatus,  Piersig  (noui.  uov.),  Tierreich,  p.  241. 

Two  specimens  (  ?  )  taken  at  Glenavy,  on  the  shore  of 
Lough  Neagh,  June  1902.     The  male  appears  to  be  unknown. 

'^ Fiona  stjordaliensis  (Sig.  Thor). 

1900,  "  Ilydracbnologisclie  Notizen,  V.,"  Nyt  Mag.  Naturvid,  x.x.xviii. 
pp.  375-378,  pi.  xvii.  tigs.  21-24. 

This  species  is  allied  to  P.  nodata,  Miiller,  and  P.  cojitro- 
versiosa,  Piersig,  but  differs  sufficiently  from  both  in  the 
structure  of  the  genital  area,  palps,  and  especially  in  the 
armature  of  the  terminal  segment  of  the  third  pair  of  legs  in 
the  male.  The  species  was  first  described  in  1896  by 
Dr.  Thor,  and  was  supposed  by  Dr.  Piersig  to  be  synonymous 
with  P.  controversiosa,  but  the  more  detailed  description 
published  in  the  above  reference  clearly  shows  the  distinctions 
between  the  species. 

The  only  Irish  specimens  examined  were  taken  by 
Mr.  W.  F.  de  Vismes  Kane  in  Drumreaske  Lake^  Co. 

^Pamsus  Michaeli,  Koen.     (PI.  II.  fig.  6.) 

1896.  Zool.  Anzeiger,  xix.  p.  356. 

When  in  the  west  of  Ireland  in  the  spring  of  1901  I 
found  an  Hydrachnid  of  the  genus  Panisus  aaiongst  water- 
plants  in  a  small  stream  which  flows  into  the  sea  at  the  head 
of  Ballysadare  Bay.  On  examination  it  agreed  closely  with 
the  description  of  P.  Mickaeli,  Koenike,  except  that  the 
chitinous  marginal  plates  of  the  dorsal  surface  numbered  four 
on  each  side  in  my  specimen,  instead  of  five,  as  recorded  for 
P.  Michaeli.  On  sending  drawings  of  the  mite  to  Dr.  Koenike, 
lie  was  good  enough  to  assure  me  that  my  species  is  identical 
•with  P.  Michaeli.  There  are  in  reality  only  four  marginal 
plates  on  each  side  in  that  species ;  the  statement  that  there 

12  !Mr.  J.  N.  Iliilbeit  on  IrisJi  Ilydrachnida. 

were  five  was  due  to  the  outlines  of  the  plates  not  being 
clearly  visible  at  the  time  the  preliminary  description  was 
made.  There  are  sixteen  chitinous  plates  on  the  dorsal 
surface,  arranged  as  follows  : — A  middle  series,  consisting  of 
a  large  plate  between  the  eyes;  behind  this  are  tiiree  small 
circular  plates,  arranged  on  each  side  of  the  middle  line  ; 
and,  finally,  a  large  terminal  plate,  sinuate  in  front,  with  the 
postero-lateral  corners  produced  into  pointed  processes.  The 
eight  marginal  plates  are  arranged  in  a  line  on  each  side  of 
the  body  ;  the  most  anterior  of  these  sends  forward  a  long 
narrow  prolongation  on  the  outside  of  the  eye.  All  of  the 
dorsal  plates  are  coarsely  areolated  towards  their  margins  and 
more  finely  in  the  centres  ;  they  are  also  very  irregular  in 
outline,  differing  considerably  on  each  side  of  the  body. 

The  species  seems  to  be  very  local,  and  as  I  have  seen  no 
reference  to  figures,  a  drawing  (fig.  6)  of  the  dorsal  surface 
is  given ;  the  areolation  of  only  the  terminal  plate  is  indicated. 

Localities. — Panisus  Michaeli  was  first  recorded  from 
Switzerland,  where  it  was  discovered  by  Dr.  A.  D.  Michael 
at  Davos  ;  and  Dr.  Sig.  Thor  has  recently  recorded  it  from 
Norway.  I  have  also  seen  a  specimen  collected  by  Mr. 
AVilliam  Evans  near  Bolerno,  Scotland,  in  the  autumn  of 
last  year. 

Thyas  longirostriSf  Piersig. 

This  very  distinct  species  is  of  local  occurrence  in  Ireland. 
I  once  found  amongst  Callitriche  in  a  small  pool  near  Ken- 
mare  many  specimens,  some  of  which  were  very  large, 
measuring  nearly  3  mm.  in  length.  In  his  paper  on  the 
British  species  of  Thyas  ('  Science  Gossip,^  viii.  p.  46) 
Dr.  George  refers  to  the  occurrence  of  this  species  in  Ireland, 
and  Mr.  C.  D.  Soar  has  since  found  it  in  the  Norfolk  Broads. 


Fiij.  1.  Momonia  falcipalpis,  sp.  n.     Dorsal  view ;  legs  auJ   palp   uot 

drawn,     x  OO. 
Fiy.  2.  Momonia  falcipalpis,  sp.  n.     Ventral  view,  sliowiug  structure  of 

epiiuera  i^-c.     X  60. 
Fiy,  3.  Momonia  falcijmlpis,  sp.  u.     Terminal  segment  of  first  leg,  seen 

from  below,     x  -21. 
Fiy.  4.  Momonia  falcipalpis,   sp.  n.      Eoiirth  and   fifth   palp-segmenta. 

X  224. 
Fiy.  5.  Arrhenurus  octayonus,  sp.  n.     Dorsal  view  of  male.     Tlie  two 

pieces  of  the  petiole  are  closelv  approximated  in  the  living  mite. 

X  3o. 
Fiy.  G.  Fanisus  Michaeli,   Koenike.      Dorsal  surface,  showing  arrange- 
ment of  chitinous  plates.      X  60. 

On  new  Species  of  Antarclic  Ampliipoda,  13 

HI. — rrdiminary  Descriptions  of  neio  Species  of  Amphipoda 
from  tlie  'Discovery''  Antarclic  Expedition,  1002-1901. 
"By  Alfred  0.  VValkek,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S. 

[Continued  from  vol.  xvii.  p.  458.] 

Proholoides  antarcticus^  .sp.  ii. 

W.Q.  from  Feb.  to  Dec.  1902  :  in  sponges  i^c. 

General  chnracter.s  as  in  PrchoJoides  [ProboHuni)  gregarium 

First  gnathopods. — Female :  wrist  subequal  in  length  to, 
but  wider  than,  the  hand,  the  hind  margins  of  both  convex 
and  setose.  ]\]ale:  wrist  considerably  longer  and  but  slightly 
wider  than  the  hand  ;  otherwise  like  the  female. 

Second  gnathopods. — Female :  carpal  process  rounded, 
setose;  hand  with  subparallel  margins;  hind  margin  sub- 
equal  to  the  [»alm,  which  is  defined  by  a  small  tooth  and  two 
spines.  Male:  hinder  part  of  the  loxoer  margin  of  the  side- 
plates  irregularli/  serrate.  Hand  as  long  as  the  three  preceding 
joints,  the  hind  margin  shorter  than  the  front  and  terminating 
in  a  sharp  toothy  forming  the  palmar  angle  ;  pahn  deeply  exca- 
vate,  uith  a  central  tooth  and  a  denticulate  ridge  near  the 
hase  of  the  daciylus.  In  a  younger  male  the  palm  is  less 
deeply  excavate,  the  central  tooth  wider,  blunter,  and  denticu- 
late, and  the  ridge  as  wide  as  the  excavation. 

Third  perceopods :  the  concave  hind  margin  of  the  narrow 
first  joint  is  produced  almost  to  the  end  of  the  second,  ter- 
viinating  in  a  divided  lobe. 

Fourth  and  fifth  perceopods  as  in  P.  gregarium  (Sars) . 

Third  uropods  ;  peduncle  shorter  than  the  ramus,  with  5 
spines  ;  first  joint  of  ramus  subequal  to  second,  with  3  spines. 

Telson  reachins:  the  end  of  the  oeduncle  of  the  third 
uropods,  with  3  spines  on  each  margin. 

Length  of  female  3"5  mm. ;  the  male  considerably  larger. 

Proboliella,  gen.  nov. 

Mandibles  with  a  two-jointed  palp. 

First  maxillae  with  a  two-jointed  palp. 

Maxillipeds  with  the  inner  plates  divided  to  the  hase,  the 
outer  more  or  less  developed. 

Second  perseopods  riot  stronger  than  the  first. 

Third  perteopods  with  the  first  joint  narrow  ;  fourth  and 
fifth  pair  with  the  first  joint  expanded. 

14  Mr.  A.  0.  Walker  on 

Differs  from  Proholium,  Sars,  in  tlie  absence  of  llie  small 
third  joint  of  the  mandibular  palp  and  tiie  equal  strength  of 
the  first  and  second  peraeopbds. 

ProholieUa  tyinca^  sp.  n. 

W.Q.  Hut  Point,  11/11/02,  one;  13/9/02,  one;  13/2/04, 
one.     All  female?. 

Lower  part  of  the  hind  margin  of  the  third  'plcon-segmenl 
produced  backwards  and  rounded.  Eyes  small,  round,  colour- 
less in  spirit. 

Upper  antennce  without  an  appendage,  reaching  the  middle 
of  the  flagellum  of  the  lower,  the  third  joint  half  as  long  as 
the  second.  Flagellum  7-jointed,  as  long  as  the  last  two 
joints  of  the  peduncle.  Mandibles  bent  downwards  from  the 
base  of  the  palp  to  the  coarsely  toothed  cutting-edge  ;  palp 
more  than  half  the  length  of  the  mandible,  the  first  joint  less 
than  one  fourth  the  length  of  the  second. 

Ma.villipeds  :  inner  plates  divided,  outer  distinct  but 
narrow;  first  and  second  joints  of  the  palp  subequal,  the  third 

First  gvatliopods :  lorist  shorter  and  narroicer  than  the 
handf  the  latter  wider  in  the  middle  than  in  Proholoides^  the 
palm  very  oblique,  subequal  to  the  hind  margin,  spinulose 
and  defined  by  2  or  3  s))ines. 

Second gnathopods '.  first  joint  as  long  and  more  than  half 
as  wide  as  the  hand,  margins  setose  ;  third  joint  produced  in 
an  acute  point  extending  beyond  the  carpal  process;  wri-^t 
produced  in  a  narrow  setose  process.  Hand  similar  to  but 
much  larger  than  that  of  the  first  pair,  subovoid,  the  palm 
longer  than  the  hind  margin,  convex,  spinulose,  and  defined 
hy  a  strong  toothy  heyond  ichich  is  a  smaller  tooth  and  a  group 
of  spines. 

The  first  and  second  pairs  of  pera?opods  are  alike;  first 
joint  oblong,  curved,  almost  as  long  as  the  next  three,  and 
three  times  as  wide  ;  third  and  fifth  subequal,  fourth  rather 
shorter;  dactylus  slender,  two  thirds  the  length  of  the  fifth 

Third  pera'opods  :  first  joint  narrow-oblong,  straight. 

2  he  fourth  and  fifth  pdirs  are  alike  ;  the  first  joint  oval, 
deeper  than  wide,  the  hind  margin  smooth. 

Peduncle  of  the  third  pair  of  iiropods  subequal  to  each 
joint  of  the  ramus. 

Telson  not  reaching  the  end  of  the  peduncle  of  the  third 
uropods,  narrowing  rather  abru})tly  to  a  point,  with  3  spines 
on  each  side. 

Leno'th  3  mm. 

vew  Sjxrt'cs  of  Antarctic  Ampliipodd.  15 

TllAUMATELSON,  gen.  nov. 

Palp  of  the  first  niaxilUxi  two-jointed. 

First  giiathopods  distinct///  subcliclate  ;  first  joints  of  all  the 
perieopods  narrow. 

TelsoM  large,  entire,  oval,  and  set  in  a  verliccd  plane  on  its 
longer  edge. 

Otherwise  like  Metopa. 

Thaumatelson  Ilerdmani ,  sp.  n. 

W.Q.  Oct.  1002,  from  sponges,  Hut  Point ;  one.  W.Q. 
13/2/04:  Hut  Point;   one. 

Body  :  fourth  side-jjlates  umisuaUy  large,  covering  the  bases 
of  the  last  three  pairs  of  peraiopods.  Last  two  pleon-segments 
with  a  poster o-dor sal  tooth.     Segments  of  the  urus  coalesced. 

Antenna;  subequal,  longer  than  the  head.  Upper  antennce 
without  an  appendage;  flagellum  shorter  than  the  pedunele. 
Lower  antennce  :  peduncle  subequal  to  that  of  the  upper. 

First  gnathoj)ods:  wrist  triangular,  about  half  as  long  as 
the  hand,  which  is  subquadrate,  with  the  palm  transverse, 
rather  convex,  as  long  as  the  bind  margin. 

Second  gnathopods '.  wrist  produced  beyond  the  base  of  the 
hand  ;  hand  subtriangular,  widening  distally,  nearly  twice  as 
long  as  wide  ;  distal  half  of  the  hind  margin  slightly  concave, 
ending  in  a  tooth,  beyond  which  is  a  long  and  a  short  spine 
defining  the  transverse  spinulose  palm. 

rerceopods  all  similar,  with  narrow  first  joints. 

Third  nropods :  ramus  subequal  to  the  peduncle,  the  first 
joint  rather  longer  than  the  second. 

Telson  as  described  above. 

Length  2'5  mm. 

A  very  remarkable  little  species,  the  form  of  the  telson 
being  probably  unique  in  the  Amphipoda;  the  hand  of  the 
second  gnathopods  recalls  Amphilochus. 

(Ediceroides  Calmani  *,  sp.  n. 

Coulman  Island,  13/1/02,  100  fath;  two  females.  Flagon 
Pt.,  23/1/02  ;  one  young.     Barrier,  29/1/02,  100  fath. ;  one. 

Body :  mesosome-segraents  very  short,  subequal  j  first 
pleon-segment  longer  than  the  second  and  much  shorter  than 
the  third,  which,  as  well  as  the  first  urus-segment,  has  a 
shallow  dorsal  carina  and  a  rounded  posterior  margin.     The 

*  After  my  friend  Dr.  W.  T.  Caiman,  to  whom  I  am  much  indebted 
for  his  vahiable  assistance. 

Ifi  Ml.  A.  O.  WalkiT  on 

last  segment  of  tlie  mesosoiiic  and  first  two  segments  of  the 
pleon  have  a  dorsal  tubercle  near  the  middle.  The  first  four 
side-plates  are  as  deep  as  the  segments. 

Head:  rostrum  shm'ter  than  the  rest  of  the  head  and  reaching 
the  end  of  the  first  joint  of  the  upper  antenuse,  lower  margin 
almost  straight.  Eyes  contiguous  above,  large,  dark.  Upper 
antenn(e  not  quite  reaching  the  end  of  the  second  ynnt  of  the 
lower,  the  first  joint  ratiier  longer  and  twice  as  wide  as  the 
second,  icidening  distallg ;  the  second  twice  as  long  as  the 
third ;  the  first  and  second  with  fascicles  of  plumose  setse. 
Flagellum  10-jointed,  shorter  than  the  peduncle.  Mandibular 
palp  with  the  second  joint  subequal  to  the  third  in  length, 
but  more  than  twice  as  loide  near  its  base,  both  joints  with 
long  spine-like  setas  on  the  front  margin. 

In  other  respects  this  species  resembles  (E.  rostrata, 
Stebbing  {(E.  conspicua  on  pis.  Ix.  and  Ixi.  Chall.  Report), 
from  which  it  differs  in  the  conspicuous  eyes,  diflfereut  shape 
of  rostrum,  proportions  of  mesosome-segments,  and  mandibular 

Length  of  female  30  mm. 

Epimeria  macrodonta,  sp.  n. 

22/1/02,  500  fath. ;  three.     W.Q.  4/9/03  :  Hole  12  ;  one. 

Bodg  :  segments  of  mesosome  and  pleon,  except  the  first 
two  (of  which  the  first  is  twice  as  long  as  the  second),  armed 
with  lateral  teeth  increasing  in  length  backwards,  with  longer 
curved  dorsal  teeth,  those  of  the  last  mesosome  and  first  two 
pleon-segments  the  longest.  First  two  segments  of  the  urus 
with  an  u])right  dorsal  tooth  ;  the  third  segment  with  a  lateral 
carina  ending  in  an  upturned  sharp  tooth.  Side-plates  as  in 
E.  cornigera  (Fabr.) . 

Head:  rostrum  much  longer  than  the  rest  of  the  head, 
slightly  decurved  ;  lower  margin  of  the  ocular  lobe  produced 
forward  in  an  acute  tooth.     Ege  large,  colourless  in  spirit. 

Upper  antenncB  &\\ov\.e\' i\\v^\\  the  lower;  first  joint  with  a 
subequal  distal  tooth  on  each  side;  second  with  two  long 
subequal  distal  teeth  reaching  the  seventh  joint  of  the 
flagellum  ;  third  about  half  as  long  as  the  second,  with  a 
small  distal  tooth.     Flagellum  32-jointed,  slender. 

G nathopods  as  in  E.  parasitica,  JNI.  Sars. 

Third penvopods  '.  first  joint  rather  longer  than  and  twice 
as  wide  as  the  third  ;  hind  margin  concave,  with  a  rounded 
lobe  at  the  proximal  end  and  a  large  very  shar]>  tooth,  directed 
backwards,  at  the  distal  ;  front  margin  concave  in  tlie  middle. 
Jlind  margins  of  the  first  joints  of  the  fourth  and  jifth  pairs 

new  Species  of  Antarctic  Amphipoda.  17 

convex  ill  the  miiltlle,  the  fir-st  joint  of  the  fifth  the  widest  ; 
otherwise  like  tlie  third  pair. 

The  third  iiropods  have  the  U|)per  margins  of  the  peduneles 
produced  behind  in  an  acute  tooth  ;  the  outer  rami  are  slightly 
shorter  than  the  inner,  which  are  about  three  times  as  lo.ig  as 
the  peduncle,  narrowly  lanceolate,  with  a  icw  small  sj>iues  on 
both  margins. 

Tclson  deeply  notched,  the  ends  of  the  divisions  subacute. 

Length  33  mm. 

This  species  has  a  superficial  resemblance  to  Acanthozonej 
P»occk,  and  Acanthechinus,  Stebbing,  from  both  of  which  it 
differs  in  the  shape  of  the  tclsou  and  other  structural  points. 

Epimkriella,  gen.  nov. 

Body  without  dorsal  teeth  on  the  mesosorae. 
Head  with  a  very  small  rostrum. 

Fifth  i)air  of  side-plates  small,  wider  than  deep,  without  a 
projecting]  process. 

Mandibles  with  the  molar  tubercle  imperfectly  developed. 
'Jliird  and  fourth  perajopods  longer  than  the  fifth. 
Otherwise  like  Epimeria. 

Epimeriella  macronyx'^,  sp.  n. 

W.Q.,  May  and  June  1903;  five  young.  26/2/04;  one, 
length  25  mm. 

Body  :  mesosome  smooth ;  first  and  third  segments  sub- 
equal  and  much  longer  tlian  the  second,  remaining  segments 
increasing  in  length  successively.  First  four  side-plates  as 
in  Epimeria ;  fifth  small,  transverse,  with  rounded  ends. 
Pleon  with  an  obscure  dorsal  carina ;  hind  and  lower  margins 
of  the  third  segment  straight  and  forming  a  right  angle. 
Urus  with  the  first  segment  depressed  in  front  and  provided 
with  a  postero-dorsal  tootli. 

Head  slightly  produced  in  front.  Eyes  large,  prominent, 
round-oval,  colourless.  AntenncB  subequal,  unarmed.  Man- 
dibles-with  cutting-edges  dentate,  spine-row  of  about  20  spines  ; 
palp  rather  longer  than  the  mandible,  first  joint  short,  second 
and  third  subequal. 

Eirst  gnaihopods  :  wrist  subequal  to  and  rather  wider  than 
the  hand,  which  is  subovate  ;  the  palm  undefined  and  pecti- 
nate, the  whole  hind  margin  sparsely  and  unequally  spinous. 

Second  ynathopods  like  the  first,  except  the  palm,  which  is 
more  transverse. 

*  From  the  long  dact}  li  of  the  third  and  fourth  perteopods. 
Ann.  cfc  Mag,  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.    Vol.  xviii.  2 

18  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Ilomoptcra. 

Second percEopods  :  first  joint  narrow-oblon;^,  subcqual  to 
the  tliird  and  fonrth  united.  Dactylus  almost  straight  and 
not  flexed,  as  long  as  the  third  joint. 

Third  and  fourth  perceopods  pubcqual  ;  first  joints  oblong, 
twice  as  long  as  wide.  Uactyli  longer  than  the  fifth  joint^ 
especially  in  young  s])ecimens,  tapering  gradually,  not  flexed. 

Fifth  perceopods  shorter  than  the  third  and  fourth^  the  first 
joint  much  wider,  with,  the  convex,  obscurely  serrate  hind 
margin  produced  nearly  to  the  middle  of  the  third  joint. 
Dactylus  as  long  as  the  fourth  joint,  which  is  shorter  than 
the  fifth. 

Third  uropods :  rami  subequal,  nearly  twice  as  long  as  the 
peduncle,  with  fine  spines  on  both  margins. 

Telso?t  reaching  to  about  one  fourth  the  length  of  the  rami 
of  the  third  uropods,  deeply  notched  at  the  end,  with  a  minute 
notch  on  the  tip  of  each  division. 

The  description  of  the  external  characters  of  the  body  is 
taken  from  the  large  specimen  (25  mm.)  not  dissected,  the 
rest  from  one  of  6  ram. 

lY .—Rhynchotal  Notes.— XXXN III.     By  W.  L.  Distant. 

The  following  descriptions  and  notes  are  preparatory  to 
a  synonymical  catalogue  of  the  family  Fulgoridte  which 
I  have  now  in  preparation.  I  reserve  synopses  of  the 
genera  to  the  catalogue  itself,  as  there  are  genera  whicii 
I  have  not  seen  and  others  which  have  still  to  be  described, 
which  render  the  formation  of  such  keys  impossible  for 
the  present. 

Fam.  Fulgoridae. 
Subfam.  FuLGOJtiNM. 
Genus  Eurystueus. 

Eunjsthem,  StRl,  Berl.  ent.  Zeitschr.  vi.  p.  305  (18G2). 
Type,  E.  dilatatus,  Westw.  {Fulgora). 

Eurystheus  dilatatus. 

■Fulgora  dilatata,  Westw.  Trans.  Linn.  See.  xviii.  p.  IKi,  t.  xii,  fisrs.  8 

&  9  (1841). 
Pyrops  tnducta,  "Walk.  Ins.  Saund.,  Worn.  p.  30  (18")8). 

Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  llomopteia.  19 

Eurystheufi  Doddiy  sp.  n. 

Head  and  ccpluilic  process,  sternum,  and  legs  greyisli, 
mottled  with  piceous  ;  abdomen  pale  eastaneous  brown,  witli 
the  segmental  margins  oehraceous  ;  tegmina  grey,  opaque, 
the  venation  fuseous  ;  an  inner  claval  marginal  fascia  longi- 
tudinally continued  for  a  short  distance  beyond  apexof  clavus 
and  an  irregular  discal  longitudinal  fascia  on  apical  area 
piceous  brown  ;  a  series  of  small  s])ots  of  the  same  colour  on 
costal  margin  ;  wings  greyish  hyaline,  with  about  basal  half 
dull  oehraceous,  the  venation  fuscous  ;  cephalic  process  long, 
slender,  I'rom  in  front  of  eyes  about  as  long  as  abdomen,  apex 
subconvexly  narrowed,  upper  surface  undulate;  posterior 
tibiai  with  four  spines  ;  rostrum  about  reaching  abdominal 
a{)ex  ;  anterior  and  intermediate  tibia3  annulated  with  piceous. 
Var. — Tegmina  without  the  discal  longitudinal  fascia  on 
apical  area  and  the  clavus  generally  suffused  with  piceous 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  17  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  32  mm. 

Hah.  Queensland ;  Townsville  {F.  P.  Dodd,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Allied  to  E.  obscuratus,  Fabr.,  from  which  it  principally 
differs  by  the  more  slender,  longer,  and  apically  narrowed 
cephalic  process. 

Eurystheus  Clemently  sp.  n. 

Head  dull  greyish  brown ;  pronotum  and  mesonotum 
greyish  oehraceous ;  abdomen,  body  beneath,  and  legs  pale 
testaceous  ;  anterior  tibiai  annulated  with  pale  fuscous  ;  head 
beneath  at  base  paler  and  more  oehraceous ;  clypeus  with 
transverse  fuscous  striations  ;  tegmina  grey,  opaque,  the 
venation  slightly  darker  and  here  and  tiiere  tinged  with 
fuscous,  an  inner  claval  streak,  about  six  discal  spots  beyond 
middle,  a  subapical  series  of  very  small  spots,  and  some 
speckles  on  costal  margin  piceous  brown  ;  wings  entirely 
greyish  white,  the  venation  slightly  stramineous;  cephalic 
process  slightly  recurved,  from  in  front  of  eyes  about  as  long 
as  abdomen,  somewhat  narrowly  longitudinally  channelled 
above  on  apical  half,  a  little  Avidened  at  apex,  undulated 
above  for  a  little  beyond  middle  ;  rostrum  not  extending 
beyond  half  the  length  of  abdomen  ;  posterior  tibiaj  with  four 
spines,  the  basal  one  small  and  blunt. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  17^  mm  ;  exp.  tegm.  34  mm. 

IltdK   W.  Australia  ;    Nicol   Bay    District    [Dr.    Clement^ 
Brit.  Mus.). 

To  be  distinguished  from  E.  obscurata  and  E.  Doddi  by 
the  shorter  rostrum,  the  uniformly  pale  grey  wings,  &o. 


20  ]\Ir.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Ilomoptera. 

Eurystheus  pallescens. 

Allied  to  U.  dementi,  but  much  smaller  ;  cephalic  proces3 
from  in  front  of  eyes  slightly  longer  than  abdomen  ;  tegmina 
unspotted  ;  other  characters  as  in  E.  dementi. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  14  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  29  mm. 

Hub.  W.  Australia;  Nicol  Bay  District  {Dr.  dement, 
Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  Cathedra. 

Cathedra,  Kirk,  Entomologist,  xxxvi.  p.  179  (1903). 
2'ristiopsis,  Schmidt,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  Ixvi.  p,  332  (1905). 

Type,  C.  serrata,  Fabr.  {Fulgora). 

Genus  Saiva. 
Saiva,  Dist.  Fairn.  B.  I.,  Rhvnch.  iii.  p,  192  (1906). 
Type,  S.  gemmata,  Westw. 

Saiva  cultellata. 

Hotinus  culteUatus,  Walk.  Journ.  Linn.  Soc,  Zool.  i.  p.  143  (1857). 
Fulgora  bicolur,  Schmidt,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  Ixvi.  p.  355  (190oj. 

Saiva  cardinalis. 

Fulgora  cardinalia,  Butl.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  (4)  xir.  p.  131  (1874). 
Fulgora  cardinalis,  Schmidt,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  Ixvi.  p.  356  (1905). 

By  a  strange  coincidence  Herr  Schmidt  has  not  only 
redescribed  Butler^s  species,  but  has  chosen  the  same  specitic 

Samsama,  gen.  nov. 

Head  longer  than  broad,  vertex  produced  in  front  of  eyes 
and  anteriorly  developed  in  a  long  slender  tilamentous 
appendage  nearly  as  long  as  the  mesonotum  and  abdomen 
together,  its  apex  slightly  widened  and  broadly  sulcate  ;  face 
not  longer  than  clypeus,  medially  bicarinate,  laterally  widened 
or  ampliated  towards  clypeus  ;  rostrum  slightly  passing  the 
posterior  coxje;  pronotum  a  little  shorter  than  mesonotum, 
anteriorly  subangularly  produced,  centrally  finely  carinate ; 
mesonotum  centrally  finely  tricarinate ;  abdomen  broad, 
moderately  depressed  ;  posterior  tibia  (in  type)  with  seven 
spines  ;  tegmina  long,  narrow,  four  times  longer  than  broad, 
apex  subacutely  rounded,  costal  membrane  broad,  apical  third 
reticulately  veined,  claval  area  broad  an.l  strongly  obtusely 

Mv.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Ilomoptcra.  21 

.insulate  near  base  ;  wings  about  as  broad  as  but  much  shorter 
than  tormina,  rcticuhitely  veined  except  on  basal  area. 

This  genus  may  be  pLiccd  near  Prolepta,  Walk. 

Typo,  S.  chersonesia,  Dist. 

Samsama  chersonesia,  sp.  n. 

Head  and  pronotum  viresceut ;  anterior  margin  of  vertex 
and  cephalic  process  black,  apex  of  the  latter  stramineous  ; 
mcsonotuin  purplish  brown  ;  metanotum  and  abdomen  abovo 
pale  testaceous  ;  body  beneatii  and  legs  pale  ochraceous,  face 
and  lateral  areas  of  prosternutn  viresceut,  apex  of  abdomen 
carmine-red  ;  tegmina  pale  ochraceous  brown,  a  subbasal  trans- 
verse fascia  and  costal  membrane  (its  colour  extending  near  its 
apex  on  disk  of  tegmina)  viresceut,  two  black  spots  on  costal 
membrane  near  base  ;  wings  hyaline,  the  venation  fuscous, 
with  a  broad  basal  patch  of  carmine-red,  apical  half  of  anal 
area  fuscous. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.  and  coph.  process,  121  mm.,  long.  ceph. 
process  8^  ram. ;  exp.  tegm.  37  mm. 

Hah.  Malay  Peninsula  ;  Perak  [Doherty). 

Genus  Dkuentia. 

Druenfia,  StSl,  Horn.  Afr.  iv.  p.  144  (1866). 

I'yryoteles,  Gerst.  iu  Decken's  Iveiseu,  iii.  (2)  p.  428  (1873). 

Type,  D.  variegata,  Spin.  {Enchophora) . 

Druentia  variegata. 

Etichophora  variegata,  Spin.  Aun.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  viii.  p.  225,  t.  xii.  fiy.  3 

(1839),  oxcl.  habitat. 
Druentia  variegata,  Stal,  Hem.  Afr.  iv.  p.  144  (1866). 
Enchophora  sicca,  Walk.  List  Horn.  ii.  p.  272  (1851)  ;  id.  loc.  cit.  iv. 

t.  iii.  fig.  2  (1852). 
Pgryvteles  siccus,  Gerst.  in  Decken's  lieisen,  iii.  (2)  p.  428  (1873). 
Belbi)ia  sicca,  Stal,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  (3)  i.  p.  580  (1863). 
Pyryuteles  cristatus,  Karsch,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  1894,  t.  ii.  tig.  4  a. 

Bab.  S.  Africa. 

EcUADOEiA,  gen.  nov. 

Head  prominently  produced  in  front  of  eyes,  the  cephalic 
process  in  front  of  eyes  about  as  long  as  from  eyes  to  base  of 
pronotum,  robust,  directed  upwardly,  and  apically  a  little 
recurved,  above  strongly  longitudinally  channelled,  notched 
on  each  side  beyond  middle ;  face  very  much  broadened  from 
between  eyes,  wiiere  the  lateral  margins  are  concavely  sinuate, 
lateral   margins   of   the   auterior   and   narrow    prolongation 

22  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Homoptera. 

continued  for  about  two  tliirds  through  disk  of  posterior  broad 
area,  between  these  ridges  the  surface  is  finely  transversely 
striate  and  contains  a  central  longitudinal  ridge,  which  is 
broad  and  robust  anteriorly  and  evanescent  posteriorly ; 
rostrum  passing  the  posterior  coxse ;  pronotum  centrally 
produced  anteriorly,  its  lateral  margins  prominently  sub- 
angulate  and  centrally  longitudinally  ridged ;  mesonotum 
with  two  discal  strongly  waved  and  angulated  longitudinal 
ridges  ;  posterior  tibiae  with  six  or  seven  strong  spines;  legs 
strongly  longitudinally  channelled ;  tegmina  about  three 
times  as  long  as  broad,  apically  rounded,  transversely  reticu- 
lately  veined,  basal  cell  much  longer  than  broad,  veins  to 
costal  membrane  oblique ;  wings  broader  than  tegmina, 
reticulately  veined  except  on  upper  basal  area,  anal  area  with 
reticulate  veins. 

I  place  this  genus  near  Enhydria^  Walk.,  and  Hariola, 

Type,  E.  dichopteroides,  Dist, 

Ecuadoria  dichopteroides^  sp.  n. 

Head  above  piceous  brown,  its  base  and  eyes  ochraceous, 
between  eyes  two  contiguous  black  spots  ;  pronotum  testaceous 
brown,  small  tuberculous  spots  and  an  oblique  fascia  on  each 
lateral  area  paler  in  hue,  its  anterior  prolongation  ochraceous 
with  two  large  central  oblong  black  spots ;  mesonotum 
fuscous  brown,  with  the  ridges,  lateral  areas,  and  a  small  spot 
on  each  side  of  apex  dull  ochraceous;  abdomen  above  ochra- 
ceous, with  the  posterior  segmental  margins  broadly  black  ; 
body  beneath  and  legs  ochraceous,  anterior  and  intermediate 
tibiai  annulated  with  black;  tegmina  with  basal  half  fuscous 
brown,  opaque,  divided  by  a  transverse  macular  ochraceous 
fascia,  and  with  pale  spots  on  costal  membrane  and  claval 
area,  apical  area  hyaline,  with  the  veins  fuscous,  and  with 
fuscous  suffusions  towards  apex ;  wings  with  the  basal  area 
opaque,  bright  ochraceous,  outwardly  broadly  margined  with 
black,  which  forms  a  transverse  fascia,  apical  area  hyaline, 
tiie  veins  and  apical  margin  fuscous. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  19  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  46  mm. 

Uah.  N.W.  Ecuador;  llio  Durango,  350  feet  (Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  Enchopiioka. 
Enchophora,  Spin.  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  viii.  p.  221  (1839). 
Type,  E.  recurva,  01  iv,  [Fuhjora). 

Mr.  W.  L.  I'i.slant  on  TT.)ino[)toia.  23 

Encliophora  nigromaculata^  sp.  n. 

ITcad,  tliorax,  and  body  heneatli  pale  olivaceous  brown  ; 
le<i;s  olivaceous,  a|)ices  of  tibial  ami  the  tarsi  more  or  less 
piceous  ;  piouoluin  with  a  very  distinct  posterior  bhick  sub- 
marginal  fascia  ;  mesonotuni  with  an  anterior  black  central 
spot  ;  abdomen  above  piceous,  the  posterior  segmental 
margins  dull  sanguineous,  its  base  lacteously  toraentose  ; 
tegmiiui  with  about  basal  two  thirds  pale  testaceous,  with 
scattered  black  spots,  a])ical  area  dark  ocliraceous,  tiiickly 
reticulate,  and  with  some  minute  scattered  cretaceous  sjjots  ; 
wings  fuscous,  with  the  basal  third  carmine-red,  all  the  veins 
fuscous  ;  head  with  tiie  anterior  prolongation  short,  robust, 
strongly  recurved,  its  apex  about  reacliing  base  of  head,  above 
centrally  and  laterally  strongly  carinate,  beneath  distinctly 
ocliraceous  and  laterally  and  centrally  carinate ;  face  with 
two  strong  central  posteriorly  diverging  carinations  ;  clypeus 
centrally  carinate  ;  rostrum  extending  to  about  middle  of 
abdomen  ;  pronotum  strongly  centrally  ridged. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  21  mm.  ;  exp.  tegm.  5-4  mm. 

Ilab.  Bolivia  {J.  Steinhach,  Brit.  Mus.). 


Copidocephala,  St?il,  Berl.  ent.  Zeitschr.  xiii.  p.  23o  (1869). 
Coanaco,  Dist.  Bi..l.  Ceutr.-Amer.,  Rhyncli.  Horn.  i.  p.  28  (1887). 

Type,  C.  (jutiata^  "White  {Encliophora). 

Copidocephala  jnerula,  sp.  n. 

Head  greenisb  testaceous  ;  pronotum  pale  virescent,  with 
some  minute  paler  spots  and  with  an  anterior  transverse, 
broken,  fuscous  fascia  ;  mesonotum  testaceous,  with  its  apex 
paler  ;  metanotum  and  basal  margin  of  abdomen  piceous  or 
blackish  brown  ;  abdomen  ocliraceous,  its  apex  cretaceous  ; 
face,  sternunr,  and  legs  pale  testaceous,  lateral  areas  of  pro- 
sternum  broadly  pale  virescent;  tegmina  with  the  basal  iialf 
virescent,  greyish  on  disk,  with  purplish-red  spots  principally 
situate  on  costal  membrane  and  claval  area,  on  disk  the  spots 
are  in  straight  transverse  series,  two  or  three  small  spots  a 
little  beyond  cell,  followed  by  a  macular  fascia  between  costal 
membrane  and  clavus,  and  two  widely  apart  before  the  outer 
reticulate  area,  which  is  pale  bronzy ;  wings  black. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  23  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  67  mm. 

Bab.  Colombia  (Brit.  Mus.). 

Allied  to  C.  guttata,  AVhite,  from  which  it  differs,  apart 
from  the  differently  spotted  tegmina  and  unspotted  wings,  by 

24  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  ITomoptera. 

tlie  more  erect  and  less  recurved  cei)lialic  proco>s,  tlie  face 
more  ))0.steriorly  widened,  and  its  anterior  process  much  more 
strongly,  centrally,  longitudinally  ridged,  &c. 

Genus  Apiijena. 

Apha-na,  Guer.  Voy.  'Coquille,'  Zool.  ii.  (2)  i.  p.  184  (1832). 
Ulasia,  Stai  (part.),*  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  xxiv.  p.  233  (18G3). 

Type,  A.  fuscata,  Gudr. 

Genus  Penthicodes. 

Penthicodes,  Blanch,  in  d'Orbign.  Diet.  d'Hist.  Nat.  x.  p.  443  (1849). 
Aphcena,  Gu(5r.  Voy.  Belanor.  lud.  Orient,  p.  4-51  (1834) ;  Spin.  Ann. 

Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  viii.  p.  240  (1839) ;  nom.  praocc.  GutSr.  {supra). 
Aphcma,  Burm.  Handb.  Ent.  ii.  1,  p.  166  (1835) ;  Amy.  &  Serv.  Hist. 

Hem.  p.  490  (1843);  StSl,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  xxiv.  p.' 231  (18G3);  id. 

Hem.  Afr.  iv.  p.  134  (1866) ;  Dist.  Faun.  B.  I.,  Rhynch.  iii.  p.  201 

Penthicus,  Blanch.  Hist.  Nat.  Ins.  iii.  p.  171  (1840) ;  nom.  praiocc. 

Type,  A .  farinosa,  Weber. 

iSince  using  the  name  Aphana  for  this  genus  (Faun.  B.  1. 
supra),  when  I  thought  I  had  solved  the  synonymic  problem, 
I  have  found  that  Guerin,  in  first  describing  this-genus  under 
the  name  of  Aphana  (Voy.  '  Coquille,^  Zool.  ii.  (2)  i.  p.  1S4, 
1832),  gave  as  the  type  his  A.  fuscata  from  New  (Guinea. 
This  genus  is  therefore  structurally  distinct  from  other  species 
included  subsequently  in  Aphcena^ Aphakia,  Burm.,  and 
Penthicodes  thus  becomes  available.  Blaiichard  regarded  the 
name  Ajjhana  as  preoccupied  by  Aphinus,  Lap.,  an  argument 
1  did  not  and  do  not  follow  ;  but  the  type  of  Guerin's  Aphcena 
settles  the  question. 

Scamandra,  StSl,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  xxiv.  p.  232  (1363). 
Type,  S.  rosea^  Guer.  {Aphcena). 

Scamandra  fasciata,  sp.  n. 

Head,  thorax,  and  body  beneath  pale  castaneous  brown  ; 
abdomen  sanguineous;  legs  black  ;  rostrum  and  posterior 
femora  piceous  brown  ;  tegmina  brownish  ochraceous,  spotted 
with  piceous,  and  with  three  irregular,  transverse,  piceous 
fascial,  the  outermost  immediately  before  a  transverse, 
arcuated,  linear,  ochraceous  fascia  at  about  one  third  from 
apex,  apical  area  brownish  ochraceous,  with  the  reticulate 
venation  paler  ;  wings  purplish  red,  the  upper  basal  area  for 
about  half  the  wing  black,  with  olivaceous  veins,  and  divided 

]\rr.  W.  L.  Dislnnt  on  Iloiiioptera.  2') 

near  its  apex  by  a  sliort  jiurpli.sli-rcd  transverse  fascia,  base 
of  anal  area  stramineous,  apical  area  brownish  oehraceous, 
the  apical  margin  paler ;  tubercle  at  base  of  posterior  tUnx 
moderately  prominent;  mesonolum  transversely  rugulo-?e; 
pronotum  finely  blackly  punctate;  anterior  process  of  head 
short,  robust,  extending  to  nearly  half  the  length  of  vertex  ; 
face  with  two  strong  central  longitudinal  ridges,  between 
Avhich  is  a  more  obscure  central  ridge  not  extending  more 
than  one  third  from  base  ;  rostrum  extending  coiisi(Jeral)ly 
beyond  posterior  cox^e.  Tegmina  and  wings  beneatli  with  a 
subapical  calcareous  arcuated  fascia. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  22-25  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  6-4-74  mm. 

JInh.  N.W.  Borneo  (Brit.  Mus.)  ;  Kina  Balu  {Whitehead, 
Coll.  Uist.). 

Allied  to  S.  hecuba,  Stal,  and  S.  scripti/acies,  Walk.,  from 
both  of  which  it  may  at  once  be  superficially  distinguished  by 
the  colour  of  the  wings. 

Scamandra  varicolor,  sp.  n. 

Head,  thorax,  and  body  beneath  pale  brownish  oehraceous  ; 
abdomen  sanguineous,  with  its  base  calcareous  white ;  legs 
piceous ;  rostrum  brownish  oehraceous;  tegmina  for  basal 
two  thirds  pale  testaceous  red,  with  darker  sometimes  fuscous 
spots,  terminating  in  a  darker,  sometimes  fuscous,  transverse 
arcuated  fascia  immediately  before  a  pale  arcuated  line 
defining  the  apical  area,  which  is  pale  brownish  oehraceous ; 
wings  pale  sanguineous,  with  tlie  venation  virescent,  with 
the  upper  basal  area  pale  emerald-green,  which,  as  divided  by 
the  veins,  has  the  appearance  of  three  ray-like  fascice ;  poste- 
rior margin  and  base  of  anal  area  greyish  or  calcareous  white, 
apical  area  pale  brownish  oehraceous ;  tubercle  at  base  of 
posterior  tibiae  prominent;  mesonotum  very  finely  and 
obscurely  ruguTose  ;  pronotum  somewhat  thickly,  finely, 
darkly  punctate  ;  anterior  i)rocess  of  head  short,  not  reaching 
middle  of  vertex;  face  with  two  strong  central  longitudinal 
ridges  ;  rostrum  considerably  passing  posterior  coxa?. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  16-20  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  45-60  mm. 

Ilab.  Malay  Archipelago,  Bali  {Doherty,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  Polydictya. 

Fvhjdictya,  Guer.  Icon.  Regu.  Auim.,  Ins.  p.  358  (1830-34). 
Thaumastodidya,  Kirk.  J.  liomb.  iSat.  Hist.  Soc.  1902,  p,  307. 

Type,  P.  hcisaUs,  Guer. 

26  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Ilomoptera. 

Pvlydictya  crassa,  sp.  n. 

Head,  lliorax,  body  beneath,  and  legs  piceous ;  face 
biovvnisli  ochraceous  ;  abdomen  brownish  ochraceous,  above 
with  its  base  piceous  black;  tegmina  pale  dull  castaneous; 
wings  ochraceous,  apex  and  posterior  margin  fuscous  brown  ; 
pronotum  centrally  longitudinally  carinate  ;  face  strongly 
excavate  on  each  side  ;  rostrum  reaching  the  posterior  coxye  ; 
posterior  tibiae  with  two  long  spines  on  apical  halves; 
tegmina  closely  and  coarsely  reticulate  from  base  to  apex. 

Long.,  excl.  fegm.,  20  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  oH  mm. 

Bab.  S.  Celebes  (Coll.  Dist.). 

Polydictya  illuminata,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  face,  and  clypeus  ochraceous  ;  abdomen 
above  shining  metallic  Wack,  its  lateral  margins  and  the 
margins  of  the  last  two  segments  castaneous  brown  ;  body 
beneath  and  legs  jjicoous  ;  rostrum,  coxk,  apices  of  femora, 
bases  of  anterior  and  intermediate  tibiae,  and  the  whole  of  the 
posterior  tibise  pale  ochraceous  brown  ;  tegmina  stramineous, 
the  venation  ochraceous,  and  much  spotted  and  mottled  with 
black  or  piceous,  for  about  basal  half  the  shadings  are 
maculate  and  on  apical  area  waved  irregular  fasciae  are 
formed ;  wings  dark  fuscous,  upper  basal  area  pale  brownish 
ochraceous;  ])ronotum  obscurely  centrally  carinate;  meso- 
notum  piceous  brown,  with  a  lateral  spot  on  each  side  beyond 
middle  and  the  apex  ochraceous ;  anal  appendage  ochraceous ; 
rostrum  just  passing  the  posterior  coxse  ;  posterior  coxje  with 
five  spines,  the  two  nearer  base  small  and  obscure;  face  sub- 
globose,  laterally  excavate  on  each  side. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  19-20  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  56-58  mm. 

Ilah.  Malay  Archipelago;  Tarabora,  Sambawa  [Doherty, 
Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  BlUDANTlS. 
Birdantis,  StSl,  Trans.  Eat.  Soc.  Loud.  (3)  i.  p.  581  (1863j. 
Type,  B.  decenSj  Sta!. 

Birdantis  collaris. 

Polydictya  coUaris,  Walk.  Jouni.  Linn.  Soc,  Zool.  x.  p.  08,  t.  iii.  li".  10 

vittiixHtris,  Walk.,  MS. 

Galela,  gen.  nov. 
Head  large,  broad,  i)rutruding  considerably  in  front  of  eyes, 

Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  ]roiiioi)tcra.  27 

broadly  convex  antciiorlj,  tlie  marL^iiis  above  strongly  ridded 
and  its  disk  rugose;  face  long,  broad,  nnicii  longer  tlian 
clypeus,  its  lateral  margins  parallel,  its  base  convex  and 
extending  considerably  in  front  of  eyes,  centrally  longitu- 
dinally tricarinate,  its  a|)ex  concave,  receiving  base  of  clypeus, 
■\vliieli  is  centrally  obscurely  carinate  ;  rostrum  reaching  or 
passing  the  ])osterior  coxai ;  pronotum  a  little  shorter  than 
bead,  centrally  ridged  ;  mesonotum  centrally  a  little  shorter 
than  head  and  pronotum  together;  posterior  tibiaj  with  four 
or  five  spines ;  tegmina  about  three  times  as  long  as  broad, 
transversely  reticulate,  more  obscurely  so  on  basal  area  ; 
wings  shorter  and  broader  than  tegmina,  excepting  at  extreme 
base  transversely  reticulate. 

Allied  to  Birdantis,  Stal,  and  Desudaba,  Walk.,  but 
differing  by  the  structure  of  the  much  longer  head  and  face. 

Type,  G.  pallescenSy  Dist.  [Birdantis). 

Galela  parva,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  mesonotum,  body  beneath,  and  legs  pale 
brownish  ochraceous,  with  small  darker  mottlings;  meta- 
notum  piceous ;  abdomen  above  dark  orange-yellow  or  pale 
testaceous;  legs  obscurely  annulated  with  pale  fuscous,  the 
anterior  tibiaj  prominently  annulated  with  dark  fuscous; 
tegmina  with  about  basal  half  testaceous,  opaque,  w'itli  paler 
spots,  apical  half  hyaline,  with  the  venation  dark  olivaceous 
and  with  a  number  of  dark  fuscous  spots,  of  which  two  on 
disk  are  largest ;  wings  hyaline,  the  venation  fuscous,  the 
apex  more  palely  infuscate,  basal  third  bright  orange-yellow, 
outwardly  broadly  margined  with  black,  the  area  at  anal 
angle  fuscous ;  head  with  the  anterior  area  of  vertex  promi- 
nent and  rugose ;  pronotum  with  a  central  ridge  and  cordately 
anteriorly  produced,  the  process  marginally  ridged  and 
traversed  by  the  medial  ridge  ;  face  with  two  strong  central 
longitudinal  ridges,  betweei\  which  is  a  finer  and  more  obsolete 
central  ridge  ;  clypeus  obliquely  striate  on  each  side ;  poste- 
rior  tibiai  with  four   spines ;  rostrum   passing  the  posterior 


Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  9-10  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  21-27  mm. 
Ilab.  West  Australia;  Cossack  (/.  t/.  II  a//cer,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Galela  abdominalis,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  mesonotum,  body  beneath,  and  legs  pale 
brownish  ochraceous,  somewhat  strongly  mottled  with 
piceous ;  metanotum  much  suffused  with  piceous ;  abdomen 
above  testaceous  red,  with  a  segmental  series  of  large  black 

28  Mr.  W.  L.  Dislaiit  on  Ilomopfera. 

spots  on  each  side  ;  apices  o£  femora  and  annulations  to  ante- 
rior and  intermediate  tibise  black  ;  tegmina  with  rather  less 
than  basal  half  pale  brownish  testaceous,  opaque,  remaining 
area  hyaline,  with  the  venation  and  a  number  of  scattered 
spots  fuscous  ;  wings  hyaline,  the  venation  and  apical  margin 
fuscous,  and  with  a  broad  basal  patch  of  orange-yellow 
confined  to  upper  half  of  wijig ;  head  with  a  rounded  rugose 
piceous  prominence  on  anterior  area  of  vertex,  and  a  foveate 
spot  on  each  side  of  base  of  vertex ;  pronotum  with  a  strong 
central  carination  and  the  margins  of  the  anterior  prolonga- 
tion also  ridged;  face  with  two  prominent  central  black 
ridges,  between  which  is  a  finer  and  more  obscure  ridge,  and 
on  each  side  a  submavginal  black  line  ;  rostrum  very  slightly 
passing  the  posterior  coxse  ;  posterior  tibiae  with  four  spines, 
those  on  apical  half  much  the  longest. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  13  mm.;  exp.  tcgm.  32  mm. 

Hah.  Australia  ;  Parry  Harbour,  Cape  Bougainville  (J.  J. 
Walker,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Erilla,  gen.  nov. 

Allied  to  Galela,  but  differing  principally  by  the  structure 
of  the  face,  which  is  not  longer  than  the  clypeus,  its  lateral 
margins  not  parallel,  but  strongly  sinuate  and  considerably 
widened  or  ampliated  posteriorly,  its  base,  as  in  Galeluy 
considerably  extends  in  front  of  eyes,  medially  tricarinate,  the 
carinations  wider  apart  anteriorly  than  posteriorly  ;  clypeus 
very  long,  a  little  ampliate  on  each  side  at  base  ;  rostrum 
extending  beyond  middle  of  abdomen ;  posterior  tibiw  (in 
type)  with  six  spines  ;  raesonotum  tricarinate,  with  a  lobate 
appendage  on  each  side  at  base  ;  tegmina  and  wings  as 
in  Galela. 

Type,  E.  Tumeric  Dist. 

Erilla  Turneri,  ?p.  n. 

Body  and  legs  dull  oclnaceous ;  vertex  of  head  with  a 
central  black  line  ;  pronotum  with  a  testaceous  tint ;  meso- 
notum  with  the  disk  strongly  blackly  punctate  and  with  black 
and  testaceous  markings  at  each  basal  angle  ;  face  with  a 
curved  line  at  base,  spots  on  lateral  margins,  and  confluent 
i)Unctate  impressions  on  disk  black;  clypeus  with  a  large 
black  discal  spot ;  femora  and  anterior  and  intermediate  tibiai 
annulated  with  black  or  piceous;  tegmina  with  more  than 
basal  half  dull  purplish  brown,  opaque,  three  linear  spots  in 
apical  area  of  costal  membrane  and  some  obscure  markings 
in  claval  area  piceous ;    apical    area    hyaline,    the  venation 

y\v.  \V.  L.  Distant  o/i  Hoinoptcia.  2ii 

purplish  brown,  with  some  piceous  spots,  of  which  tho  lar2;cst 
are  one  at  ciul  of  opnf|ne  coloration  and  two  het'oro  aj)ical 
niar<;in  ;  winjis  hyaliiio,  the  venation  fuscous  brown,  extreme 
base  ocliraceons ;  iuad  broadly  extending?  beyond  eyes,  the 
vertex  excavate,  with  the  margins  ridj^ed  ;  pronotum  with  a 
central  ridge,  the  margins  carinate;  mesonotum  centrally 
tricarinate,  the  lateral  carinations  posteriorly  curved  inward  ; 
face  centrally  tricarinate;  rostrum  almost  reaching  abdominal 
apex  ;  posterior  tibia?  with  six  spines. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  13  mm.  ;  exp.  togm.  34  mm. 

Jldh.  Queensland  (Gilbert  Turner^  Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  Myrilla. 
Myrilla,  Dist.  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Loud.  1888,  p.  487. 
Type,  M.  ohscura,  Dist, 

Myrilla  papuan a,  sp.  n. 

Head,  thorax,  body  beneatli,  and  legs  testaceous,  mottled 
witii  black  ;  abdomen  above  with  the  basal  half  testaceous, 
the  apical  half  ]  ale  ochracoous  ;  tegmitia  with  the  basal  two 
thirds  testaceous,  mottled  with  black,  the  apical  area  hyaline, 
the  venation  fuscous  and  with  prominent  fuscous  suffusions  ; 
wings  piceous,  the  basal  half  darkest  where  the  venation  is 
more  or  less  carmine-red  ;  vertex  of  head  much  depressed 
within  the  prominent  marginal  ridges,  with  four  longitudinal 
black  fascia?  (two  central  and  one  near  each  lateral  margin), 
front  of  head,  and  marginal  ridges  of  vertex  and  pronotum 
ochraceous  ;  face  with  three  longitudinal  carinse,  the  central 
one  straight  and  percurrent,  the  other  two  not  reaching  the 
posterior  margin  ;  rostrum  reaching  apex  of  abdomen  ;  legs 
annulated  with  piceous  ;  abdomen  beneath  with  the  segmental 
margins  piceous  ;  tegmina  four  times  longer  than  broad. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  17  mm.  ;  exp.  tegm.  52  mm. 

Hah.  New  Guinea;  Ekeikei  {Pratt,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Allied  to  M.  ohscura,  Dist.,  from  which  it  is  distinguished 
by  the  colour  of  the  wings,  the  longer  rostrum,  &c. 

Myrilla  semihyalina,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  body  beneath,  and  legs  pale  brownish 
ochraceous  ;  a  spot  at  both  base  of  front  and  vertex  of  head 
and  two  central  spots  on  anterior  margins  of  pro-  and  meso- 
nota  black ;  abdomen  above  black,  the  segmental  margins 
green  or  ochraceous  ;  a  central  annulation  and  apices  to 
anterior  and  intermediate  tibife,   and   the  same  tarsi,   black  ; 

30  -Mr.  ^V.  L.  Distant  on  llomoptera. 

tcgniina  liyaline,  the  venation  fuscou.",  basal  third  and  costal 
membrane  ocliraceoiis,  opaque,  the  first  with  fuscous  spots, 
the  latter  with  two  transverse,  broken,  fuscous  fasciae,  apical 
area  with  fuscous  shadings  ;  wings  hyaline,  with  the  venation 
fuscous,  the  extreme  base  with  some  short,  pale,  fuscous,  and 
virescent  markings  ;  rostrum  extending  to  about  middle  of 
abdomen  ;  posterior  tibite  with  six  spines,  the  three  on  basal 
area  shortest ;  face  with  the  longitudinal  carinations  less 
profound  than  in  the  preceding  species. 

Long.,  excl.  tegra.,  14^-16^  mm.  ;  exp.  tegm.  45-.50mm. 

Hab.  New  Guinea,  Ekeikei  {Pratt,  Brit.  Mus.)  ;  Wetter, 
near  Timor  {Dohertij,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  Eddara. 

Eddara,  Walk.  List  Horn.,  Suppl.  p.  o7  (I808). 
Glayovia,  Stal,  13erl.  ent.  Zeitschr.  iii.  p.  ol3  (1859). 

Type,  E.  euchroma,  Walk. 

Eddara  catenari'a,  sp.  n. 

Head,  thorax,  abdomen  beneath,  and  legs  luteous,  abdomen 
above  sanguineous  ;  metanotum  and  transverse  basal  fascia 
to  abdomen  piceous  ;  face  and  clypeus  greenish  ochraceous  ; 
tegmina  pale  greyish  virescent,  the  costal  membrane  ochra- 
ceous, basal  two  thirds  with  a  number  of  black  link-like  spots, 
some  complete  and  centrally  ochraceous,  others  incomplete 
and  forming  only  half  a  linkj  on  apical  area  a  number  of 
subconfluent  black  spots  ;  wings  with  about  basal  two  thirds 
sanguineous  or  dark  ochraceous,  the  apex  and  posterior 
margin  fuscous,  separated  from  the  basal  coloration  by  a 
narrow  greyish  fascia. 

To  be  separated  from  E.  euchroma,  Walk.,  by  the  different 
colour  of  the  tegmina  and  wings,  the  first  of  which  are  also 
apically  more  narrow  and  subangulate. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  13-15  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  34-36  mm. 

llah.  B.  E.  Africa  {C.  S.  Betton,  Biit.  Mus.). 


Fam.  Cicadidae. 

Subfam.  Tisiciyixj:. 

Division  Tettigadesaria. 

CoATA,  gen.  nov. 

Head  a  little  longer  than  pronotum,  including  eyes  little 

IMr.  \y.  L.  Distant  on  lloiuoptera.  31 

more  than  halt'  the  breadth  of  mesonotum  at  base  ;  vertex 
nearly  twice  as  long  as  front,  which  is  inserted  in  vertex  tor 
nearly  half  its  length,  the  lateral  margins  of  both  strongly 
discontinuous;  eyes  large  and  oblique;  ocelli  placed  near 
anterior  margin  of  vertex;  face  with  a  strong  central  ridge,  on 
each  side  of  which  is  a  narrow  longitudinal  sulcation  before 
the  lateral  areas,  which  are  transversely  striate,  the  striations 
wide  apart  ;  clypeus  shorter  than  face ;  pronotum  with  tlio 
lateral  margins  moderately  convexly  ampliate,  deeply  and 
acutely  sinuate  before  the  posterior  angles,  which  are  lobately 
produced;  mesonotum  considerably  longer  than  pronotum, 
the  cruciform  elevation  broader  than  long ;  abdomen  broader 
than  space  between  pronotal  dilatations,  longer  than  space 
bi4\veen  apex  of  head  and  base  of  cruciform  elevation,  beneath 
with  the  lateral  margins  broadly  recurved,  tympanal  coverings 
entirely  absent,  in  male  the  tympana  prominently  exposed  ; 
opercula  very  short,  the  orifices  strongly  exposed;  rostrum 
about  reaching  the  base  of  abdomen;  anterior  femora  dilated, 
with  a  strong  spine  beneath  before  apex;  tcgmina  hyaline, 
nearly  three  times  as  long  as  broad,  the  costal  membrane 
broad  above  basal  cell,  radial  area  broad,  apical  areas  eight  ; 
wings  with  six  apical  areas. 
Type,  C.  facialis f  Dist. 

Coata  facialis,  sp.  n. 

(J.  Body  virescent,  abdomen  greyishly  pilose;  head  with 
a  large  fuscous  spot  on  each  side  of  front  and  two  linear  spots 
on  each  anterior  lateral  area  of  vertex,  the  latter  with  two 
central  longitudinal  black  fasciae  and  a  spot  of  the  same  colour 
near  inner  margin  of  each  eye ;  pronotum  with  two  central 
black  fascite,  which  are  inwardly  sinuate  beyond  middle  and 
ampliated  at  posterior  margin,  the  lateral  margins  and  fissures 
black  ;  mesonotum  with  two  central  anterior  fuscous  or  testa- 
ceous spots  and  macular  indications  of  a  continuous  fascia  on 
each  lateral  area;  anal  segment  with  a  broad  black  basal 
margin;  anterior  and  intermediate  tibiiB  biannulated  with 
fuscous;  apex  of  rostrum  piceous;  tegmina  and  wings 
hyaline,  the  veins  defining  the  ulnar  areas  to  tegmina  in 
places  black,  the  transverse  veins  at  base  of  first,  second,  and 
third  apical  areas  moderately  infuscated. 

In  a  female  specimen  from  Ecuador  the  colour  of  the  body 
is  brownish  ochraceous,  the  abdomen  above  with  piceous 
suffusions,  and  the  dark  markings  to  the  tegminal  venation 
larger  and  more  maculate. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  15-18  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  56-58  mm. 

32  ]\Ir.  G.  A.  Bouleiiger  on 

Ilah.  Ecuador  {Uosenherg,  Brit.  Mus.);  Santa  Inez 
{JIaensch,  Brit.  Mus.)  ;  Quito  'Brussels  Mus.). 

Some  two  years  ago  the  Britisli  Museum  purcliased  from 
Ilerr  Ilaenscli  what  were  S[)eciHed  as  cotypes  of  some  of  the 
species  described  by  Herr  Breddin.  Amongst  them  was  tliis 
species,  labelled  Prunasis  analis,  Bredd, ;  but,  as  I  can  tind  no 
record  of  such  a  description,  a  mistake  must  have  been 

V. —  On  some  West- African  Species  o/"  Barb  us. 
By  G.  A.  BouLENGER,  F.R.S. 

The  four  species  of  which  descriptions  are  here  given  have 
sometimes  been  confounded.  The  large  material  at  my  disposal 
enables  me  to  give  revised  definitions  of  them  by  which  their 
distinction  will  be  made  easy.  All  four  belong  to  the  section 
with  two  pairs  of  barbels  and  witli  the  last  simple  ray  of  the 
dorsal  fin  neither  strongly  ossified  and  spine-like  nor  serrated. 
Their  principal  characters  may  be  thus  contrasted  : — 

A.  Posterior  barbel  not  longer  than  the  eye  and  twice  as  long  as  the 


Depth  of  body  2J  to  3  times  in  total  lengtli ; 
sq.  22-25  p,  2-2 1  between  lat.  1.  and 
ventral     B.  afjiabes,  Blkr. 

B.  Posterior  barbel  once  to  twice  as  long  as  the  eye,  not  twice  as  long 

as  the  anterior. 

Deptb  of  body  3  to  3f  times  in  total  length ; 

sq.   25-28   %   2^-3  between  lat,  1.  and 

ventral ;    anterior  barbel  1|,  posterior  2 

diameters  of  eye B.  trisjn'/us,  lUkr. 

Depth  of  body  3  to  3g  times  in  total  length  ; 

sq.  21-25  ''^,  2^-3  between  lat.  1.  and 
ventral ;  posterior  barbel  not  longer  than 
the  anterior,  1  to  1-i  diameters  of  eye  ;  last 

simple  ray  of  dorsal  not  enlarged     JJ.  camptacauthus,  Blkr. 

Depth  of  body  3^  to  3^  times  in  total  length  ; 

sq.  24-27  ^^,  2A-3  between  lat.  1.  and 
ventral ;  posterior  barbel  longer  than  the 
anterior,  1|  to  2  diameters  ot  eye:  last 
simple  ray  of  dorsal  much  thicker  than 
tirst  branched  ray B.  ttaihiruSy  Blgr. 

]]^(:^(-  African  Sjjecies  of  VjAv\m^.  ',V.\ 

Burbus  ahlahes. 

Punfius  (Barbodcs)  nblabe^,  Bleeker,  Xat.  Veih.  Vet.  Haarlem,  xviii. 

18t).'3,  no.  2,  p.  114.  pi.  xxiii.  fig.  1. 
Enteromius  potamogalis,  Cope,  Traus.  Amer.  Philo3.  Soc.  (2)  xiii.  1867, 

p.  407. 
Barhus  ablates,  Steindachn.  Notes  Leyd.  Mas.  xvi.  1894,  p.  79. 

Depth  of  body  2f  to  3  times  in  total  length,  length  of 
head  3^  to  4  times.  Snout  rounded,  as  long  as  eye,  3  or  3^ 
times  in  length  of  head,  interorbital  width  2|  or  3  times ; 
mouth  inferior,  its  width  ^  length  of  head;  lips  moderately 
developed,  interrupted  on  the  chin  ;  barbels  two  on  eacii  side, 
])osterior  as  long  as  eye  and  twice  as  long  as  the  anterior,  the 
distance  between  them  *  diameter  of  eye.  Dorsal  III  8,  last 
simple  ray  flexible,  not  enlarged,  as  long  as  head  ;  free  edge 
of  the  fin  slightly  emarginate  ;  its  distance  from  the  occiput 
a  little  less  than  its  distance  from  the  caudal  fin.  Anal  III  5, 
longest  ray  |  to  |  length  of  liead.  Pectoral  |  to  4  length  of 
head,  reaching  or  nearly  reaching  ventral ;  latter  below  ante- 
rior rays  of  dorsal.  Caudal  peduncle  1  ^  times  as  long  as  deep. 
Scales  22-25  yf,  2  or  2^  between  lateral  line  and  ventral, 
12  round  caudal  peduncle.  Brownish  above,  whitish  beneath, 
the  dorsal  scales  darker  at  the  base ;  a  black  straight  lateral 
band,  from  the  end  of  the  snout,  through  the  eye,  to  the  base 
of  the  caudal;  fins  white,  dorsal  greyish  in  front. 

Total  length  85  mm. 

Originally  described  from  Dabo-Crom,  Gold  Coast ;  re- 
discovered in  the  Gaboon  by  ]\I.  du  Chaillu,  in  Liberia  by 
Dr.  Biittikofer.  I  have  examined  numerous  specimens  from 
the  Gold  Coast,  obtained  by  the  late  Mr.  R.  B.  N.  Walker, 
together  with  examples  of  the  other  Barbus,  B.  trispilus, 
described  by  Bleeker  as  found  in  the  same  bottle  with  the 
type  oi  B.  ahlahes. 

Barb  us  trispilus. 

Puntius  (Barbodes)  trispilos,  Bleeker,  Nat.  Verb.  Vet.  Haarlem,  xviii. 

1863,  no.  2,  p.  113,  pi.  xxiii.  fig-.  3. 
£arbus  trispi/us,  Giinther,  Cat.  Fish.  vii.  p.  108  (1868),  and  Proc.  Zool. 

Soc.  1899,  p.  730. 
Barbus  camptacanthus,  var.  liberiensis,  Steiudacbn.  Notes  Lej-d.  Mus. 

xvi.  1894,  p.  80. 

Depth  of  body  3  to  3§  times  in  total  length,  length  of  head 
3§  to  4  times.  Snout  rounded,  not  longer  than  the  eye  ; 
diameter  of  eye  3^  to  3^  times  in  length  of  head,  interorbital 
width  2^  to  2^  times;  mouth  terminal,  its  width  about  ^ 
length   of  head ;  lips  moderately  developed,   interrupted   oq 

An7i.  d:  Mag.  X.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  3 

?)4:  Mr.  G.  A.  Binileiiger  on 

tlie  chill  ;  barbels  two  on  eacli  side,  anterior  1^,  posterior  2 
diameters  of  eye,  the  distance  between  them  about  I  diameter 
of  eye.  Dorsal  III  8,  last  simple  ray  flexitjle,  not  enlarged, 
as  h  ng  as  or  slightly  sliorter  than  the  head  ;  free  edge  of  the 
fin  straight  or  very  slightly  concave;  its  distance  from  the 
occiput  less  than  its  distance  from  the  caudal  fin.  Anal  III  5, 
longest  ray  §  length  of  head.  Pectoral  ^  or  g  lengtlj  of  head, 
not  reaching  ventral ;  latter  below  anterior  rays  of  dorsal. 
Caudal  peduncle  1^  to  1^  times  as  long  as  deep.  Scales 
25-28  f^,  2^-3  between  lateral  line  and  ventral,  10  or  12 
round  caudal  peduncle.  Back  brownish,  sides  and  belly 
silvery,  the  scales  of  the  lateral  line  and  sometimes  the  series 
above  it  with  a  dark  bar  at  the  base  ;  three  round  or  oval 
black  spots  on  each  side,  the  first  anterior  to  the  vertical  of 
the  base  of  dorsal  fin  and  above  the  lateral  line,  the  second 
just  behind  the  vertical  of  the  dorsal  fin  and  bordered  below 
by  the  lateral  line,  the  third  at  the  base  of  the  caudal  fin  and 
traversed  by  the  lateral  line  ;   fins  white,  without  spots. 

Total  length  70  mm. 

Gold  Coast  J   Liberia. 

I  have  examined  numerous  specimens,  collected  by  the 
late  Mr.  R.  B.  N.  Walker  and  identified  by  Dr.  Gunther. 

Uarbus  caivptacanthus. 

Punt  ills  (Biirhodes)  camptacanthus,  Bleeker,  Nat.  Verb.  Vet.  Haarlem, 
xviii.  18(;3,  uo.  2,  p.  Ill,  pi.  xxiii.  lig.  2;  Sauvage,  N.  Arch.  Mus. 
(2)  iii.  1880,  p.  48,  pi.  iii.  tig.  2. 

Barhns  caviptacanthus,  Giinth.  Cat.  Fbh.  vii.  p.  134  (1808). 

Depth  of  body  3  to  3^  times  in  total  length,  length  of 
head  3^  to  4  times.  Snout  rounded,  longer  than  the  eye  in 
the  adult,  as  long  as  the  eye  in  the  youi  g;  diameter  of  eye 
3-^  (young)  to  5  times  in  length  of  head,  interorbital  width 
2^  to  2\  times;  mouth  infeiior,  its  width  about  \  length  of 
head ;  lips  moderately  developed,  interrupted  on  the  chin  ; 
barbels  two  on  each  side,  equal  in  length,  I  to  1^  times 
diameter  of  eye,  which  equals  the  distance  between  them. 
Dor.<al  111  8,  last  simple  ray  flexible,  not  enlarg;'d,  i  to  ^ 
lengtii  of  head  ;  free  edge  of  the  fin  slightly  emargiiiate  ;  its 
distance  from  the  occiput  a  little  less  than  its  distance  from 
the  caudal  fin.  Anal  III  5,  longest  ray  t  length  of  head. 
Pectoral  |  to  f  length  of  head,  not  reaching  ventral;  latter 
below  anterior  rays  of  dorsal.  Caudal  j)ed uncle  11  to  \h 
times  as  long  as  deep.  Scales  21-25  ^^T*'^,  2i-3  between 
lateral  line  and  ventral,  12  round  caudal  pedunele. 

Recently  preserved  sj)ecinn.ns,   of    which   a  number  were 

IVest-A/n'can  Spea'es  a/ Ijiwhiis.  35 

brou«rlit  home  iVom  Feniaiulo  Po  by  Mr.  Seiimuul,  arc  of  a 
daik  olive-green  above,  sliudiii;^"  to  ffolden  on  the  sides,  and 
white  beneath  ;  scales  of  the  sides  dark  at  the  base,  most  of 
those  of  the  lateral  line  with  a  black  spot  at  the  base  ;  a  more 
or  less  distinct  dark  lateral  stri|)e,  usually  expanding  and 
more  intensely  black  in  front  and  on  the  caudal  peduncle  > 
all  the  fins,  vertical  and  paired,  bright  vermilion. 

Small  nuptial  pearl-like  tubercles  on  the  side  of  the  head. 

Total  length  155  mm. 

The  types  of  this  species  are  from  Fernando  Po.  I  have 
examined  numerous  specimens  from  that  island,  and  others 
from  the  Benito  River,  Gaboon  district,  and  the  Kribi  and 
J  a  liivers,  S.  Cameroon. 

Barhus  tceniurus. 

Barhis  ((enixrus,  Boiilenger,  P.  Z.  S.  1903,  i.  p.  '2-i,  pi.  ii.  fig.  2, 

Depth  of  body  3^  to  3^  times  in  total  length,  length  of 
head  3^  to  4  times.  Snout  rounded,  3i  to  -i  times  in  length 
of  head;  diameter  of  eye  4  to  4. \  times  in  length  of  head, 
interorbital  width  2^  to  2^  times;  mouth  inferior,  its  width 
3  to  3^  times  in  length  of  head  ;  lips  moderately  developed, 
interrupted  on  the  chin ;  barbels  two  on  each  side,  anterior  li 
to  If,  posterior  longer,  1|  to  2  diameters  of  eye,  the  distance 
between  them  equal  to  diameter  of  eye.  Dorsal  111  8,  last 
simple  ray  ossi6ed  and  moderately  strong,  but  much  thicker 
than  the  first  branched  ray,  as  long  as  or  a  little  shorter  than 
head;  free  edge  of  the  fin  emarginate ;  its  distance  from  the 
occiput  much  less  than  its  distance  from  the  caudal. 
Anal  III  5,  longest  ray  5  to  |  lei^gtli  of  head.  Pectoral  |  to 
I  length  of  head,  not  reaching  ventral  ;  latter  a  little  posterior 
to  origin  of  dorsal.  Caudal  peduncle  1^  to  2  times  as  long- 
as  deep.  Scales  24-27  -^g^,  2^-3  between  lateral  line  and 
ventral,  12  round  caudal  peduncle.  Olive-brown  above  (in 
spirit),  yellow  on  the  sides  and  below;  a  series  of  black  dots 
on  the  lateral  line,  and  a  black  band  on  each  side  of  the 
caudal  peduncle;   fins  white. 

Small  nuptial  pearl-like  tubercles  on  the  side  of  the  head. 

Total  length  120  mm. 

South  Cameroon  (Efulen,  Kribi  River). 

Very  closely  allied  to  JJ.  camjjtacanthus,  some  specimens 
of  which  it  resembles  exactly  in  coloration.  Differs  in  the 
usually  more  slender  form,  the  longer  posterior  barbel,  and 
the  thicker  last  simple  ray  of  the  dorsal  tin. 

30        On  a  new  Mormyrid  Fish  from  South  Cameroon. 

YI. — Description  of  a  new  Barbus/?'o»i  the  Uganda 
Protectorate.     By  G.  A.  Boulenger,  F.R.S. 

Barlus  Portali. 

Depth  of  body  equal  to  length  of  head^  3^  to  4  times  in 
total  length.  Snout  rounded,  longer  than  the  eye,  which  is 
4  to  4^  times  in  length  of  head  and  about  1|  times  in  inter- 
orbital  width  ;  moulh  terminal,  its  width  about  ^  length  of 
head  ;  li])S  moderately  devclojied,  interrupted  on  the  chin  ; 
barbels  two  on  each  side,  anterior  1^  to  1|,  posterior  2  to  2^ 
diameters  of  eye,  the  distance  between  them  about  f  diameter 
of  eye.  Dorsal  III  7,  last  simple  ray  strong,  ossified,  coarsely 
serrated  behind,  mucii  shorter  than  the  head  ;  free  edge  of 
the  fin  not  emarginate  ;  its  distance  from  the  occiput  less 
than  its  distance  from  the  caudal  fin.  Anal  III  5,  longest  ray 
I  to  I  length  of  head.  Pectoral  f  to  ^  length  of  head,  not 
reaching  ventral;  latter  below  anterior  rays  of  dorsal. 
Caudal  peduncle  \^  to  If  times  as  long  as  deep.  Scales 
29-31  gf,  3  between  lateral  line  and  ventral,  12  round  caudal 
peduncle.  Yellowish,  back  olive-brown  ;  a  dark  greyish 
lateral  stripe  with  or  without  two  or  three  blackish  blotches 
in  its  course  ;  fins  whitish. 

Total  length  100  mm. 

Five  specimens  were  obtained  by  Mr.  R.  B.  Woosnam  near 
Fort  Portal,  12  miles  east  of  Ruwenzori,  in  a  small  stream  at 
an  altitude  of  4500  feet.  This  small  stream  is  a  tributary 
of  the  Mpanga,  which  flows  into  L;ike  Ruisamba,  and  runs 
fairly  swiftly  over  rocks  and  gravel.  The  only  other  fish 
captured  in  its  waters  by  Mr.  Woosnam  is  Clarias  Caj'soni, 
Blgr.,  originally  described  from  Fwambo,  21  miles  S.S.E.  of 
Lake  Tanganyika,  and  since  rediscovered  in  Lake  Yictoria. 

Barhus  Portali  is  nearly  related  to  B.  zancibaricus,  Peters, 
but  difl'ers  in  the  much  longer  barbels.  B.  carpio,  Pfefl^.,  has 
a  deeper  body,  fewer  scales,  and  shorter  barbels. 

YII. — Description  of  a  new  Mormyrid  Fish  from  South 
Cameroon.     By  G.  A.  Boulengek,  F.R.S. 

Marcusenius  Batisii. 

De]tth  of  body  equal  to   length  of  head,  A\  to  5  times  in 
total    length.     Head  once    and   I   as    long   as    deep;    snout 

On  a  new  Tree-Viper  from  M<i)tnt  Ruioenzori.  'M 

rouiuled,  \  length  of  head  ;  mouth  small,  subiiit'erior,  its  wiiltli 
|-  Icngtii  of  head;  a  very  distinct  mental  swelling;  teeth 
small,  notched,  5  or  ()  in  the  upper  jaw,  6  in  the  lower; 
nostrils  midway  between  eye  and  end  of  snout,  the  anterior 
on  a  U'vel  witli  the  centre  of  the  former,  the  posterior  on  a 
level  with  its  lower  border;  eye  small,  r  length  of  snout,  }^ 
iiiterocular  width.  Dorsal  16-17,  originating  above  fifth  ray 
of  anal,  its  length  about  ^  of  its  distance  from  the  head. 
Anal  22-23,  a  little  nearer  root  of  caudal  than  base  of  ventral. 
Pectoral  pointed,  about  |  length  of  head,  once  and  ^  length 
of  ventral,  not  reaching  base  of  latter.  Caudal  with  pointed 
lobes.  Caudal  peduncle  2^-  or  2§  times  as  long  as  deep,  a 
little  shorter  than  head.  08-70  scales  in  the  lateral  line,  y. 
in  a  transverse  series  on  the  body,  y^  in  a  transverse  series 
between  dorsal  and  anal,  16  round  caudal  peduncle.  Uniform 
brown,  somewhat  lighter  beneath. 

Total  length  145  mm. 

Two  specimens  from  the  Kribi  River,  Efulen,  South 
Cameroon,  from  Mr.  G.  L.  Bates's  collections. 

Most  nearly  allied  to  M.  sphecodes^  Sauv.,  and  M.  brachis- 
ti'us,  Gill.  Distinguished  from  both  by  the  number  of  scales 
round  the  caudal  peduncle,  which  is  less  slender.  This  now 
species  may  be  regarded  as  intermediate  between  M.  brachis- 
tius  and  M.  paiiciradiatus,  Stdr. 

VIII. — Description  of  a  new  Tree-Viper  from  Mount 
Ruwenzori.     By  G.  A.  BoI^jlenger,  F.R.S. 

Aikeris  Woosnami. 

Snout  truncate  at  the  end,  with  sharp  catithus.  Eye 
rather  small.  Rostral  twice  and  a  half  to  three  times  as 
broad  as  deep  ;  head-shields  sharply  keeled,  8  to  10  across 
the  crown  from  eye  to  eye;  12  to  15  scales  round  the  eye; 
one  or  two  series  of  scales  between  the  eye  and  the  labials  ; 
nasal  entire  or  divided;  10  upper  labials  ;  three  or  four  pairs 
of  small  chin-shields,  anterior  largest  and  in  contact  with 
three  or  four  lower  labials ;  gular  scales  smooth  or  very 
faintly  keeled.  Scales  strongly  keeled,  in  25  to  30  rows. 
Ventrals  151  in  males,  158-162  in  females;  anal  entire; 
subcaudals  49-52  in  males,  44-17  in  females.  Olive-green 
to   bright  grass-green  above,  usually  with  a  dorsal  series  of 

38  ;Mr.  W.  'Wcdekind  on  Alternation  of 

large  black  rhombs  which  may  be  confluent  into  a  zigzag 
band  ;  a  lateral  series  of  smaller  black  sj)0t3 ;  a  A-  or  A-shaped 
black  marking  on  the  top  of  the  head,  the  point  between  the 
eyes;  a  black  streak  on  each  side  of  the  head,  from  above 
the  nostril  to  above  the  last  labial  shield ;  lower  parts 
uniform  yellowish  or  pale  green  ;  end  of  tail  black  or  blackish. 

Total  length  630  mm. ;  tail  85. 

Seveial  specimens  were  obtained  by  Mr.  R.  B.  "Woosnam 
on  the  east  side  of  E-uwenzori,  between  6000  and  6500  feet 
altitude.  This  fine  snake  may  sometimes  be  seen  coiled  up 
round  the  stem  of  elephant-grass  10  feet  above  the  ground. 
It  is  viviparous. 

This  species  is  well  characterized  by  its  smaller  eye,  its 
sharp  canthus  rostralis,  and  its  smooth  or  nearly  smooth 
gular  scales. 

IX. — Alternation  of  Generations,  Metamorphosis,  and 
Direct  Development.     By  W.  Wedekind  *. 

In  my  previous  w^-itings  on  the  subject  of  parthenogenesis  I 
have  already  pointed  out  that,  in  my  opinion,  so-called  asexual 
reproduction  was  everywhere  the  primitive  method,  and  that 
it  is  only  in  the  course  of  phyletic  development,  through  the 
series — segment,  bud,  spore,  and  female  and  male  partheno- 
ovum, — that  at  last  the  ovum  needing  fertilization  and  the 
.«perm  belonging  to  it  have  arisen  therefrom.  It  follows, 
llieref'ore,  that  all  organisms  with  sexual  reproduction  must 
be  derived  from  asexual  ancestors.  According  to  the  bio- 
genetic law  of  recapitulation  this  phylogeny  must  also  very 
generally  have  been  repeated  in  the  ontogeny,  and  I  would, 
moreover,  venture  to  assume  that  in  earlier  e])ochs  the  course 
of  the  entire  ontogeny  \\  as  not  yet  by  any  means  so  rapid  as 
it  usually  is  to-day.  It  therefore  follows  from  our  theory 
that  the  ancestral  stage  of  asexual  reproduction  must  formerly 
have  still  been  displayed  in  the  development  of  each  indi- 
vidual, and  that  it  was  only  gradually  that  it  became  more 
and  more  suppressed. 

According  to  this  interpretation,  then,  in  the  tirst  instance 
from  every  fertilized  ovum  at  least  an  asexual  generation 
must  again  have  develoj)ed,  and  only  from  this  has  there 
arisen  once  more  the  ultimate  form  with  sexual  reproduction. 

*  Translated  liv  E.  E.  Austen  I'roui  the  '  Zoologischer  Anzeiger,' 
lid.  xxix.  Nos.  ^A/JU  (March  6,  I'tOO),  pp.  7itO-79o. 

OenerndutiSj  MetamorjJio:iis,  dc.  '^) 

III  other  words,  alternatiou  of  gencrutioiis  was  universally 
tiie  most  primitive  form  of  ontogeny,  ami  consequently  it  is 
not  of  merely  secondary  origin  through  selection,  hut,  on  the 
contrary,  it  lias  persisted  only  here  and  there.  Thus,  on  the 
basis  of  the  theory  of  descent  and  the  biogenetic  law  of  re- 
capitulation we  arrive  at  this  simple  explanation:  —alternafion 
of  generations  is  (nothing  more  than)  (heonto/eiietic  repetition 
of  the  phijlogenetic  progressive  dcvilupneat  from  lower 
organisms  with  asexual  reproduction  into  higher  species  loith 
dissociated  sexual  products.  In  this  way,  too,  the  different 
varieties  (beterogony  &c.)  are  easily  intelligible. 

When,  in  consequence  of  continued  acceleration  ot  tbe 
ontogeny,  the  first  asexual  generation  produces,  instead  of 
the  previous  numerous  progenj,  only  a  single  offspring,  and 
when,  moreover,  this  single  descendant  no  longer  severs  itselt 
from  the  mother,  but  proceeds  from  it  more  or  less  con- 
tinuously, the  ontogeny  assumes  the  form  of  mrtamorphosis. 
'J'he  latter  has  therefore  arisen  from  alternation  of  generations 
by  a  process  of  constant  abridgement ;  and  thus  we  can 
shortly  define  metamorphosis  as  a  curtailed  alternation  of 

In  all  cases,  then,  it  is  only  through  continuous  aceeleration 
of  the  ontogeny  that  direct  development,  as  we  find  it  to-day, 
lias  arisen  from  alternation  of  generations  and  metamorphosis. 
Direct  development  is  everywhere  the  secondary  process, 
which  in  constquence  of  its  great  rapidity  is  also  well-nigh 
incomprehensible,  whereas  it  is  much  easier  for  us  to  picture 
to  ourselves  phylogeny,  which  is  a  million  times  slower,  and 
also  an  earlier  and  less  rapid  ontogeny. 

In  this  way,  therefore,  alternci^ion  of  generations  and 
metamorphosis  lose  all  that  was  previously  inexplicable  and 
become  easily  intelligible  to  us  by  means  of  the  theory  of 
descent,  when  we  regard  them  simply  as  ontogenetic  recapitu- 
lations of  the  development  of  the  species.  They  are  no  new 
processes,  which  have  only  arisen  at  a  later  date,  but,  on  the 
contrary,  the  oldest  forms  of  ontogeny,  which,  on  a  further 
development  of  the  organic  world,  should  it  chance  to  occur 
later  on,  will  tend  towards  direct  development,  but  have  not 
originated  from  the  latter.  Their  occurrence  t  j-day  represents 
only  tiie  last  remnants  of  earlier  and  probably  much  more 
widely  diffused  conditions,  just  as  is  the  case  as  regards 
modern  parthenogenesis. 

A  material  advantage  of  this  mode  of  interpretation,  there- 
fore, is  that  it  is  nowhere  necessary  for  us  to  assume  the 
existence  of  a  cwnogenesis,  with  retarded  and  altered  develop- 
ment.    Ontogeny  consequently  makes  no  detours,  but  merely 

40  Mv.  W.  AVedekind  on  Alternation  of 

goes    on    developing    continually    in    a    tachygenesis    wliich 
becomes  constantly  more  and  more  accelerated. 

Moreover,  up  to  the  present  it  has  nowhere  been  shown 
that  the  retardation  of  ontogeny  is  only  secondary.  Fritz 
]\Iiiller,  too,  -who  is  much  quoted  to  this  end,  certainly  brings 
forward  in  his  well-known  memoir  many  an  instance  of 
tachygenesis,  and  also  maintains  that  development  is 
frequently  falsified  by  the  struggle  for  existence  which  tlie 
free-living  larvse  had  to  undergo;  he  remarks  that  this  point 
needs  no  further  elucidation,  since  it  is  self-evident,  &c.,  &c. 
The  author  in  question  states  that  it  is  easy  to  understand 
how  even  a  direct  course  of  development  may  again  be  trans- 
formed through  the  struggle  for  existence  into  a  development 
with  metamoi pilosis.  But  in  no  passage  of  his  work  does 
Miiller  adduce  any  fact  whatever  in  favour  of  this  assertion, 
any  more  than  the  point  has  previously  been  proved  by  other 
authors.  To  me,  too,  that  nature  in  so  many  instances  should 
have  made  such  a  retrograde  step  is  anytiiing  but  "  self- 
evident^^  and  "easy  to  understand'^;  and  still  less  can  I 
])icture  to  myself  the  inner  causes  oi  such  a  process,  especially 
since  I  have  long  ago  abandoned  the  pious  belief  of  my 
scientific  childhood  in  the  omnipotence  of  selection. 

The  "  utility "  also  of  such  a  retarded  development  is 
absolutely  incomprehensible  to  me.  For  what  have  butterflies, 
for  instance,  to  gain  from  the  fact  that,  with  a  more  protracted 
caterjjillar  life,  they  are  so  much  the  longer  exposed  to  the 
danger  of  being  devoured  before  they  reach  the  final  goal  of 
their  development  ?  Or  wherein  are  they  benefited  by 
previously  as  caterpillars  eating  up  the  very  plants  upon 
which  they  subsequently  want  to  live  as  butterflies? 

And  so  probably  in  all  cases  the  harmfulness  of  a  slow 
development  can  be  demonstrated  at  least  equally  as  well  as 
the  advantage  ;  and  even  when  the  latter  is  really  present,  it 
still  need  not  on  that  account  be  an  originating  cause,  but  is, 
as  I  interpret  it,  merely  the  external  stimulus,  which,  in  the 
case  of  the  s};ecies  in  question,  has  led  to  the  longer  ontogeny 
persisting  until  the  present  day. 

In  almost  every  instance,  however,  a  species  must  derive 
the  greatest  advantage  from  completing  its  developmental 
stage  as  quickly  as  possible,  in  order  afterwards  to  cuntinue 
to  live  quite  a  long  time  as  an  adult  animal.  Among  insects 
I  need  only  remind  the  reader  of  the  highly  organized 
llymenoptera,  of  which  the  metamorphosis  is  no  longer  so 
"  complete ''  as  is  that  of  the  beetles,  butterflies  and  moths, 
&c.  The  metamoiphosis,  e.  g.  in  the  case  of  the  bees,  which, 
in  contrast  to  that  exhibited  by  the  (.'tlan-  orders  referred   to. 

Geucralions^  Melamorphusis,  cCr.  41 

lias  already  iiiKleigoiic  considerable  reduction,  surely  bears 
witness  to  the  f>eneral  striviii<]f  after  a  constantly  shorter 
tacliygony,  although,  from  internal  causes  of  which  we  are 
btill  ignorant,  in  tlie  case  of  many  lower  animals  this  has  not 
yet  advanced  so  far  as  direct  development. 

As  the  weightiest  objection  to  my  interpretation  I  shall 
naturally  again  have  to  encounter  the  views  on  phylogeny 
which  are  held  to-day.  In  the  case  of  the  lowest  orders 
among  the  Tunicata  we  find  direct  development :  consequently 
the  alternation  of  generations  in  the  higher  Tunicata,  which 
are  evidently  derived  from  the  former,  can  only  be  a  secondary 
acquisition.  And  likewise  in  the  case  also  of  the  hio-her 
insects,  since  they  are  said  to  be  derived  from  their  lower 
relations  which  have  direct  development,  "complete""  meta- 
morphosis can  only  be  of  secondary  origin. 

In  opposition  to  this  line  of  argument,  however,  I  would 
call  attention  to  the  self-evident  truth  that  in  no  class  of  the 
animal  kingdom  does  there  obtain  a  relation  of  direct  descent 
between  its  existing  higher  and  lower  orders,  and  to  this  rule 
the  Tuuicates  and  Insects  form  no  exceptions.  The  ancestral 
form  of  the  Tunicata  was  consequently  not  in  all  points 
identical  with  the  Appendicularidie  of  the  present  da}',  but 
must  at  least  have  had  a  divergent  attribute  in  common 
with  the  higher  Tunieates.  And  thus  we  may  naturally 
just  as  well  imagine  these  Archi-Tunicates  as  in  other 
respects  entirely  similar  to  the  Appendicularidaj,  but  with 
asexual  reproduction.  A  portion  of  these,  the  present 
Appcndicularidas,  then  branched  off  to  one  side  quite  early, 
and  displayed  a  very  rapid  and  precocious  transition  to 
sexualit}',  so  that  they,  perhaps  evei^  in  consequence  of  this 
over-speedy  advance  to  sexual  life,  subsequently  remained 
stationary  at  a  lower  stage  of  the  development  of  the  phylum. 
On  the  other  hand  the  majority,  while  retaining  asexual 
reproduction  for  a  longer  period,  continued  perhaps  on  that 
account  slowly  but  nevertheless  surely  to  make  progress  in  their 
phylogenetic  development,  until  in  their  case  also  a  conclusion 
was  reached  with  the  attainment  of  sexuality  in  the  higher 
orders.  Moreover,  this  phylogeny  of  varying  length  was 
subsequently  retained  in  the  ontogeny  also.  JSince  no  other 
material  difference  any  longer  existed  between  the  ancestral 
form  with  asexual  and  the  present  Appendicularidie  with 
sexual  reproduction,  ontogeny,  too,  was  easily  able  to  proceed 
to  direct  development,  while  the  less  rapid  phylogeny  of  the 
higher  orders  has  left  its  traces  in  their  ontogeny  even  at  the 
present  day. 

Similarly,  too,  the  "typical  arehi-normal  Insect'^   was,  in 

4.2  ]\]r.  W.  Wcdckincl  on  AUemalion  of 

my  o]jiiiion,  (not  provided  with  wings  and)  not  dioecious. 
Tliis  ancestral  form  must  rather  liave  been  represented  by 
somewhat  worm-like  creature?,  which  (just  as,  indeed,  many 
worms  still  do)  reproduced  themselves  asexually  and  gave 
lise  polyphyletically  to  the  different  orders.  From  these,  too, 
there  then  very  early  branched  off  a  portion,  which  likewise 
again,  precisely  because  it  precociously  developed  the  con- 
dition of  separate  sexes,  also  remained  stationary  at  tlie  lowest 
slage;  while  the  remainder,  again  in  consequence  of  longer 
retention  of  the  asexual  mode  of  reproduction,  had  time  to 
undergo  further  phyletic  improvement^  and  only  at  the  con- 
clusion of  their  variousorthogenies  also  became  parthenogenetic 
or  dioecious  as  the  case  may  be.  Here  also  the  phylo.^eny  of 
varying  length  is  then  reflected  again  in  a  reduced  or 
"compute"  metamorphosis,  while  the  latter  itself  represents 
no  more  than  the  "  welding  together  "  of  the  two  primitive 

It  appears  exactly  as  though  the  transition  to  sexual  repro- 
duction is  also  universally  connected  with  a  pause  in  the 
orthogeny,  so  that,  if  the  latter  takes  place  rai)idly  or 
])iematurely,  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  organization  also 
generally  remains  stationary  at  a  lower  stage,  while  the  slower 
attainment  of  sexuality  in  the  phylogeny  likewise  allows  time 
for  a  higher  orthogeny.  The  one  condition  directly  entails 
the  other,  and  1  v.'ould  term  this  phenomenon  shortly  the  law 
of  jjvecucity  {premaiuriii/).  A  more  rapid  ontogeny,  a  direct 
development,  consequently  only  shows  that  the  earliest  stages 
of  the  asexual  ancestors  were  already  abandoned  at  a  very 
early  period,  but  not  that  they  had  been  altogether  wanting; 
and  it  may  also  very  well  be  that  traces  of  them  are  still  to 
be  discovered  even  at  the  present  time. 

Naturally  my  theory  is  not  ca])able  of  direct  proof,  any 
more  than  is  the  opposite  view.  I  think,  however,  that  my 
theory  is  simpler  and  more  natural,  since  by  means  of  it, 
indeed,  we  at  cnce  get  rid  of  the  entire  cwuogeny,  and  need 
only  imagine  the  ontogeny  as  having  been  accelerated,  but 
not  as  having  subsequently  been  altered,  by  side  influences. 

In  this  way  also  we  should  surely  find  less  difficulty  in 
ui;dersfanding  the  manifold  transitions,  which  still  frequently 
occur  especially  between  alternation  of  generations  and  meta- 
morphosis, and  with  regard  to  which  we  may  be  in  much 
doubt  as  to  whether  we  are  still  confionted  with  a  reduced 
alternation  of  generations  or  have  before  us  an  alreadv 
commencing  metamorphosis.  They  are  all  just  gradations 
of  one  and  tlie  same  phenomenon,  which  pass  without  a 
break  one  into  the  other,  and  with  which  hitherto  the  majority 

Qcneralions,  Mefainorphosis^  c&cj.  43 

of  autliors  liavc  not  known  how  to  (lc;il  correctly.  Brandes 
alono,  in  liis  new  edition  f)f  Lcuckart^s  work  on  '  Parasites/ 
speaks  on  one  occasion  of  a  "  masked  "  alternation  ot"  genera- 
tions ;  but  otherwise  such  intermediate  stages  are  always 
intcr|3reted  as  "commencing''^  alternation  of  generations, 
liut  still  it  is  by  no  means  quite  clear  how  such  a  view  can 
be  taken.  There  certainly  can  be  no  question  of  orthogeny, 
and,  on  the  other  hand,  neither  can  any  value  whatever  be 
attributed  to  such  "beginnings^'  from  the  i)oint  of  view  of 
selection.  Thus  it  is  consequently  in  all  probability  more 
correct  to  regard  them  simply  as  purposeless  remnants,  and 
so  to  consider  them  as  we  do  the  rudimentary  organs,  which, 
indeed,  were  equally  conundrums  before  Darwin's  time.  In 
the  embryological  works  of  the  last  few  years  will  be  found 
the  description  of  many  a  phenomenon  which  from  this  point 
of  view  would  be  much  more  readily  intelligible. 

The  regenerative  faculty,  too,  is  thus  perhaps  capable  of 
being  interpreted  simply  as  the  rudiment  of  an  earlier  asexual 
mode  of  reproduction.  The  ability  to  produce  from  their 
asexual  cell-material  a  new  and  distinct  individual  has  gradually 
been  lost  by  the  higher  animals  (and  this  is  how  I  account 
for  metamorphosis  also)  ;  but  at  least  they  have  still  retained 
the  power  of  continually  bringing  the  old  individual  up  to  its 
normal  condition.  This,  then,  probably  also  explains  why  it 
is  precisely  organisms  with  undiminished  asexual  reproduc- 
tion (thus^  the  plants  in  an  especial  degree)  that  do  not 
regenerate  ;  and  hyper-regeneration,  too,  is  surely  easy  to 
understand  when  we  regard  it  as  a  more  powerful  remnant  of 
an  earlier  asexual  reproduction. 

It  may  be  tiiat  thoughts  like  these^have  already  occurred 
to  one  naturalist  or  another,  and  that  it  was  only  Tunicates, 
Insects,  &c.,  that  hitherto  have  always  led  to  their  being 
abandoned  again.  On  that  account  I  have  already  dealt  with 
this  main  objection  in  the  present  paper,  while  I  must  defer 
the  further  development  of  my  theory  in  fuller  detail  until 
somewhat  later,  in  connexion  with  my  thesis  on  partheno- 
genesis and  arbitrary  determination  of  sex  in  the  higher 
animals.  For  it  all  hangs  together,  one  thing  follows  from 
the  other,  and  everything  rests  upon  a  mutual  basis.  The 
entire  development  of  the  organic  world  is  to  my  mind  a 
purely  orthogenetic  ])rocess,  consisting  in  continually  ad- 
vancing "sexual  dissociation'"  of  the  primitively  latent- 
hermaphrodite  (so-called  asexual)  original  condition.  Without 
such  a  "sexuality''  of  the  organic  world,  a  natural  force, 
therefore,  which  has  hitherto  been  disregarded,  we  shall,  in 
my  opinion,  be  unable  to  furnish  a  complete  explanation  of 

44:  Dr.  N.  Anr;autlale  on  new  Barnacles. 

organic  life;  but  with  a  working  hypothesis  of  this  kind  we 
at  least  advance  a  step  or  two  further. 

Juot  as  little  as  we  can  explain  the  magneto-electric 
phenomena  bj  means  of  mechanics  alone,  so  do  we  find  that 
these  two  no  longer  suffice  for  the  organic  phenomena;  on 
the  contrary,  in  their  place  also  we  must  now  assume  the 
existence  of  a  special  form  of  energy,  ujjon  which,  from  its 
most  conspicuous  quality,  I  bestow  the  designation  "  sexuality.'' 
In  this  force  tiiere  is,  of  course,  just  as  little  of  the  super- 
natural as  in  the  other  forces  of  nature.  And  that  it  is 
likewise  already  capable  of  being  expressed  in  figures  and 
is  subject  to  mathematical  treatment  I  shall  shortly  show 
elsewhere  in  a  paper  on  the  mathematical  equations  of  the 
paitheno-ova  and  their  fertilization. 

X. — Natural  History  Notes  from  the  R.I.M.S.  Ship  'In- 
vestigator,' Capt.  T.  H.  Heming,  R.N.,  commandiay.  — 
Series  III.,  No.  13.  Two  new  Barnacles  dredged  in  1905-6. 
13y  N.  Annandale^  D.Sc,  Indian  Museum,  Calcutta. 

Genus  Dicuelaspis. 
Dichelaspis  transversa,  sp.  n.      (Figs.  1,  1  a.) 

Capitulum  bullate,  with  the  orifice  on  the  upper  surface 
and  almost  parallel  to  the  base,  with  a  well-defined  lobular 
projection  on  each  side  of  the  orifice  at  its  upper  extremity, 
with  three  complete  valves  and  traces  of  a  second  pair.  Scuta 
linear,  sinuous  or  curved,  short,  \uiclef  t ;  carina  narrow,  very 
short,  almost  straight,  somewhat  variable,  without  either  a 
disk  or  a  fork  at  its  base ;  terga  totally  uncalcified,  repre- 
sented by  a  pair  of  amorphous  chitinous  patches.  Peduncle 
stout,  constricted  above,  as  long  as  or  longer  than  the 

Mandible  with  five  teeth  ;  the  four  innermost  short, 
simple,  subeqnal ;  the  outermost  large,  sharply  pointed, 
widely  separated  from  the  others. 

Penis  longer  than  body,  very  stout,  constricted  distally 
and  ending  in  a  bunch  of  fine,  curved,  filiform  processes ; 
the  whole  organ  densely  covered  with  rings  of  minute,  laterally 
tlattened,  triangular,  chitinous  spines,  which  have  a  flattened 
(le[)ressed  base ;  a  few  larger  chitinous  structures  with  a 
jsubcouical  base  and  a  recurved  distal  point  scattered,  with 
some   short  bristles,   near  the   distal   extremity.     Anal    ap- 

Dr.  N.  Auiiaiulalf  on  new  Barnachs.  -1;") 

])cn(lages  moderate,  rounded  distally,  witli  a  coni](l(tc  fringe 
of  lon^  stout  bail's  on  the  posterior  and  distal  mar^Miis. 


Length  of  capituliini    4 

Breadth  „  35 

Ijt'iigth  of  peduncle 7 

Fi''.  1.  Yvx.  ]  a. 

Locality.  Nortliern  end  of  Persian  Gulf,  shallow  water. 
Numerous  specimens  on  the  gills  of  Neptunus  pelagicus, 
together  with  specimens  of  Z).  Vailkmti,  Gruvel  "^,  wliich  was 
described  from  a  specimen  of  the  same  crab  from  Suez. 

D.  transversa  is  allied,  as  regards  it*  external  characters, 
to  C.  W.  Aurivillius's  D.  bullataf,  from  which  the  presence 
of  a  carina  at  once  distinguishes  it.  The  latter  species  was 
described  from  the  gills  of  a  Javan  Paliuurid. 

Dichelaspis  bathynomij  sp.  n.     (Fig.  2.) 

Capitulum  amygdaloid,  compressed,  with  seven  valves. 
Carina  narrow,  feebly  expanded  below,  fully  calcified  at  the 
base  only  ;  the  basal  arm  short,  almost  in  contact  with  the 
scutum  distally.  2'erya  large,  fully  calcified  round  the 
umbo,  subtriangular,  but  rounded  above ;  the  occludent 
margin  much  shorter  than  the  other  two,  the  scutal  margin 
straight  or  slightly  sinuous.  Scuta  large,  completely  divided  ; 
the  occludent  section  horn-shapedj  pointed  below,  truncated 

*  Nouv.  Archives  Mus.  Paris,  (4)  vi.  (1902). 

t  Kongl.  Sveuska  Vetensk.-Akad.  Handl.  xxvi.  no.  7  (1894). 


Dr.  N,  AiinaiuJale  on  new  Barnacles. 

or  rounded  and  in  contact  with  the  tergum  above  ;  the  inner 
section  irregularly  triangular,  broad  at  the  base,  pointed 
above,  sliortcr  than  the  outer  section  ;  the  whole  plate  feebly 
calcified  «xcept  round  the  umbo.  Peduncle  stout,  almost 
cylindrical,  annulate;!,  shorter  than  the  capitulum. 

Fi-  2. 

Penis  as  long  as  the  body,  slender,  tapering,  minutely 
annulated,  with  a  short  process  on  the  upper  surface  at  the 
distal  extremity.  Anal  appendages  nearly  reaciiing  the 
junction  of  the  rami  of  the  sixth  cirri  above,  rather  sleudor, 
with  a  fringe  of  very  long  hairs  on  the  upper  third  of  the 
posterior  margin  and  at  the  tip. 

Mandible  with  five  teeth ;  the  two  innermost  close 
together,  small;  tlie  next  two  subequal,  moderate;  the 
outermost  large,  sharply  pointed,  not  so  widely  separated 
from  the  others  as  in  some  species. 


Leii!^th  of  capitulum   8 

IJreadth  ,,  4 

Length  of  poduui'le 4 

On  It  nor  Species  of  Pariiassius.  47 

Locality.  Off  the  soutli-rast  coast  of  Arabia  ;  SjS  fathoms. 
Several  speeimeiis  on  tlie  plcopods  of  BafJ/t/itomufi  f/if/frnfeiis'. 

This  species  appears  to  he  rehvted  to  D.  Iloeki,  Stebl)ing*, 
which  was  found  on  the  gills  of  an  American  Palinnrid. 

XI. — Description  of  a  new  Species  of  Parnassius. 
By  F.  M'oouE,  D.Sc.,  F.Z.S. 

Parnassius  Balacha. 

Male. — Upperside  railk-wliite.  Fore  icing  with  the  costal 
border  basally  irrorated  with  black  scales,  the  basal  area 
densely  black-scaled  ;  a  dense  black  bar  across  middle  of  the 
cell,  but  not  touchino^  the  median  vein  ;  a  shorter  black  bar 
at  upper  end  of  the  discocellular  vein,  followed  close  beyond 
by  an  irregular-shaped,  longer,  outwardly  oblique  bar, 
enclosing  three  crimson  spots,  tliis  latter  bar  extending  from 
tlie  first  subcostal  branch  to  ui)per  median  brancli,  and  its 
inner  edge  very  slenderly  joined  to  the  discocellular  bar  by 
black  scales  along  the  intervening  veinlets ;  the  outer  margin 
of  the  wing  is  bordered  by  a  black-scaled  decreasing  band, 
which  is  broad  anteriorly  and  slender  posteriorly,  and  is 
traversed  by  a  series  of  seven  white  rounded  spots — one  each 
placed  between  the  veins,  the  upper  one  being  more  inwardly 
positioned  towards  the  costa,  the  outer  marginal  edge  of  the 
black  band  formed  of  diagonally-quadrat6»portions,  each  of 
the  latter  including  its  contiguous  cilia.  Hind  icing  with 
the  base  and  upper  part  of  the  abdominal  margin  blick- 
scaled  ;  a  small  black-scaled  crimson-centred  spot  on  middle 
of  anterior  margin  and  a  similar  discal  spot  beyond  the  cell; 
a  slightly  defined  blackish-scaled  submarginal  series  of  five 
slender  incurved  lunulcs,  the  lower  three  being  less  defined, 
and  each  joined  at  the  veins  to  a  similar  black-sealed  marginal 
line,  which  is  posteriorly  broken  between  the  veins,  and  at  the 
vein-tips  include  their  contiguous  cilia.  Thorax  and  abdo- 
men blackish,  clothed  with  long  white  hairs  ;  front  of  head 
and  palpi  clothed  with  grey  hairs;  antennai  greyish,  the  tip 

Underside  white.  Fore  wing  with  the  three  black  bars  as 
on  the  upperside,  but  broader,  the  blackish-scaled  outer  band, 
as  on  upperside,  indistinctly  defined,  its  most  distinct  portion 
being  that  between  the  upper  and  middle  median  veinlets. 

*  xVuu.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  (6)  xv.  p.  18  (1895). 

48  Mr.  G.  J.  Arrow  cm  neic  Coleoptera 

Hind  iciiiq  with  tlie  costal  and  discal  spot  as  on  upperside, 
and  two  crimson-centred  lineally-conjoined  lunules  on  middle 
of  the  abdominal  niargin  ;  the  basal  area  of  the  winc^,  a  broad 
zigzag  fascia  across  the  inner  discal  area^  and  a  similar  outer 
discal  fascia  speckled  with  minute  black  scales,  the  basal 
fascia  enclosing  two  outwardly  placed  anterior  crimson  spots, 
also  one  within  the  cell  and  another  on  the  abdominal 
margin  ;  the  outer  discal  fascia  is  edged  by  a  slender  sub- 
marginal  black  line  incurved  between  the  veins  and  joined  to 
a  similar  marginal  line  with  black  points  at  the  vein-tips, 
these  latter  including  their  contiguous  cilia. 

Expanse,  ^  ,  2|  inches. 

I  Jab.  Baluchistan. 

Several  specimens,  all  males,  were  obtained  by  Mr.  O.  C. 
Ollenbach,  between  Quetta  and  Nushki,  at  5000  feet  elevation. 

The  nearest  ally  to  the  above  species  appears  to  be  Parn. 
maxima,  Staudinger,  from  Samarkand. 

XII. —  On  Three  remarkable  new  Melolonth'd  Coleoptera 
from  Sumatra  and  Borneo  in  the  British  Museum.  By 
'Gilbeet  J.  Aekow. 

Nematophylla,  gen.  nov. 

Caput  latum  ;  clypeus  brevis  :  labrum  bilobatum  ;  maudibuUr  crassfp. 
obtusfe,  dentibus  molaiibus  maijnis,  striatis  ;  maxillae  cornea?, 
bilobatce,  lobis  bidentatis,  palpis  maxillaribus  longis.  gracilibus, 
articulo  ultimo  securiforme  :  mentum  subquadratum,  medio  pro- 
funda sulcatum  et  utriiique  lajve  elcvatum  ;  antennae  maris  10-, 
foerainfe  9-articulata?,  illius  articulis  tribus  iiltimis  longissimo 
ilabcllatis,  articulis  3"- 7'"  brevissimis,  2"  paulo  uiaiore,  1"  sat 
lono-o  ;  pedes  graciles,  unguibus  medio  dentatis,  tibiis  autieis 
tridentatis,  coxis  nnticis  parvis,  vix  trausversis  ;  segraeuta  abdo- 
minalia  medio  consolidata. 

Nematophylla  rugosa,  sp.  n. 

Rufo-fupca,  paulo  depressa  ;  capite  lato,  crebre  punctato-rugoso, 
ocidis  magnis,  clvpeo  a  fronte  linea  impressa  parum  distineta 
separato,  antice  subangulariter  emarginato,  margine  vix  reflexo  ; 
protborace  lato,  lorigitudinalitcr  aciculatim  rugoso,  medio  levitor 
sidcato,  postice  marginato,  leviter  sinuate,  lateribus  subtilitor 
crenatis,  sat  regulariter  arcuatis,  postice  valde  coutractis,  angulis 
fere    rectis  :  scutello   t'erc    a^quilaternli.  velutino  ;    elytris  multo 

fi'inn  SitiiKilrn  (iiiil  Bin'nfo.  49 

ina:'(]naliltns,  crolire  pniictato-ruf!;osis,  aiip:)ilis  humeralihua  fere 
rectis,  latrribus  ubiqac  paiilo  arcuatis,  callis  apiValibus  carinatis ; 
pypidio  haud  magno,  trianjyulari,  a^ipialiter  errosse  et  crebre 
punctato;  corpore  indumeiito  velutino  plus  mimisve  vestito, 
setisqiie  niinutissimis  nonnullis  sparsuto. 
Long.,  cf   10-5,  $   12-5  mm. 

JIah.  N.E.  Sumatra,  Tndragiii  River. 

A  pair  of  this  pretty  little  insect  was  found  by  Mr.  Row- 
land Taylor  in  181)5,  It  has  the  general  aspect  of  Lachnosterna 
and  BrahmiJia,  from  wiiich  it  is  impossible  to  dissociate  it  in 
spite  of  important  divergences.  Its  very  short  and  prominent 
anterior  coxae  infringe  the  primary  characteristic  of  the  true 
]\Ielolonthini,  with  which  the  fused  abdominal  segments  and 
general  structure  connect  it.  Its  most  striking  feature  is  tlie 
enormously  elongate  club  of  the  male,  consisting  of  three  equal 
joints  almost  as  long  as  the  elytra.  The  scape  is  about  as 
long  as  the  six  joints  forming  the  stipes  taken  togetiier, 
these  being  very  short,  but  slightly  increasing  in  diameter  as 
tliey  approach  the  club.  In  the  female  the  club  is  extremely 
short,  and  between  it  and  the  elongate  first  joint  there  are 
only  five  joints,  which  are  not  compressed  as  in  the  male,  but 
are  conjointly  a  little  longer  than  the  scape.  The  prothorax 
is  finely  rugulose,  tiie  scutellum  smooth  and  velvety,  and  the 
elytra  very  irregular,  with  shallow  depressions,  variolosa 
punctures,  and  strong  carinaj  near  the  apices.  The  organs  of 
the  mouth  are  rather  peculiar,  and  the  claws  have  a  strong 
curved  tooth  about  the  middle.  The  legs  and  underside  are 
everywhere  strongly  punctured,  and  there  is  a  greyish  bloom 
])ariinlly  covering  the  sterna,  abdomen,  and  elytra. 

Octoplasia  gigantea,  sp.  n. 

Robusta,  elongata,  corpore  supra  et  subtus  longe  et  crecte  fulvo-hirto, 
pygidio  abdorainisque  medio  nndis,  nigra,  elytrorum  parte  poste- 
riore  corporeque  subtiis  rufis,  abdomine  pallidiore ;  capita  lato, 
clypeo  leviter  bilobato,  grosse  punctato,  margiiie  reflexo,  fronte 
rugose  punctata,  sicut  prothorace  atque  elytris,  longe  et  parce 
hirsuta  ;  prothorace  crebre  punctato,  punctis  majoribus  piliferis 
interspersis,  laterihus  crenatis,  piliferis,  post  medium  valde  angu- 
latis,  angulis  anticis  paulo  productis ;  scutello  lato,  fortiter  punc- 
tato ;  elytris  longis,  sericeis,  sat  fortiter  piinctatis,  costis  latis, 
laevibus,  piliferis,  marginibus  exterioribus  antice  reflexis  ;  pygidio 
glabro,  fortiter  punctato  ;  prosterno  postice  tuberculis  duobus 
divergentibus  acutis  instrncto. 

Long.  43  mm.  ;  lat.  max.  20  mm. 

Hah.  Borneo,  Mount  Dulit. 
Ann.  &;  Mag.  N.  Hist.   Ser.  7.   Vol.  xviii.  4 

50  Mr,  K.  Andersen  on  (he  Bits  of  the 

Two  species  of  this  genus,  botii  inhabiting  Bjrneo,  have 
previously  been  described.  The  present  one  agrees  with  them 
in  all  its  essential  characters,  but  is  much  larger,  and,  indee  1, 
is  by  far  the  largest  of  the  great  Lachnosterna  group  known 
to  me.  In  its  general  form  and  colour  it  is  like  0.  princ^'pt, 
Sharp,  but  the  long  erect  hairs  with  which  the  upper  surface 
bristles  distinguish  it  from  all  its  congeners,  now  three  in 
number.  These  hairs  arise  from  very  large  punctures  which 
are  scattered  irregularly  over  the  prothorax  and  front  of  the 
head,  but  upon  the  elytra  are  confined  to  the  smooth  slightly 
elevated  costse.  Another  peculiar  feature  is  found  in  the 
shape  of  the  prosternal  process,  which  has  the  unusual  form 
of  a  transversely  placed  crescent,  the  two  extremities  of  wliich 
are  acutely  pointed  but  not  much  elevated. 

A  single  specimen  was  found  by  Mr.  Oiiarles  IIos  \ 

Octoplasia  prolix  /,  s;).  n. 

Yalde  elongata,  castanea,  capite  nigro,  femoribus  flavis,  supra  glabra, 
pectore  dense  flavo-hirto  ;  capite  lato,  clypeo  leviter  bilobato, 
impunctato,  margine  reflexo,  fronte  crebre  punctata,  lateribus 
parcissime  sed  longe  hirsutis  ;  prothorace  grosse  sat  crebre  punc- 
tato,  medio  paulo  impresso,  lateribus  crcnatis,  piliferis,  regulariter 
arcuatis,  hand  angulatis,  angulis  antieis  acutis,  posticis  rotun- 
datis  ;  scutello  grosse  punctate ;  elvtris  longissiniis.  lajvihus, 
parum  punctatis,  costissat  distinctis,  tere  impuMCtatis,  margiuibus 
exterioribus  baud  reflexis ;  pygidio  fortiter  crebre  puuctato ; 
processu  prosternale  breve,  conico. 

Long.  3(5  mm. ;  lat.  max.  15  mm. 

llah.   Borneo,  Kina  Balu  {Whitehead). 

1  have  seen  only  a  single  specimen  of  this  also.  It  is 
another  large  species,  but  is  chiefly  noticeable  for  its  great 
elongation,  the  elytra  being  four  times  the  length  of  the  pro- 
thorax.  Tliey  have  no  silky  bloom  like  0.  gigantea,  and 
their  puiicturation  is  rather  feeble.  Their  lateral  margins  are 
bordered  -with  a  rather  wide  membrane,  but  are  not  redexe  I, 
as  in  the  other  species. 

XIII. —  On  the  Bats  of  the  Genera  Micronycteris  ami 
Glyphonyctcris.     By  Knud  Andersen. 

I.  MicRONYCTERis,  Gray. 

1856*.  Schizostoma,  P.  Gervais,  Exp^d.  Castelnau  Am^rique  du  Sud, 
Mamm.,  livraison  15,  sheet  7,  p.  49. — Type:  Schizostoma  ntinutum. 

*  The  titlepage  of  the  volume  is  dated  1855  ;  on  the  probable  dates  of 
publication  of  the  livrnisons  see  C.  Davies  Sherboru  aud  B.  B.  Woodward, 
Aim.  &  Mair.  X.  II.  (7)  \  lii.  p.  164  (Auir.  liK)l). 

Genera  Microiijctei  is  (7/^/ (« Ijjihoiiycloris.  a  1 

Nnmo    preoccupied    by    Schizosfomi,    Bronn,    1k3"),    a    freniis    of 
18(i0.   Micronycteris,  J.  E.  Gray,  P.  Z.  S.  p.  W^. — Type:  Micronyderis 

The  siil)j()itic(l  cliaiMC'tcrization  is  confined  to  tlic  features 
in  wliicli  Mirroiii/cteris  dillers  fVoni  Ghjphonijcteris  :  — 

Skull*. — Facial  portion,  itnniediateiy  in  front  of  orbits, 
not  conspicuously  inflated.  Basioccipital  pits,  antero- 
iuternally  to  cochlcie,  sluiUow. 

Dentition  f. — z"  not  especially  modified  (compare  Glyphu- 
mjcteris).  Upper  canines  not  shortened,  their  vertical  bein;^, 
about  twice  tlieir  antero-postcrior  basal  diameter.  The 
"  heel"  of  jf  represented  only  by  a  very  narrow  ciuguluin. 
Inner  border  of  the  cingulum  of  p^  with  a  distinct  shallow 
ttnarffina/ion,  dividimj  the  cinyiilum  into  an  antero-internal 
("  cusp  ()  "  X)  '^"^  apostero-internal  tubercle  ('*  cusp  7  "). 

Ears. — Conjoined  by  a  transverse  band  across  the  head. 
Outer  margin  of  ear-conch  not  distinctly  concave  in  its 
npper  half. 

Chin. — A  triangular  naked  space  (in  skins  and  alcohol 
specimens  often  contracted  to  a  deep  furrow),  flanked  by 
two  oblique  warts,  converging  downwards. 

Wings. — Third  and  fourth  metacarpal  snbcqual  in  length, 
fifth  the  longest.  First  and  second  phalanx  of  third  digit 

Species. — Four  species  were  catalogued  by  Dobson  in 
1878 :  M.  hirmta,  megalotis,  minuta,  Behni.  Since  that 
time  the  following  three  species  have  been  described  :  M. 
brachyotis  (Dobson,  1879),  M.  microtis  (Miller,  1898^,  M. 
hypvh'Kca  (J.  A.  Allen,  19C0).  I  have  satisfied  myself  that 
M.  Behni  is  a  Glijphonijcteris  \  the  same  is  probably  the  case 
with  M.  brachyotis  ;  and  M.  hypolcucn  is  apparently  indis- 
tinguishable from  M.  minuta.  The  getuis  Micronycteris,  as 
here  restricted,  therefore  comprises  the  following  four 
species  :  M.  megalotis,  microtis,  minuta,  and  hirsuta. 

Range. — From  S.  Brazil  and  Peru  to  xMexico. 

*  The  slaill  of  M.  minuta  is  figured  in  '  Exped.  Castelnau  Atnei  ique 
du  Sud,'  Mamm.,  pi  x.  tigs.  4,  4  a.  The  skull  nf  M.  ineyalotU  in  Dobsoua 
'Cat.  Chir.  Brit.  Mu?.'  pi.  x.vvi.  figs.  3,  3«,  .3  6  (1878; ;  and  in  Herluf 
Winge's  "  Jordfundue  og  nulevende  Flagermus  fra  Lagoa  Santa,"  E  Museo 
Lundii,  ii.  pt.  1,  pi.  i.  tig.  1  (1892). 

t  I  write  the  dental  formula  of  Micronvcteris,  Glyphonyctcris,  and 
allied  genera  as  foUosvs  :-'' .''  '^-?-'  ^'-"'' '"' '"'. 

\  On  the  probable  homologies  of  the  cusps  of  manmialian  teeth,  see 
Herluf  Winge,  "  Om  Pattedyreues  Tandskifte  isjer  med  Hen>yn  til 
Taendernes  Former,"  Yidensk.  Medd.  Naturhist.  Foren.  Kbhvn.  1882, 
pp.  lo-69,  pi.  iii.  ;  and  a  series  of  papers  by  the  same  author  in  E  Museo 

52  ^fr.  K.  Aiiderscu  on  the  Bats  of  the 

1.  Micrunycteris  ine(jaIotis,  Gray. 

Teeth. — j)^  liiglier  tlian  p^  aad  p^-,  p-^  and  /»4  subcqual  in 
height  {p2,  often  a  trifle  lower)  ;  p^  in  cross-section  at  ba<;e  a 
little  smaller  than  p.i. — p""  about  half  the  height  of  the  canine  ; 
p^  and  7/  subequal  in  lieight.  Tip  of  the  principal  cusp  oi p^ 
situated  only  very  slightly  in  front  of  a  vertical  line  through 
the  middle  of  the  base  of  the  ])reniolar  ;  vertical  diameter  of 
p^  about  equal  to  antero-posterior  basal  diameter ;  external 
surface  oi  p^  convex. 

Ears. — Long  and  broad,  reaching  beyond  the  tip  of  the 
muzzle  when  laid  forwards.  Cross-stride  on  ear-conch  faint 
and  rather  ill-defined;  number  about  13-14;  distance 
between  uppermost  and  lowermost  stria  about  11  ram. 

In  the  fully  adult  male  the  transverse  band  between  the 
ears  is  triangular  in  shape,  i.  e.  low  laterally,  triangularly 
raised  in  the  middle  ;  a  small  notch  at  the  middle  of  the  upper 
margin  of  the  band  (the  top  of  the  trian<.^le).  Immediately 
behind  the  band,  in  the  fronto-parietal  region,  a  triangular 
groove  bordered  by  a  horseshoc-shai)ed  elevation  of  the  skin  ; 
the  median,  triangularly  projecting  portion  of  the  band,  when 
laid  backwards,  fits  exactly  to  tbe  triangular  groove,  as  the 
lid  to  a  box;  tufts  of  long  hairs  on  the  posterior  surface 
of  the  "  lid."  The  bat  is  no  doubt  able  to  cover  and  uncover 
the  groove  by  moving  the  band  forwards  and  backwards. 

In  females  and  young  males  the  transverse  band  is  much 
lower,  not  conspicuously  higher  in  the  middle  than  laterally; 
the  frontal  groove  is  absent  or,  at  most,  very  ill  defined. 

The  frontal  groove  (which,  to  my  knowledge,  has  not  been 
described  by  previous  writers)  is  evidently  analogous  to 
the  frontal  sac  in  many  species  of  H'lpposiderus.  The  posi- 
tion is  the  same;  the  long  hairs  recall  the  hair-tuft  in  the 
Hipposiderus  sac;  and,  as  in  the  majority  o^  HipposiJeri,  the 
apparatus  is  characteristic  of  the  male  sex.  A  frontal  con- 
cavity almost  identical  in  structure  and  position  is  found  in 
the  males  of  an  Oriental  species  of  Nydinomus  [N.johorenais). 
Nose-leaves. — Lancet  long,  i.  e.  its  extreme  length  about 
equal  to  1  h  its  width  at  base. 

Wings. — Forearm  practically  naked  ;  some  short,  scattered 
hairs  are  ohservahle  on  very  close  inspection,  ^Ving- 
membranes  inserted  on  the  ankles  or  the  base  of  the  meta- 
tarsus.    Length  of  forearm  31"8-38  mm. 

Foot  and  calcar. — The  foot  is  ctmiparatively  small,  equal 
to  ^  or  J?  the  length  of  tlie  lower  leg.  Calcar  long,  al\va\s 
longer  than  the  foot,  and  always  much  more  than  half  tlie 
length  of  the  lower  leg. 

(leuera  i\ricronycteri.s  (uid  CJ lyplioiiyctcris.  W?> 

Tail  and  hi  (erf I' moral. — Tho  postcaudal  porticjti  of  tlie 
iiitcrreiiioral  is  loiigcM-  tliaii  the  tail,  tVoiii  tlic  anus  to  the  tip 
ol'  tlu'  last  vc'trhra. 

('uloKf. — 'riurc  arc  two  extremes  in  the  eoloiir  of  the 
fur:  — 

(1)  Uppei'side  Front's  brown  with  a  tinge  of  russet;  base 
of  hairs  pnrc  white  or  washed  with  ecru-drab.  Underside 
M'ood-broM'n,  l)ase  of  hairs  scarcely  ligliter. 

(2)  Upperside  dull  dark  brown  without  any  trace  of  russet 
tinge;  base  of  hairs  pure  Aviiitc  or  washed  with  ecru-drab. 
Underside  hair-brown. 

The  extremes  are  connected  by  several  transitional  stages. 
The  variation  in  colour  is  independent  of  the  locality  and,  as 
it  seems,  of  tlie  age  of  the  individuals. 

Range. — The  same  as  that  of  the  genus. 

Remarks. — The  large  p-^  and  jf ,  the  median  position  of  the 
principal  cusp  of  /y'^,  the  very  small  notch  at  the  middle  of 
the  upper  margin  of  the  ear-band,  the  practically  naked 
forearm,  the  long  hand,  the  small  foot,  long  calcar,  long 
postcaudal  interfemoral,  and  darker-coloured  underside  of  the 
body  readily  distinguish  this  species  from  M.  minuta.  From 
M.  Iiirsuta  it  diflers  by  its  smaller  size  and  higher  car-band, 
irom  M.  microtis  by  its  much  darker  colour. 

1  a.  Micronycteris  megalutis,  f.  typica. 

1812.  Tlyllophora  meyahtis.  J.  E.  Gray,  Ann.  >S:  Mag.  N.H.  x.  (no.  C;.')') 
p.  1'57  ;  Dec.  1842. — Type:  (S  imm.,  in  alcohol;  Brazil;  Biiti.-sii 
Museum  (unregistered). 

1842.  riujllostoma  eloiujata,  .T.  1'].  Gray,  ibid.  p.  2-")7 ;  Pec.  1842.— 
Type:  ad.,  skin  ;  Brazil;  BiiH^h  Museum  (no.  42.  8.  17.8).  Name 
])reoocupied  by  Phyllostoma  tloixjatinn,  GeoH'niy,  l8lO.  Indistin- 
guishable from  the  type  of  Fliylli'phoru  mcyalotis. 

\i^oo.  Phyllostoma  scrobirulatum,  J.  A.  Wagner,  Schreber's  '  Siiug- 
thiere,'  Suppl.  \.  p.  627. — New  name  for  Phyllostoma  eloiiynta, 
Gray  {  =  PhyUophora  meyalotis,  Gray). 

Subspecific  characters.  —  Tooth- rows  shorter.  Forearm 
and  metacarpals  shorter. 

Details. — This  southern  form  of  M.  megalutis  differs  from 
M.  m.  mexicana  in  the  following  particulars  : — 

The  skull  is  slightly  smaller  (see  measurements*,  pp.  64- 
65);  the  mandible  shorter;  the  tooth-rows  shorter-,  upper  teeth 
6*8-7'3  mm.,  as  against  7"4-7'8  in.  mexicana.     The  length  of 

*  Only  the  following  measurements  require  some  explanation  : — Ears, 
length  from  b;ise  of  hmer  margin  to  tip.  III.',  IV.^,  V,'',  measured  without 
the  terminal  cartilaginous  rod.  iHki/ll,  total  length  aud  basilar  It-ngth, 
to  front  of  canines  (not  to  front  of  incisors).  Upper  iuvi  lower  ti-elh , 
exclusive  of  iucisors. 

54  ^Jr.  K.  Andersen  on  the  Bats  of  the 

tlie  forearm  varies  betv^cen  31  8  and  802  ram.,  in  meilcana 
between  35"2  and  38  ;  in  the  southern  form  the  average  is 
34" 4,  in  the  northern  36.  The  metacarpals  are  shorter  :  in 
the  southern  form  the  third  metacarpal  measures  25'8-29'8 
mm.,  in  niexicana  2!>-3"2"7. — In  every  other  respect  (in- 
cluding the  colour  of  the  fur)  the  two  races  are  alike. 

Specimens  examined. — 32,  from  the  fnljo wing  localities: — 
Pereque,  S.  Paulo  (2);  Sumidouro,  Minas  Gcraes  (1); 
S.  Lorenzo,  Pernambuco  (2) ;  Chapada,  Matto  Grosso  (2)  ; 
R.  Jurua,  Amazonas  (2) ;  R.  Perene,  Junin,  Peru  (2)  ; 
Kanuku  Mts.,  B.  Guiana  (7)  ;  S.  Esteban,  Venezuela  (2)  ; 
Trinidad  (2)  ;  Tobago  (4)  ;  "  Brazil  "  or  uncertain  localities 
(6). — 18  skulls,  from  practically  all  the  localities  enumerated. 

Range. — From  S.  Brazil  and  Peru,  through  Guiana  and 
E.  Venezuela,  to  Trinidad  and  Tobago. 

1  b.  Micronycteris  meyalotis  niexicana,  Miller. 

18'JS.  Micrmiifderis  nier/cilotis  me.vieamis,  Gerrit  S.  Miller,  Proc.  Ac. 
Nat.  Sci.  Piiil.  18!)S,  pt.  ii.  pp.  329-31  ;  Nov.  8,  1898.— Type  :  $  ad., 
in  alcohol ;  Plantinar,  Jalisco,  Mexico  ;  U.S.  Nat,  Mus. — Separated 
by  Miller  on  accuuut  of  its  lunger  wing. 

Subspecific  characters. — Tooth-rows  longer.  Forearm  and 
metacarpals  longer. 

Details. — See  the  typical  lace,  above. 

Specimens  examined. — 1 1,  from  : — Bogota  region,  Colombia 
(6);  Duenas,  Guatemala  (2)  ;  Bay  of  Honduras  (Ij ;  ]Sle.\ico 
(2). — 9  skulls,  from  all  the  localities  enumerated. 

Range. — From  Bogota,  throtigh  Central  America,  to 

Remarks. — The  examples  recorded  by  !Mr.  iAliller  were 
from  various  places  in  S.  ^Mexico  (Oajaca,  Colima,  Jalisco)  ; 
the  British  Museum  material  shows  that  this  laigcr  race 
has  a  much  wider  distribution.  Judging  from  the  series 
available,  it  would  seem  that  it  reaches  its  climax  (/,  e.  its 
maximum  size)  in  Central  America. 

Truly  intermediate  specimens  between  the  soutlu^rn  race 
and  mexicana  I  have  not  seen ;  but  three  skins  from 
Maipure,  Orinoco,  thus  from  a  border  region  between  the 
areas  of  the  two  races,  are  perhaps  intermediate  in  external 
dimensions  (forearm  35-35-8  mm.  ;  third  metacarpal  287- 
28"8)  ;  the  skull  of  one  of  the  individuals  is,  however,  quite 
pronounced  mexicana  (tipper  teeth  7'8  nnn.)  ;  the  two  other 
skulls  have  been  lost. 

Cenera  ]\Iicioiiyc(eris  a/«f/ (ily|iliuiiyc(crls.  o") 

2.  MicTonyctcris  microtis ,  Miller. 

18:)8.  Mkroni/cterin  mi<rofis,  Geirit  S.  Miller,  Proc.  Ac.  Nat.  Sci. 
IMiil.  1898,'  \^t.  ii.  i)p.  328-2!),  331  ;  Nov.  8,  1898.— Type:  d  ad., 
skin  and  .-kiill ;  Greytuwn,  Ni(  i ;  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  The  only 
epecimeu  recorded. 

The  species  is  know  n  to  iiic  fVoiii  the  publislicd  account 

Tlie  ])iincii);il  cliaractcr.s,  according  to  ^liller,  arc  tlicse  :  — 
Ears  considciably  shorter  than  in  megalotis ;  inner  surface  oh' 
ear-conch  with  eight  sharply  defined  cross-ridges,  crowded 
into  the  space  of  5  nim.^  Colour  of  the  fur,  both  dorsally 
and  ventrally,  wood-brown,  witii  nearly  white  bases  to  the 
hairs.     General  size  small :   forearm  31  mm. 

Other  external  features,  as  well  as  the  dentition,  essentially 
as  in  M.  megalotis. 

3.  Micronycteris  minuta,  Gervais. 

1856.  Sc7iiz<isto7)ui  viinutiDii,  Paul  Gervais,  Exped.  Casteluau  Amtlrique 
du  Sud,  Manun.,  livr.iison  15,  sheet  7,  p.  50,  pi.  vii.  tig.  1  (whole 
tigare)  ;  pi.  x.  tigs.  A,  A  a  (skull  and  dentition). — Type  from  Capella 
Nova,  Brazil;  Paris  Museum. 

?  1900.  Micranyctcris  /ii/polt-uca,  J.  A.  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.  H. 
xiii.  pp.  90-91  ;  May' 12,  1900.— Type:  $  ad.,  skin  without  skull; 
Bjuda,  Santa  Marta  region,  Colombia;  New  York  Museum;  the 
only  specimen  on  record. — Characters,  according  to  Dr.  Allen  : 
'■  About  the  size  of  M.  Diinutn,  but  white  below  instead  of  ashy,  and 
the  basal  portion  of  pelage  above  white  instead  of  ashy  white."  But 
British  Museum   examples  (skins)  of  M.  minuta  from   Brazil  are, 

*  Are  the  ears  of  the  type  specimen  of  M.  microtis  undamaged?  My 
reason  for  raising  the  question  is  tliis:- — In  the  proportinnate  size  of  the 
ears  and  in  the  cross-markings  of  the  conch  .17.  hirsKta  \>  similar  to  M. 
meyalotis.  But  in  two  British  Museum  examples  of  M.  hirsuta  the  ears 
are  very  short,  reaching  only  a  little  beyond  the  eyes  when  laid  forwards, 
and  the  cross-markings  on  the  inner  surface  of  the  conch  are  very  strongly 
de lined  and  crowded  into  a  .«pace  of  0-7  mm. ;  they  are,  on  the  whole, 
])UzzLngly  like  the  type  of  ear  described  by  Mr.  Miller  in  M.  microtis. 
But  the  ears  of  these  two  M.  hirsuta  have  indubitably  been  singed  (the 
b  ts  may  have  been  caught  while  trying  to  esc  ipe  Irom  a  burning  tree, 
or,  perhaps  more  likely,  been  found  dead  in  a  hole  of  a  partially  burnt- 
down  tree)  ;  though  very  much  shrunk  they  have,  however,  preserved 
their  oriijinal  shape  ;  they  have  simply  contracted  into  scarcelv'^  §  their 
natural  size,  and,  as  a  consequence  ot  that,  the  cross-markings  have 
become  very  sharply  defined,  prominent  beyond  the  plane  of  the  conch, 
and  crowded  into  a  small  space,  and  the  ear-conch  thick  and  stiff.  Is  the 
saice,  perhaps,  the  case  with  the  ears  of  the  only  specimen  known  of 
M.  microtis  'i  If  so,  M.  microtis  is  very  closely  related  to  .)/.  mef/alotis, 
ditiering,  as  it  seems,  only  in  the  much  lighter  colour  of  the  fur  (which, 
however,  may  be  indicative  of  a  light  phase  only)  and,  perhaps,  a  slightly 
smaller  size. 

56  Mr.  K.  Aiiclersoii  on  the  Bats  of  the 

sonie  of  them  ickite,  others  greyish  wliite  below,  and  have  the  bass 
of  the  hairs  of  the  upperside  white.  If,  tlierefore,  there  is  no  other 
difference  between  M.  Jiypoleuca  and  M.  viinuta,  the  former  cannot 
be  distinguished  from  the  latter.  I  understand  from  Dr.  Allen's 
description  that  he  had  no  example  of  M.  minuta  for  comparison. 

Teeth. — p-^  ranch  lower  than  /?4,  only  a  little  higher  than 
the  ciiijiulum  of  p.y- — //'  much  lower  than  7/,  only  a  little 
liigher  than  the  cingulum  of  the  canine.  Principal  cusp  of 
p^  situated  near  the  anterior  end  of  the  tooth ;  vertical 
diameter  of  jj^  markedly  shorter  than  antero-posterior  basal 
diameter;  external  surface  oi j/  concave. 

Ears. — Essentially  as  in  M.  megahtis :  long  and  broad, 
extending  beyond  the  tip  of  the  muzzle  when  laid  forwards. 
Cross-stripe  on  ear-conch  faint  and  rather  ill-defined  ;  number 
about  11-12;  distance  between  uppermost  and  lowermost 
stria  about  10  mm. 

In  the  fully  adult  male  the  transverse  band  between  the 
ears  is  as  high  as,  or,  rather,  still  higher  than,  in  the  male  of 
M.  meijaloiis ;  but  the  median  notch  is  extremely  deep, 
reaching  practically  to  the  base  of  the  band,  thus  dividing  if. 
into  tiuu  distinct  triavgulur  lobes.  A  coat  of  long  hairs  on 
the  posterior  surface  of  the  band.  Frontal  groove  as  in  the 
male  of  M.  megalotis. 

Spirit- specimens  of  females  are  not  available  for  examina- 

Nose-leaves. — Essentially  as  in  M.  nwyalotis,  but  lancet 
comparatively  a  trifle  shorter,  its  extreme  length  being  on 
average  equal  to  about  1^  its  width  at  base. 

Wings  (compare  the  wing-indices  below,  p.  65).  —  The 
metacarpals  are  proportionately  shorter  than  in  M.  megalotis ; 
an  inspection  of  the  measurements  (below,  pp.  64— 1!5)  Avill 
show  that  whereas  M.  mimda  has  the  forearm  of  precisely  the 
same  length  as  M.  m.  mexicana,  its  metacarpals  are  as  short 
as  in  the  small  southern  race,  M.  in.  tf/pica  ;  this,  together 
Avith  a  shortening  of  the  proximal  phalanges,  makes  as  a 
t(.tal  result  a  jjropurtionately  shorter  hand  in  M.  minuta.  The 
second  phalanx  of  the  fourth  digit  is  practically  equal  to  the 
first  phalanx  (in  M.  megalotis  decidedly  shorter  than  the  first 
phalanx) . 

The  muscular  part  of  the  forearm  is  densely  haired. 
jNlembranes  inserted  on  the  ankles  or  the  extremity  of  the 
tibia.     Forearm  36-37"5  mm. 

Foot  and  calcar. — The  foot  is  comparatively  large,  much 
more  than  \  the  length  of  the  lower  leg.  Calcar  short, 
always  shorter  than  the  foot,  and  less  than  ^  the  length  of 
the  luwer  leg. 

Genera  JMicruiiyctcri.s  (ind  Glyplioiiyctcris.  57 

Tail  Olid  inlei'femoral. — The  postcaudul  poitioii  oi  the 
iiiterlVMuoral  is  shorter  than  the  tail. 

('u/oiir. — ^Al)ove  as  in  31.  lucf/u/utis,  below  eoiisideralily 
li;j;hter.  I  pixTside  Front's  brown,  base  of  hairs  white; 
nndcrsiile  or  greyish  white  in  the  middle,  dralj  on 
the  Hanks. 

liani/e. — Brazil,  from  Santa  Catherina  in  the  south  to 
Vara  in  the  north.  Extending  to  Colombia,  if  M.  hypoleuca 
is  identieal  with  M,  miiiuta. 

Sjjcciiueits  examined. — 11,  from:  —  Santa  Catherina  (3); 
Para  (1)  ;  "Brazil"  [4). 

Remarks. —  On  hasty  inspection  M.  mlnula  bears  no  small 
resemblance  to  M.  meyalotis.  The  two  species  are  practically 
alike  in  the  slia|)e  of  the  skull,  in  the  ears  and  nose-leaves, 
and  in  the  general  size ;  M.  miriuta  is  not,  as  its  technical 
name  might  suggest,  snuiller  than  M.  megalutls.  But 
M.  minuta  differs  in  the  following  important  respects  : — 
In  the  very  conspicuous  reduction  of  pi  and  j?  ;  in  bavins; 
the  transverse  band  between  the  ears  divided  into  two  separate 
triangular  lobes  ;  in  having  the  proximal  half  of  the  forearm 
densely  haired;  in  the  proportionately  shorter  hand;  in  the 
larger  foot,  short  calcar,  sliort  postoaudal  interfemoral,  and 
ligliter-coloured  underside  of  the  body. 

4.  Micronycteris  hirsuta,  Ptrs. 

18G9.  Schizodoma  hirsutum,  Peters,  MB.  Akad.  Berlin,  p.  397. — Type  : 
cJ  ad.,  in  alcuhol  ;  locality  iinkuown  ;  Paris  Mutieum. 

Skull. — Similar  in  shape  to  the  skull  of  M.  megalotis  and 
M.  minuta,  but  much  larger,  and  brain-case  less  vaulted  and 
raised  above  the  facial  region,  the  profile-line,  from  the 
uppermost  point  of  the  brain-case  to  the  nasals,  therefore 
less  concave. 

Teeth.  —  Cutting-blade  of  i^  markedly  less  compressed 
antero-posteriorly  than  in  M.  megalotis  and  minuta.  Upper 
premolars  as  in  M.  meyalotis.  Almost  the  same  is  the  case 
with  the  lower  premolars  :  po  slightly  higher  than  y;^,  which 
is  slightly  higher  than  p... 

Ears. — Proportionate  size  as  in  M.  meyalotis  and  minuta  ; 
number  of  cross-ridges  13-14,  covering  a  space  of  about 
11  mm. 

Transverse  band  between  ears,  in  both  sexes^  very  low, 
straight  (not  higher  in  the  middle),  and  without  median 
notch.  There  seems  to  be  no  frontal  groove  (the  two 
specimens  examined  of  this  very  rare  bat  are  in  a  Ijad  state 
of  preservation) . 

Ol)  31 1'.   K.  Aiidei\seii  on  the  litla  "/  the 

Nose-leaves. — T^ancet  proportionately  shorter,  its  extreme 
length  only  a  little  longer  than  its  width  at  ba«e. 

JVhiys. — Wing-structure  ahno-st  precisely  as  in  M.  mcfja- 
lutis,  the  only  noteworthy  differrnee  being  the  somewhat 
sliorter  metacarpals. 

Forearm  liaired  almost  to  the  extremity.  Membranes 
inserted  very  nearly  on  tlie  ankles.     Forearm  43"5-45  mm. 

Calcar. — Slightly  longer  than  the  foot. 

Specimens  examined. —  P(.zo  Azul,  Costa  Rica,  200  m. 
{S  ad.,   ?   ad.).     One  skull. 

Ranye. — As  yet  knoAvn  from  Costa  l^iea  only. 

Remarks. — Tlie  large  size  of  M.  hirsuta  prevents  its  con- 
fusion with  any  other  species  of  the  genus. 

n.    GLYPnOXYCTF.RIS,  Tlios. 

1896.  Gliiphomidens,  Oldfield  Thomas,  Ann.  k  Mag.  N.  H.  (6)  xviii. 
pp.  301-2 ;  Oct.  1,  1896. — Type  :   Glyphonycteris  sylcestris. 

Skull. — Facial  portion,  immediately  in  front  of  orbits,  very 
conspicuously  inflated.  Anterior  nasal  openings  more  hori- 
zontal in  position  than  in  Micronycteris,  directed  chiefly 
upwards.  Basioceipital  pits,  antero-internally  to  coehlese, 
very  deep. 

Dentition. — r  very  j)rononncedly  ehi'<el-shaped,  its  cutting- 
blade  broad  from  s'de  to  side,  extremely  thin  antero-poste- 
riorly.  Canines  short,  their  antero-po>terior  basal  abaut 
equal  to  their  vertical  diameter.  Inner  eingulum  of  j/^ 
developed  into  a  conspicuous  rather  broad  'Mieel";  tip  of 
the  principal  cusp  of  p^  anterior  in  position,  situated  in  a 
vertical  line  through  the  front  end  of  the  base  of  the  pre- 
molar ;  antero-postcrior  basal  miich  longer  than  vertical 
diameter.  Inner  maryin  of  the  cinyulinn  of  p^  convex;  no 
distinct  "  ci.sp  6." 

Ears  — Not  conjoined  by  a  transverse  band  across  the 
Lead.  Outer  margin  of  ear-conch  distinctly  concave  in  its 
upper  half. 

Chin  — As  in  Micronycteris. 

Jt  inys. — Third  and  flfth  metacarpal  subcqual  in  length, 
fuiirth  the  shortest.  Second  phalanx  of  third  digit  from  l.V 
to  li  the  length  of  the  first  j)halanx. 

A  comparison  Avitli  M.  meyalotis  and  hirsuta  (in  M.  minuta 
tlie  hand  is  peculiarly  shortened)  will  readily  show  how  this 
modifleation  of  the  wing-structure  has  been  eH'eeted  (see 
ving-indices,  below,  p.  O.l)  : — In  Ghiphontjcteris  the  feurtli 
nietacar])al  has,  very  neaily,  the  same  proportionate  length 
as  in  M.  hirsute/,  wheieas  the  tilth  ami.  still   more,  the  thinl 

(iCiicrd  ^iicronytjtc'ri.s  a//t/ Ci  l}[)liniiyctiTis.  ')'.) 

have  increased  in  lengthy  making  as  a  total  result  the  fifth 
and  third  metacarpal  subequal,  the  fourth  the  shortest.  In 
(J/i/ji/iojii/clcris  the  first  phahmx  of  the  third  digit  is 
shortened,  the  second  corrL'S|)on(liiigly  lengtheucd  ;  in  other 
words,  the  joint  between  the  two  phahmges  has  Ijeen  removed 
in  proximal  direction  (compare  wing-indices  of  Glypho- 
nf/cteris  and  M.  me(jalotis).  The  joiut  between  the  first  and 
second  phalanx  of  the  fourth  digit  has  been  similarly  removed 
in  proximal  directioUj  making  the  latter  phalanx  decidedly 
longer  than  the  former. 

Species. — The  genus  was  based  on  G.  sylvestris.  An 
examination  of  the  British  Museum  material  has  convinced 
me  that  Peters^s  AI.  Behn'i  is  a  Ghjphoi^ycteris ;  the  same  is 
probably  the  case  with  Dobson's  M.  bracliyotis. 

Range. — From  Brazil  (Matto  Grosso)  and  Peru  through 
Guiana  to  Central  America. 

1.   Gly phony cter is  Behni,  Ptrs. 

I860.  Schizustoma   Dehnii,   Peters,  MB.    Akad.   Berlin,   pp.  oO-j-S. — 
Type  :    $  ad.,  in  alcohol ;  Ciiyaba,  Brazil. 

Skull  and  teeth. — See  the  diagnosis  of  the  genus. 

Ears. — Short  ;  not  reaching  the  tip  of  the  muzzle  when 
laid  forwards.  Cross-striie  faint,  rather  ill-defined  ;  number 
about  10  (?),  covering  a  space  of  about  9  mm. 

Nose-leaves. — Essentially  as  in  M.  rneyalotis,  the  extreme 
length  of  the  lancet  being  equal  to  about  l\  its  width  at 

IVings. — Forearm  practically  naked.  ^Membranes  from 
the  ankles.     Length  of  forearm  about  45-47  mm. 

Calcar. — Shorter  than  the  foot  and  very  nearly  equal  to 
half  the  length  of  the  lower  leg. 

Tail  and  interfemoral. — The  postcaudal  interfem  )ral  seems 
to  be  equal  to  the  length  of  the  tail  (the  available  specimens 
are  somewhat  damaged) . 

Specimens  examined. — River  Cosnipata,  District  of  Puno, 
S.E.  Peru  (.2,  skins  in  alcohol).     One  skull. 

Range. — As  yet  only  recorded  from  Cuyaba  (Matto  Grosso) 
and  Cosnipata. 

2.   Gly  phony  cleris  sylvestris,  Thos. 

1896.  Ghiphonycteris  sylveilrk,  Olddeld  Thomas,  Ann.  &  Mag.  N.  II. 
(6)  xvi'ii.  pp.  80:2-3  ;  (Jet.  1,  1896.— Type  :  J  ad.,  skin  ;  Miravalles, 
Costa  Kica  ;  British  Museum  (no.  90.  10.  1.  2). 

Specific  characters. — Similar  to  G.  Behni,  but  smaller. 
See  the  measurements  below,  pp.  04-65. 

60  ^Ir.  K.  AiiJor.seii  on  tJie  Bits  of  the 

Colour. — Hairs  of  upperside  with  four  alternating  rin^^s  of 
dark  brown  and  wliitish;  the  extreme  base,  next  to  the  skin, 
Avhite ;  a  broad  ring  of  blackish  brown  ;  a  broad  ring  of 
white  or  yellowish  white;  narrow  tips  of  hairs  approaching 
clove-biown.  Fur  of  underside  dark  brown  at  base,  greyish 
drab  at  tip. 

Range. — As  yet  only  known  from  the  type  specimen, 
obtained  at  Miravalles,  Costa  Rica. 

3.   Glyphonycteris  brachyotis,  Dobson. 

1879*.  Schizostoma  brachyote,  Dobson,  P.  Z.  S.  1878,  p.  880.— Type 
from  Cayenne;  Paris  Museuu]  ;  the  only  specimen  on  record. 

The  species  is  known  to  me  from  the  published  account 

Dobsou  did  not  examine  the  skull ;  the  dentition  is  not 
described  in  detail ;  the  presence  or  absence  of  a  transverse 
band  between  the  ears  is  not  mentioned,  nor  is  there  any 
accurate  information  as  to  the  proportionate  length  of  the 

Notwithstanding  these  deficiencies  in  the  description  of  the 
species,  I  think  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  it  is  a  member 
of  the  genus  Gfyphonycteris: — (1)  The  cusp  of  the  first  upper 
premolar  (p^)  is,  according  to  Dobson,  "  very  oblique, 
touching  the  canine^';  this  probably  means  that  the  tooth  is 
remarkably  long  in  antero-posterior  direction,  and  the  cusp 
situated  at  the  front  end  of  the  tooth,  as  in   G/i/p/tonycteris  : 

(2)  the  ears  ("  much  shorter  than  head,"  tip  "  obtusely 
pointed ")   are  as  in   G   Be/mi,  not  as  in  a  Microuycteris  : 

(3)  Dobson's  omission  of  any  reference  to  the  ear-band  is 
probably  an  indication  that  it  is  absent  :  (4)  the  second 
phalanx  of  the  third  d'git  is  much  longer  than  the  first 
phalanx,  also  one  of  the  features  oi  Glypltoni/cti'iisiw  contia- 
distinctiou  to  Mlcronycter'is:  (5)  unfortunately  Dobson  only 
gives  measurements  of  the  third  and  tifth  digits,  but  the 
wing-indices,  as  derived  from  these  measurements,  are  more 
in  accordance  with  those  of  GlijpJionycteris  than  with  those 
of  Minunycti'.r'is. 

G  brachyotis  seems  to  be  piccisely  of  the  same  size  as 
G.  sylvc'stris,  but  the  calcar  is  stated  to  be  longer  thau  the 

Raiiye. — Cayenne. 

*  The  pa])er  was  read  before  the  /o  ih^^M^-al  Society  on  Nov.  o,  1878, 
but  probably  not  publis'hed  until  .\pril  187!'. 

Geitera  ^licroii vctoris  r///// (il vpIiniis'titcM'i.s.  fil 

Sijiinjisis  ()[  liie  Fonns. 

J)*  with  a  distinct  cusp  0,  {i^  nut  verv  pionoiincedly 
cliisel-sliaped. )  JJivsioccipital  pits  shallow.  A 
transverse  band  between  the  ears.  3rd  an<l  4th 
metacarpals  subeqiial,  ilitli  tl.e  longest.     First  and 

second  plialanx  of  third  di^'it  subeqnal Microni/cten's. 

ICars  extending  beyond  tlio  tip  of  the  muzzle  when 

laid  forwards. 

Smaller:  ^Jaxillary  tooth-row  about  G'o-8  mm. 

Forearm  about  .jI-^^. 

/jg  as  high  as  y>,.     ;;■'  as  high  as/>'.     Transverse 

band    between    ears    undivided.      Calcar 

longer  than  foot  (c.  u.).     Po.-itcaudal  iu- 

terfemoral    longer    than    tail.      Forearm 

practically    naked.      Underside    of    body 

darker M.  nie//a'oti>i, 

Maxillary     tooth-row     G-8-7".'i.        Forearm 

31-8-30-2     M.  m.  tupica. 

Maxillary     tooth-row     7'4-7"8.        Forearm 

352-38    M.  m.  me.n'cana. 

■p^  much  lower  than  p^.  p-'  lower  than  p\ 
Transverse  band  between  ears  divided 
by  a  deep  median  notch  into  two  triangular 
lobes.  Calcar  shorter  than  foot.  Post- 
caudal  interfenioral  shorter  than  tail. 
Muscular  part  of  forearm  haired.  Under- 
side of  body  lighter    M.  nii/iufa. 

Larger:  Maxillary  tooth-row  about  !)••").     Fore- 
arm about  43"0-45 Af.  hirsuta. 

V.tixs  not  extending  beyond  the  tip  of  the  muzzle 
■when  laid  forwards*.  Cross-ridges  on  ear- 
conch  shcirply  defined,  crowded*.  Fur  wood- 
brown.     Small:  forearm  about  31  mm M.  microtis. 

No  distinct  cusp  6  to  p^.     (r  very  pronouncedly  chisel- 

•     shaped.)       Basioccipital    pits    very    deep.      No 

transverse  band  between  the  ears.     3rd  and  5th 

metacarpals    subequal,    4th    shortest.      Second 

].halanx  of  third  digit  considerably  longer  than 

iirst Glyphonycferis. 

Calcar  shorter  than  foot. 

Forearm  45-47  mm G.  Behni. 

Forearm  about  405  mm G.  sylvestri^. 

Calcar  longer  than  foot.     Forearm  about  40o  mm.     G.  hrKcIiyotis. 

General  Remarks. 

M.  megalotis. — The  two  races  of  M.  megalotis  are  of  some 
interest  from  a  distributional  point  of  view.  A  vast  longitu- 
dinal tract  of  S.  America,  from  the  Llanos  of  Venezuela  to 
the  Pampas  of  Argentina — now  the  Orinoco  Valley,  tlie 
Upper  Amazons  with  numerous  affluents,  and  the  Parana 
Kiver  system — was,  as  well  known,  in  a  late  geological  epoch 
*  See  footnote  on  p.  ^)r). 

G2  ]\Ii-.  K.  Aiitlerseii  on  (he  Bats  of  tJie 

a  sea,  which,  liowovcr,  probably  was  subdivided  into  a 
northern  and  southern  portion,  comuiunieating  by  a  compa- 
ratively naiTow  sound  between  tiie  Central  Brazilian  and 
Bolivian  highlands.  The  bed  of  the  nurthera  part  of  tins 
ancient  sea  forms,  appro timately ,  the  geographical  line  of 
separation  between  the  two  races  of  M.  megalotis :  broadly 
speaking,  we  find  south,  south-east,  and  east  of  that  line 
(Brazil,  Guiana,  ^'enezuela)  M.  m.  typica  ;  west  and  north- 
west of  the  ancient  sea-hed  (Colombia,  through  Central 
America  to  Mexi(;o)  M.  m.  rnexicana. — Later  on,  the  passage 
from  the  Centi'al  Brazilian  highlands  must  liave  been  easy  to 
Bolivia  and  Peru,  likewise  from  Venezuela  some  distance 
north-westwards  (and  to  coast-islands,  as  Trinidad  and 
Tobago).  That  on  other  points,  too,  some  shifting  of  the 
areas  in  the  course  of  time  has  takju  place  is  only  what  was 
to  be  expected.  It  is,  no  douljt,  in  a  comparatively  late 
period  that  the  species  has  spread  through  Central  America 
to  Mexico. 

M.  minida. — M.  minuta  is  very  closely  related  to  M.  meya- 
lotis ;  the  complete  resemblance  in  the  skulls,  in  the  ears 
and  nose-leaves,  the  strong  development  of  tiie  ear-band,  and 
the  presence  of  a  frontal  groove  in  both  species  tend  to  show- 
that  their  common  origin  cannot  lie  very  far  back.  But  in 
the  strong  reduction  of  p^  and  p^  M.  minuta  has  reached  a 
higher  stage  than  any  other  species  of  the  genus.  The  more 
complicated  ear-band  (prot)ably  making  the  ears  more  inde- 
pendent of  each  other  in  their  movements)  and  the  shortening 
of  the  tail  are  also  evidences  of  a  higher  specialization. 

M.  hirsuta.  —  So  far  as  the  premolars  arc  concerned, 
M.  hirsu/a  is  practically  on  the  same  level  as  J/,  mega/utis 
(though  there  is,  perhaps,  a  slightly  more  pronounced 
tendency  to  reduction  oip^).  But  the  inner  upper  incisors 
(i'j  are  much  less  compressed  antero-posteriorl}',  tlius 
without  that  approximation  to  chisel-shape  so  evident  in  the 
other  species ;  the  skull  is  less  vaulted ;  and  the  band 
between  the  ears  very  low.  Its  origin  from  the  Mirro- 
nycteris  stem  may,  therefore,  be  assumed  to  date  back  to  a 
time  when  these  three  peculiarities  were  not  carried  so  far  as 
in  the  now  living  M.  megalotis. 

GItjpJionycteris. — Some  of  the  peculiarities  which  entitle 
Gli/jj/tonijctcris  to  the  rank  of  a  distinct  genus  arc  already 
foreshadowed  in  Micronycteris.  In  M.  megalotis  and  minuta 
the  cutting-blades  of  the  upper  inner  incisors  (r)  are 
conspicuously  compressed  in  antero-posterior  direction  ;  in 
Glyphonycteris  this  feature  is  carried  to  an  extreme.  lu 
M.  minula  the  principal  cusp  of  p"^  is  situated  very  near  the 

Genera  Microiiyctcris  rn/^Z  (11}  plion^cteris,  {\'.\ 

fiont  of  ilic  tooth  and  tlie  vertical  is  .sliortor  than  tlic  autcro- 
])Ostcrior  basal  diauictcr  ;  the  same  is  the  case  in  (Hi/jtlio- 
tiycteris,  but  at  the  same  time  the  inner  ein^^uliim  (lie(;l)  of 
p'^  is  more  (leve]oi)cd.  The  canines  and  premolars,  both  in 
the  nj)pcr  and  lower  jaw,  are  peculiarly  low,  and  the  antero- 
internal  tubercle  of  p^  (cusp  6)  has  disappeared  (probaljjv 
I'uscd  with  cusp  7).  In  all  these  fea'ures  Gliiphoni/cteris  has 
evidently  arrived  at  a  higlier  (le<>ree  of  s[)ecialization  t!i:in 
Micruni/deris. — The  shallow  depressions  in  the  basioccipital 
of  a  M'icronycteris  have  become  deep  jjits  in  Glyphonycteris ; 
the  anteorbital  region  is  inflated.  This,  too,  is  a  further 
development  of  peculiarities  already  present,  to  some  small 
extent,  in  Microiiycferis. — Ct^-tain  external  characters  aliio 
bear  evidence  of  a  higher  s])eeialization  :  the  lengthening  of 
the  fifth  and  third  metacarpals  (making  the  fourth  the 
shortest)  and  the  lengthening  of  the  second  phalanges,  more 
particularly  the  second  phalanx  of  the  third  digit. — But  in  one 
respect,  at  least,  Gh/jj/w/iyctei'is  seems  to  be  more  primitive 
tlian  any  known  Micrunycteris  :  in  Glyphonycteris  there  is  no 
transverse  band  betwcLMi  the  ears  ;  in  M.  Idrsata  the  band  is 
low,  in  M.  megalotis  high,  in  M.  minuta  both  high  and 
complicated  in  structure. 

The  general  result  of  the  study  of  Gly phony cleris  may  be 
epitomized  as  follows  : — It  has  probably  originated  from  the 
Micronycteris  stem  at  a  period  when  the  transverse  band 
between  the  ears  was  still  not  developed ;  in  certain  characters 
of  the  skull,  in  the  dentition,  and  wiiig-structure  it  has  taken 
a  course  of  its  own,  thereby  partly  further  develoi)ing  such 
peculiarities  as  can  already  be  traced  in  Micronycteris. — The 
three  species  of  GlijplwmiCteris  are  very  closely  allied. 

The  probable  interrelations  of  the  bats  reviewed  above  are 
illustrated  in  the  subjoined  diagram  :  — 







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Ann.  {£•  ^lag.  A'.  Uiat,  Ser.  7.  Te/.  xviii. 

06  ^Ir.  C.  T.  lle^ran  on  new 

XIV. — Descriptlonn  of  Five  new  Freshwater  Fishes  from 
Suraivak,  Burneo,  collected  by  Dr.  C.  Hose.  By  C.  Tate 
Regan,  J3  A. 

Burbus  Hosii. 

Depth  of  body  3|  in  tlie  length,  length  of  head  3^-.  Snout 
a  little  shorter  than  eye,  tlie  diameter  of  which  is  3;^  in  the 
length  of  head,  interorlntal  width  2.  Cleft  of  mouth  ex- 
tending to  beloAV  anterior  margin  of  eye  ;  jaws  equal  ante- 
riorly;  2  barbels  on  each  side,  the  posterior  somewhat  the 
longer,  nearly  ^  the  length  of  head.  Scales  36  ^%  2^  between 
lateral  line  and  root  of  ventral.  Dorsal  III  7,  its  origin 
equidistant  from  tip  of  snout  and  base  of  cauda!  ;  third 
simple  ray  not  enlarged,  |  the  length  of  head.  Anal  III  5, 
when  laid  back  reaching  the  base  of  caudal.  Pectoral  nearly 
reaching  the  ventral ;  ventrals  originating  below  the  middle 
of  dorsal,  extending  nearly  to  the  vent.  Caudal  forked. 
Caudal  peduncle  as  long  as  deep.  A  dark  vertical  stri|)e 
above  the  root  of  the  pectoral,  covered  by  the  opercular  flap  ; 
scales  dark  at  the  edges  ;  fins  p:ile. 

Ear  am  District. 

A  single  specimen,  78  ram.  in  total  length. 

Cosmochilus  falcifer. 

Pharyngeal  teeth  simple,  obtuse,  5.3.  2 — 2  .3.5.  D.^pth 
of  body  2f  in  the  length,  length  of  head  4.  Snout  a 
little  longer  tlian  eye,  tlie  diameter  of  which  is  3;-!  in  the 
length  of  head,  interorbital  width  25.  Mouth  not  or  scarcely 
extending  to  below  the  nostril ;  lower  jaw  shorter  than  the 
upper.  Upper  lip  with  4  series  of  papillae,  the  outer  series 
produced  as  short  barbel-like  processes ;  lower  lip  with 
similar  fringes  ;  anterior  barbel  about  =  the  length  of  head, 
posterior  barbel  nearly  as  long.  Scales  36-39  y^,  5  betwe^-n 
lateral  line  and  root  of  ventral.  Dorsal  IV  8,  its  origin 
slightly  nearer  to  tip  of  snout  than  to  base  of  caudal,  tlie 
fourth  simple  ray  enlarged,  articulated  thn)ughout  and  with 
seriated  posterior  edges,  very  elongate,  when  laid  back  ex- 
tending to  the  caudal ;  anterior  branched  rays  rapidly 
decreasing  in  length,  the  free  margin  of  the  tin  deeply  con- 
cave. Anal  III  0.  Dorsal  and  anal  fins  scaly  at  the  base. 
Pectoral   nearlv  reaching  the  ventral ;    ventrals  originating 

Freshwdler  Ftslies  j'voin  llorneo.  (57 

nrarly  below  the  orij^in  of  dorsal,  cxtciulinp;  to  the  vent. 
Caudal  forked.  Caudal  peduncle  a  little  louf^ar  than  deep. 
Olivaecous ;  scales  with  dark  edges  ;  dor>al  and  caudal 

liaram  llivrr. 

Two  specimens,  each  IfiO  mm.  iu  total  length. 

This  is  the  second  species  of  the  genus  (Joftmochilus, 
Sauvage,  established  in  1878  for  a  Siamese  fish,  C.  Hannandi. 

Liocassis  baramensis. 

Depth  of  body  4.r  in  the  length,  leugth  of  head  3;3.  H.^ad 
1^  as  long  as  broad.  Diameter  of  eye  9  in  the  length  of 
head.  Snout  ol)tnsely  pointed,  a  little  more  than  \  the 
length  of  head,  j)rojectiug  beyond  the  mouth.  Nasal  b  irbel 
nearer  to  eye  than  to  tip  of  snout,  wlien  laid  back  not 
reaching  the  eye ;  maxillary  barbel  ^  the  length  of  head, 
extending  to  below  the  eye ;  head  covered  with  smooth 
skin  ;  occipital  process  twice  as  long  as  broad,  separated  by 
an  inters[)ace  equal  to  \  its  length  from  the  basal  shield  ot 
the  dorsal  spine;  clavicular  process  extending  to  the  middle 
of  the  pectoral  spii'.e.  Vomerine  teeth  in  a  curved  uninter- 
rupted band,  witli  the  median  posterior  projection  rudimen- 
tary. Dorsal  I  7  ;  spine  feebly  serrated  behind,  ^  the  length 
of  head.  Adipose  fin  If  as  long  as  the  base  of  the  dorsal 
and  greater  than  its  distance  from  the  latter.  Anal  14. 
Pectoral  spine  a  little  more  than  \  the  length  of  head,  with 
23  serra^  on  its  inner  edge.  Ventrals  nearly  reaching  the 
origin  of  anal.  Caudal  forked.  Least  depth  of  caudal 
peduncle  1-!  in  tiie  distance  from  the  base  of  last  anal  ray  to 
that  of  the  middle  caudal  rays,  which  is  5;i  in  the  length  of 
the  lish.  Brownish,  with  2  oblong  pale  areas  on  each  side 
of  the  posterior  part  of  the  body  above  the  lateral  line,  the 
second  small  and  well-separatecl  from  the  first ;  similar  pale 
areas  below  the  lateral  line  are  coniluent  and  the  anterior  meets 
that  of  the  other  side  in  front  of  the  anal  fin;  fins  more  or 
less  blackish  at  the  base  and  with  blackish  intramarginal 

Bar  am  River. 

A  single  specimen,  190  mm.  in  total  length. 

Liocassis  Hosii. 

Depth  of  body  about  5  in  the  length,  length  of  head  3-3|. 
Head  1|  or  1^  as  long  as  broad.  Diameter  of  eye  7-9|  in 
the  length  of  head.     Snout   obtusely  pointed,   I   the  length 

68  On  nevj  Freslivxiter  Fishes  from  Borneo. 

of  head,  projecting  beyond  the  nioutli.  Nasal  barbel  nearer 
to  (ye  than  to  tip  of  snout,  when  laid  back  extending  to  the 
eye;  maxillary  barbel  ^  to  },  the  length  of  head,  extending 
Ijeyond  the  eye  ;  head  covered  Mith  smooth  .»kin  ;  occipital 
process  about  iwicc  as  long  as  broad,  separated  by  an  inter- 
space Avhich  is  less  than  its  own  length  from  the  basal  shield, 
of  the  dorsal  spine;  clavicular  process  extending  to  the 
middle  of  the  pectoral  sjiine.  Vomerine  teeth  in  a  curved 
nninteiTuptcd,  uith  the  median  posterior  projection 
rudimentary  or  Avanting.  Dorsal  I  7  ;  spine  feebly  serrated 
behind,  about  .',  tlie  length  of  head.  Adipose  fin  1.^,-2  as 
long  as  the  hase  of  dorsal  and  equal  to  or  greater  than  its 
distance  from  the  latter.  Anal  13-16.  Pectoral  spine  about 
J  the  length  of  head,  with  16-21  serrse  on  its  inner  edge. 
Ventrals  nearly  or  quite  reaching  the  origin  of  anal.  Caudal 
forked.  Least  depth  of  caudal  peduncle  2.^,-2|  in  its  length. 
Brownish ;  on  each  side  2  or  3  oblong  pale  areas  both  above 
and  below  the  lateral  line;  fins  blackish  at  the  base  and 
with  blackish  marginal  or  intramarginal  bands;  caudal,  in 
addition,  with  a  blackish  spot  on  each  lobe. 


Six  specimens,  measuring  up  to  170  mm.  iu  total  length. 

Macrones  baramensis. 

Depth  of  body  4|  in  the  length,  length  of  head  3:?.  Breadth 
of  head  1^^  in  its  length,  diameter  of  eye  5.  Snout  \  the 
length  of  head,  broad,  obtuse,  slightly  projecting  beyond  the 
moutli.  Palatine  bands  of  teeth  confluent  with  the  small 
vomerine  patch.  Nasal  barbel  nearer  to  erd  of  snout  than 
to  eye,  },  the  length  of  head  ;  maxillary  barbel  extending  to 
the  posterior  end  of  the  adipose  fin.  Head  covered  with 
smooth  skin;  occipital  process  very  long  and  slender,  6  times 
as  long  as  broad,  extending  beneath  the  skin  to  the  basal 
shield  of  the  dorsal  spine.  Clavicular  process  not  reaching 
the  middle  of  the  pectoral  sjjine.  Dorsal  I  7,  the  spine 
weakly  serrated  behind,  a  little  more  than  \  the  length  of 
head  ;  anterior  branched  rays  f  the  length  of  head.  Adipose 
fin  commencing  at  a  distance  from  the  dorsal  which  is  equal 
to  f  the  length  of  its  own  base,  wliich  is  equal  to  its  distance 
from  the  dorsal  spine.  Anal  11.  Pectoral  spine  about  r! 
the  length  of  head,  with  moderately  strong  serne  on  the 
inner  edge.  Ventrals  not  quite  reaching  the  anal.  Caudal 
forked.  Caudal  peduncle  1^'  as  long  as  deep.  Brownish, 
fins  dusky. 

Baiam  river. 

One  specimen,  150  mm.  in  total  length. 

J^escrijif/'oiis  and  luconls  nf  Burs.  G9 

XV. —  Drsrri/jlioHS  and  Records  of  Bees. — XH. 
By  '[\  D.  A.  C'()(Ki;iu:i.i,,  University  (jf  Colorado. 

Numada  (X(tn//iidiiiiii)  si/hri'ti/a,  Lovell  &  Ckll.,  IDOj. 

IJoiilder,  Coloi'ado,  at  Howrrs  of  l^uls.itilld  hlrsutis.sunn, 
01)0  cT,  -May  1,  V.m\  [Marie  Gill). 

Tliis  species  was  previous! >'  known  ])y  a  siu^^le  niak;  taken 
ill  Maine.  The  Colorado  exa!n[)!c  has  the  tl.igelliiin  duller 
and  distinctly  denticulate,  and  the  b.  n.  passes  a  short  distance 
basad  of  the  t.-m.,  but  they  otherwise  agree.  In  my  table 
oF  Rocky  Mountain  species  the  insect  runs  to  N.  civilh,  from 
uhieh  it  is  easily  known  by  the  denticulate  flagclluin  and 
other  characters.  Jt  is  m  arcst  to  N.  late doi  les,  llol)ertson, 
and  it  is  not  unlikely  that  it  will  [)rove  to  be  only  sub- 
specifically  distinct. 

Xomuda  pulsatillce,  sp.  n. 

?  . — Length  about  7\  min. 

Red  and  black,  Avith  no  yellow  anywhere ;  mandibles 
simple;  liead  broad,  facial  quadrangle conspicuous'y  ])roader 
than  long ;  head  nd,  uith  the  cheeks  posteriorly,  a  large 
jiatch  enclosing  the  ocelli,  the  middle  of  front  (enclosing  no 
red  spot),  the  region  about  autcnnai,  and  a  broad  mark 
extending  halfway  down  sides  of  clypeus  all  black;  the 
supraclypeal  area  is  black,  v;'\i\\  a  red  spot;  hair  of  head  and 
thorax  above  fuscous,  black  on  scutellum  and  scape;  that  on 
metathorax,  pleura,  and  cheeks  pallid;  antennae  long,  en- 
tirely ferruginous,  third  joint  about  as  long  as  fourth ; 
mesothorax  coarsely  rugoso-punctate,  red,  with  a  broad 
median  black  stripe  ;  scutellum  red,  tiattish^  and  not 
bilobed  ;  metathorax  nearly  all  red  except  a  broad  median 
black  band  ;  pleura  red ;  tegulse  shining  coppery  red,  rather 
closely  punctured.  Wings  very  dark  at  apex,  stigma  ferru- 
ginous, nervures  dark  fuscous  ;  second  not  especially 
broad  above  ;  b.  n.  a  moderate  distance  basad  of  t.-m.  Legs 
bright  red,  the  cox^e  and  trochanters  marked  with  red,  and 
the  hind  femora  with  two  more  or  less  suffused  black  stripes 
behind ;  hind  tibiae  and  tarsi  behind  with  fine  golden 
tomentum.  Abdomen  broad,  oval  in  form_,  very  shiny 
chestnut-red,  the  hind  margins  of  the  first  two  segments 
strongly  blackened,  but  not  really  banded;  first  segment 
with  a  broad  black  mark  (enclosing  a  red  dot)  on  each  side 

70  Mr.  T.  D.  A.  CockcvcW— Descriptions  and 

of  base  and  a  linear  one  in  the  midflle  ;  apical  band  of 
tomentum  on  fifth  segment  narrow;  pygidial  plate  broa'ily 
rounded  ;  venter  red,  without  markings. 

Hub.  Boulder,  Colora-^lo,  at  flowers  of  Pahalilla  hirsu- 
tis.nma,  h\n'\\  20,  190f)  [Cocherell]. 

In  the  table  of  Rocky  Mountain  species  (Bull.  94,  Colo. 
Exp.  Sta.)  this  runs  to  6S,  and  runs  out  because  the  abdomen 
has  no  yellow  spots.  From  N.  Packardiella  it  differs  by  the 
much  broader  abdomen,  without  yellow  spots  or  distinct 
black  bands,  the  golden  pile  on  the  entirely  red  hind  til)i;e, 
&c.  From  N.  Clurkii  it  differs  by  its  smaller  size  and  the 
details  of  the  coloration  of  the  abdomen,  but  the  two  are 
closely  allied.  From  A^.  latifrons  it  differs  by  the  broad 
abdomen  &c.     It  is  also  related  to  N.  valida. 

There  is  quite  a  strong  superficial  resemblance  (as  seen 
•without  a  lens)  to  A^.  poh/acantha,  Perez,  from  Barbary,  but 
that  species  has  the  b.  n.  meeting  t.-m.,  the  raesothorax 
black,  &c. 

Nomada  undulaticoniis,  sp.  n. 

^. —  Length  about  8  mm. 

Black,  lemon-yellow,  and  ferruginous  ;  mandibles  simple  ; 
anterior  coxae  pointed  at  apex,  but  not  spined  ;  head  coarsely 
sculptured,  black,  with  the  labrum,  base  of  mandibles,  clypeus 
except  u])per  lateral  margins,  and  lateral  face-marks  (ending 
very  narrowly  on  orbital  margins  below  level  of  antenna), 
all  yellow  ;  facial  quadrangle  longer  than  broad  ;  pubescence 
of  head  and  thorax  rather  abundant,  pallid,  with  an  ochreous 
tint,  face  with  appressed  silky  hair;  scape  not  greatly 
swollen,  yellow  in  front ;  flagellum  ycllowisli  ferruginous 
beneath,  above  black  about  as  far  as  the  eighth  (antennal) 
joint ;  third  antennal  joint  about  as  long  as  the  fouith, 
apical  joint  pointed  ;  joints  G  to  9  strongly  undulate  beneath, 
or,  one  might  say,  tubereulate  ;  mesothorax  entirely  black, 
very  coarsely  and  conHuently  rugoso-punetate  ;  tubercles  red  ; 
a  small  red  maik  on  anterior  i)art  of  pleura  ;  scutcllum 
strongly  big.bbose  (mammiform),  the  gibbosities  red  ;  mcia- 
thorax  entiiely  bUu  k,  rugoso-plicate  basally  ;  teguhe  red, 
dullish,  cloSL'ly  punctured.  \Vings  strongly  dusky  at  apex, 
stigma  ferruginous,  ncrvurcs  fuscous;  second  s.m.  rather 
narrow;  b.  n.  going  only  just  basad  of  the  oblique  t.-m. 
Legs  red,  coxie  largely  black,  middle  femora  with  the  basal 
two  fifths  behind  l)lack  ;  hind  femora  mostly  suflused  with 
black   on  both   sides.     Abdomen   broad,  convex,   dark    ml, 

Recorih  of  Beof!.  71 

with  tlio  basal  halt'  of  the  first  segment  black,  the  apical 
margins  of  the  first  two  scj^incnts  infnscatcd  ;  the  cvtriMne 
bases  of  the  second  to  I'onrth  (at  least)  se'i;nicnts  black  ;  the 
second  segment  with  a  lai'ge  yellow  patch  on  each  side,  the 
third  to  fifth  with  yellow  bauds,  very  narrowly  interrupted 
in  the  middle,  the  sixth  with  a  large  transverse  yellow  patch; 
apical  plate  dce|)ly  notched,  only  moderately  broad ;  venter 
with  a  few  small  yellow  murks. 

llah.  15()ulder,  (^Jolorado,  at  flowers  of  Pulsatilla  lursu- 
iissima,  \[)Vi\  20,  VX):')  {fV.  l\  Cockarell). 

I  thought  at  first  that  this  was  the  male  of  N.  pulsatillce, 
but  there  are  so  many  differences  that  it  seems  best  to  regard 
it  as  distinct.  In  the  table  of  Rocky  Mountain  species  it 
runs  to  G2,  but  runs  out  because  of  the  rather  small  size 
and  red  on  scutcllum.  It  is  known  from  N.  vicinalis  by  its 
smaller  size,  total  absence  of  yellow  on  thorax,  &c.  There 
seems  to  be  some  affinity  with  N.  denliculata,  Rob. 

Nomada  flammigera,  sp.  n. 

?  . — Length  just  over  8  mm. 

^landibles  simple;  head  and  thorax  red,  with  black 
markings  and  no  yellow  ;  alxlomen  narrow,  light  red,  with  a 
sericeous  surface,  and  a  round  cream-coloured  spot  on  each 
side  of  second  segment,  but  no  other  light  mirkings.  Head 
broad,  face  conspicuously  broader  above  than  below  ;  labruni 
with  a  small  tubercle;  front  above  antennae  broadly  black, 
but  no  black  at  sides  of  clypeus;  ocelli  on  a  small  transverse 
black  area;  cheeks  posteriorly  black;  antennae  long,  all  red, 
except  that  the  end  of  scape  is  black  behind;  third  joint 
conspicuously  shorter  than  fourth,  but  still  much  over  half 
its  length  ;  hair  of  head  and  thorax  very  scanty  above,  but 
snow-white  patches  showing  on  cheeks  beneath,  lower  part 
of  pleura,  metathorax,  &c.  ;  mcsothorax  with  a  median  black 
band,  the  red  on  each  side  of  which  is  deeply  incised  by 
black  anteriorly,  producing  the  appearance  of  flames ; 
scutellum  and  metathorax  red,  the  latter  with  a  rather  weak 
black  band;  pleura  and  tubercles  red;  tegulie  light  red. 
Wings  dusky,  especially  at  apex,  with  the  usual  light  area; 
stigma  and  nervures  fuscous;  second sm.  broad  above,  thiid 
narrowed  almost  to  a  point ;  b.  n.  passing  far  basad  of  t.-m. 
Legs  red  ;  middle  femora  blackened  at  base;  hind  femora 
much  blackened  in  front  and  behind  ;  spurs  creamy  white  ; 
basal  joint  of  hind  tarsi  black,  contrasting  with  the  bright 
red  til)ia  and  the  red  small  joints  of  tarsi.     Abdomen  without 

72  ^Ir.  '\\  1).  A.  Cockercll — Description!^  and 

biack  above,  except  a  couple  of  black  spots  on  each  extreme 
side  oF  first  sef^nicnt  ;  beneath,  the  first  segment  has  a  lar^e 
black  fish-tail  mark,  the  prongs  long,  and  the  hind  margins 
of  the  first  two  segments  are  suffused  with  dusky. 

J/ab.  N.  Yakima,  Washington  State,  May  15,  19.)'} 
{Eldred  Jenne). 

From  Mr.  Melander,  with  his  no.  18,  In  the  table  of 
Rrjcky  Mountain  species  this  runs  to  70,  but  is  quite  distinct 
from  N.  Sai/i.  In  Robertson's  table  it  runs  to  4  (.V.  Cres- 
sonii  and  Sai/i),  but  is  not  identical  with  tlie  species  there 
indicated.  The  insect  remintls  one  strongly  of  some  of  the 
species  of  Gnuthias. 

Also  at  N,  Yakima,  but  on  June  5,  ?>rr.  Jenne  took 
Nomada  erijthrochroa,  Ckll.,  of  which  only  one  specimen 
(from  Pasco)  was  previously  known. 

Centris  Morsei  marij'inata  (  Fox). 

The  Centris  marginata  of  Fox  is  evidently  only  a  variety 
of  Morsei,  as  Mr.  Fox  suspected.  The  original  type,  which 
is  before  me,  shows  that  the  abdomen  is  not  bare,  as  Fo.x 
states,  but  is  pruinose-pubescent  exactly  as  in  Morsei.  The 
lack  of  pubescence  on  the  middle  of  the  thorax  is  due  to 
abrasion.  Tiie  fourth  antennal  joint  is  red  beneath.  A 
second  specimen  of  this  form  has  been  taken  by  Dr.  F.  H. 
Snow  at  the  San  Bernardino  Ranch,  Douglas,  Ariz  )ua, 
3750  feet,  August. 

Centris  atripes,  Mocsary. 

Renewed  study  convinces  me  that  C.  Foxi,  Friese,  must 
fall  as  a  synonym  of  C.  atripes.  The  species  is  to  be  added 
to  the  fauna  of  Arizona,  as  Dr.  F.  H.  Snow  took  two  males 
at  the  San  Hernardino  Ranch  in  August.  At  the  same 
locality  Dr.  Snow  took  Protoxcea  gloriosa  (Fox),  also  new  to 

Oaaa  tristis,  Gr.bodo. 

San  Bernardino  Ranch,  Arizona,  Aug.  {F.  II.  Sjiow). 
!Ncw  to  the  United  States. 

Xcnor/lossodes  eriocarpi  (Ckll.). 

Brownsville,  Texas,  June  {F.  H.  Snow).  This  record 
extends  the  known  range  ab^ut  four  degrees  south. 

Records  of  Bees.  73 

Aathopkorula  compaclula^  Ckll. 

Brownsville,  Texas,  June,  2  c{ ,  3  ?  (/'"•  /-/.  Snow).  New 
to  Texas. 

All  of  tlicse  liavc  only  two  submar^iual  eells,  apparently 
indicating  that  this  is,  after  all,  the  noraiaJ  eoiulition  of  the 
species.  The  eyes  ot"  the  female  are  of  a  beautiful  deep 
sea-greeu  (bluish-green)  colour. 

Exomalopsis  Snowi,  sp.  n, 

c?.—  Length  about  7h  mm. 

Black,  with  coarse  pale  fulvous  pubescence  ;  clypeus  black  ; 
labrum  dull  yellowish  white ;  mandibles  mainly  rufous  ; 
autennie  ferruginous,  the  llagelluni  subfuscous  above,  wntli 
the  sutures  darker;  teguUe  large,  shining,  translucent 
apricot-colour.  Wings  hyaline,  slightly  yellowish,  the  apex 
broadly  dusky;  the  large  stigma  and  the  nervures  ferru- 
ginous. Abdomen  rather  pointed  for  an  Exumalupsis, 
having  the  sides  and  apex  of  the  first  segment  and  base  of 
the  second  broadly  ferruginous  ;  no  distinct  hair-bands  on 
abdomen,  but  much  long  coarse  hair.  Legs  bright  ferru- 
ginous, the  long  plumose  hair  on  hind  tarsi  behind  largely 
blackened  ;  hair  of  legs  otherwise  very  pale  fulvous.  Labial 
palpi  with  first  joint  more  than  twice  length  of  second  ; 
maxillary  palpi  loug  and  slender.  Face  densely  covered 
with  silky  pale  fulvous  hair;  eyes  daa'k  sea-green;  meso- 
thorax  very  shiny,  with  strong  punctures  except  in  the 
middle,  where  it  is  impunctate;  second  siibmarginal  cell 
variable,  narrow  and  much  narrowed  above,  or  comparatively 
broad,  receiving  the  first  r.  n.  very  near  the  apex,  or  not 
much  beyond  the  middle ;  b.  n.  meeting  t.-m.,  or  passing  a 
short  distance  basad  of  it. 

Huns  in  Friese's  table  (1899)  to  6,  and  runs  out  because 
of  the  red  legs  &c. 

Hah.  Brownsville,  Texas,  June,  3  S  (F.  H.  Snow). 

Xenoglossa  pruinosa  Umitaris,  subsp.  n, 

(5* . — Clypeus  without  any  yellow  spot ;  hair  of  head 
cinereous,  with  black  hairi  sparsely  intermixed  on  face  and 
vertex  ;  hair  of  thorax  above  pale,  with  only  a  slight  fulvous 
tint.  Legs  red,  more  or  less  clouded  with  blackish  ;  abdomen 
very  black  and  shiny,  with  the  usual  bands  much  reduced. 

Looks  like  a  distinct  species,  but  I  find  no  structural 
differences  from  pruinosa. 

Hak  Brownsville,  Texas,  June  {F.  H.  Snow). 
Ann.  {J&  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  )'o/.  xviii.  (i 

74  Descriptions  and  Records  of  Bees. 

Andrena  nigritula,  n.  n. 

Anch-ena  nujrita,  Morawitz,  in  Fedtschenko,  Tiirliestan   Mellifera,  ii. 
1876,  p.  196  (not  of  Fabricius,  1775^. 

Dasiapis  olivacea  (Cresson). 

Brownsville,  Texas,  June,  both  sexes  (F.  H.  Snotv).  Xew 
to  Texas. 

Teiralonia  Edicurdm  vagahunda,  Ckll. 

In  my  original  acoonnt  of  this  bee  (Trans.  Amer.  Ent.  Soc. 
xxxii.  p.  95)  I  stated  that  it  Avas  from  flowers  of  Onosmodlum. 
During  my  absence  in  June  1905  my  wife  collected  a  series 
of  bees  from  the  flowers  of  a  plant  which  she  took  to  be 
Pliacelia,  and  so  labelled  them.  I  did  not  sec  the  plant  in 
flower,  but  later  in  the  year  we  found  what  appeared  to  be 
the  same,  with  abundant  fruit,  and  it  was  Oiwsmodiuin  caro- 
linianum.  This  year  we  have  found  the  original  plant  in 
flower,  and  it  is  Phacelia  heterophylla,  Pursh ;  but  growing 
in  the  same  places,  and  almost  exactly  similar  in  foliage  and 
manner  of  growth,  is  the  Onosmodivm.  Such  resemblance 
])etween  two  plants  growing  under  the  same  conditions,  but 
of  different  families  and  having  quite  difl^crent  flowers,  is 

The  following  bees  were  taken  by  my  wife  from  flowers  of 
Phacelia  heterophylla  at  Boulder : — Halictus  meliloti,  Ckll., 
DiaUctvs    anomahis    (Bob.),    Alcidamea   simplex    (Cresson),' 
Megachile  brevis,  Say,  Tetralonia  Edivardsii  vagabiinda,  Ckll., 
('craiina  nnnnla,  Ckll.,  an.d  C.  neomexicana,  Ckll. 

At  Ward,  Colorado  (9000  feet),  a  Phacelia  closely  allied 
to  heteropIiylJa  was  found  in  quantity.  It  was  recorded  at 
the  time  as  P.  circinata,  following  Coulter's  manual ;  but  it 
is  not  the  true  species  of  that  name,  and  1  suppose  that  it 
must  belong  to  P.  alpina,  Rydberg,  1900.  It  proved  veiy 
attractive  to  bees,  and  the  following  were  collected  on  it  at 
Ward  in  July  by  my  wife  and  myself: — Colletes phaceVite, 
Ckll.,  AnHiidium  emarginotiim,  Say,  A.  conspicuum,  Cress., 
Osmia  projji7i(jna,  Cress.,  Mommwiha  argent  if rons,  Cress., 
Megachile  latimanus,  Say,  M.  vidua,  Smith,  Bombus  Ed- 
na rdsii,  Cress.,  var.,  B.  iridis  phacelicp,  Ckll. 

Thygater,  Ilolmberg. 

In  Trans.  Amer.  Ent.  Soc.  xxxii.  p.  115,  I  called  attention 
to  the  identity  of  Thygater  vitli  Macroglossapis,  and  gave 
reasons  for  supposing  that  the  latter  had  priority.     I  Icaru 

On  new  Species  of  AcviaUJie  from  Ut/antli.  75 

from  Mr.  J.  C.  Crawford,  however,  that  Ilohnhcrg,  in  Actes 
Acad.  Cordoha,  v.  p.  133  (ISSi),  remarked  that  Tetrulonia 
tcDiiinntu,  Smith,  had  only  three  joints  to  the  maxillary 
palpi,  and  might  form  a  new  genus  Thuyaler.  This  slight 
referenec  has  lieen  overlooked  by  all  suhsetiuent  authors,  but 
1  think  it  will  hold  the  name,  giving  Thyyatcr  priority. 
The  genus  eonsists  of  the  following  known  species  : — 
Thygater  terminata  (Sm.),  T.  cJirysophora,  llolmbg., 
T.  anulis  (Lep.),  T.  albilabris  (Cress.),  T.  montezuma  (Cress.), 
7'.  modesta  (Sm.),  T.  rubricata  (Sm.). 

Bombus  Kuhli,  n.  n. 

Bombus  carhonarius,  Ilandlirsch,  Ann.  natuib.  Ilofmus.  "Wien,  1888, 
p.  242.     (S.  America.) 

The  name  is  changed  because  of  B.  carbunarius,  Mcngc, 
185G,  from  Prussian  amber.  As  Friese  has  already  named 
a  Bombus  after  Dr.  Handlirseli,  the  present  insect  may  bear 
the  name  of  another  distinguished  naturalist  of  Vienna.  I 
possess  tlie  species  from  Villa  Encarnacion,  Paraguay, 
collected  by  Mr.  Schrottky.  Dr.  Ilandlirsch,  to  whom  1 
wrote  concerning  the  preoccupation  of  curbonarius,  replied 
that  he  did  not  himself  intend  to  propose  a  substitute. 

Sphecodes  hesperellus  puIsatillcE,  subsp.  n. 

?  . — Like  S.  hesperellus,  Ckll.,  but  somewhat  larger;  the 
wings  longer  (abont  7  mm.),  i/«cA'?67/,  quite  dark,  not  reddish 
as  they  are  in  hesperellus  ;  abdomen  darker,  deep  chestnut- 
colour;  rugse  of  metathoracic  enclosnre  more  numerous, 
very  distinct.  Superficially  like  S.  pecosensis,  Ckll.,  but 
very  distinct  by  the  shining  mesothorax,  with  scattered 
punctures.  The  first  abdominal  segment  is  sparsely 

Hub.  Boulder,  Colorado,  at  flowers  of  Pulsatilla  hirsu- 
iissima,  April  20,  19(J6  {W.  P.  Cockerell). 

XVI. — Descriptions  of  Two  new  Species  o/ Acrte id se/rom 
Entebbe^  Uganda.     By  Emily  Mary  ShaRPE. 

Family  Acrseidae. 
Acrcea  cerita. 

Allied  to  A.  cerasa,  Hewits.,  but  is  at  once  distinguished 
from  that  species   by   the   greyish-black  discal  band  on  the 

76  On  new  Species  0/ Acraelcl?e /ro/^i  Ujandi. 

fore  wing,  extending  from  the  costa  to  the  inner  margin  ami 
enclosing  the  rufous-brown  basal  area  ;  the  black  spot  in  the 
discoidal  cell  smaller  and  with  two  extra  black  spots  visible 
above  the  submedian  nervure.  Hind  wing  with  a  greyish- 
black  border  on  the  hind  margin,  the  rest  of  the  wing  rufou> 
brown  relieved  by  black  spots,  somewhat  smaller  in  size  and 
less  in  number  than  in  A.  cerasa. 

Underside  does  not  differ  from  the  allied  species  mentioned 
above;  the  black  spots  on  the  basal  area  of  bjth  Avings  not 
so  strongly  indicated. 

Expanse  1*6  inches. 

Hah.  Entebbe,  Uganda. 

Type  iu  the  collection  of  Mr.  II.  Grose-Smith. 

Planema  macarista. 

Allied  to  P.  macaria^  Godt.,  and  P.  alicia,  Grose-Smith. 

Male. — Fore  wing  with  the  ground-colour  dark  brownisli 
black;  a  broad  ochraceous  band  crossing  the  discal  area  from 
the  costa  to  the  inner  margin,  where  it  extends  to  the 
jjosterior  angle. 

Hind  iving  resembling  that  of  P.  alicia,  the  white  band 
crossing  the  discal  area  having  a  suffusion  of  ochraceous  buff 
on  the  costal  area  and  on  the  brown  hind- marginal  border. 
Basal  area  dark  brown,  with  black  spots  rather  strongly 

Underside  similar  to  that  of  P.  alicia,  the  basal  area  of  the 
hind  wing  chestnut-brown  thickly  covered  with  black  spots. 

Expanse  2"6  inches. 

The  female  is  somewhat  larger  than  the  male  and  is  black 
and  white. 

Fore  wing  with  the  ground-colour  brownish  black,  relieved 
by  a  broad  white  band  on  the  subapical  area ;  the  inner  edge 
more  sharply  defined  on  the  basal  edge. 

Hind  wing  with  the  white  discal  area  broader,  especially 
on  the  inner  margin  ;  the  basal  area  darker  and  with  smaller 
black  spots  than  in  P.  inacaria. 

Underside  not  differing  from  that  of  the  male  in  markings, 
only  in  the  black  and  white  ground-colour. 

Expanse  o'3  inches. 

llab.  Entebbe,  Uganda. 

Types  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  H.  Grose-Smith. 





No.  104.  AUGUST  1006. 

XVII. —  Descripfion<i  of  some  neio  Species  of  [Literocp-ra  from 
Tropical Smth  America.     By  Herbi!:ut  Druce,  F.  L.S.  &.c. 

Family  Syntomidae. 
Mesothen  mysia,  sp,  n. 

^FaJe. — Head,  antennre,  palpi,  and  legs  black ;  collar, 
tegulje,  thorax,  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  abdomen  banded 
with  black.  Primaries  hyaline,  the  costal  margin,  apex, 
outer  maroin,  and  veins  all  black  :  secondaries  hyaline ;  veins, 
apex,  and  inner  margin  black. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Ilah.  S.E.  Peru,  La  Oroya,  E,io  Iiiambari,  3000  feet  {Mus. 
Druce) . 

Mesothen  Jlavicostata ,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  tegulre,  thorax,  and  abdomen  yellow ; 
palpi  black  ;  antennte  black,  the  shaft  white  for  more  than 
half  length  ;  two  black  spots  on  the  thorax  and  one  on  each 
of  the  tegulas;  abdomen  with  a  bluish-black  spot  on  each 
segment  trom  the  base  to  the  anus  and  with  a  double  row  of 
small  black  spots  on  each  side  ;  the  anus  black ;  legs  yellow. 
Primaries  hyaline,  the  base  and  costal  margin  to  the  apex 
yellow,  the  apex  and  outer  margin  black  :  secondaries  hyaline, 
the  apex  and  inner  margin  black  ;   veins  all  black. 

Expanse  1\  incli. 

Hab.   S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 
Ann.  &  Mag.  N.  Hist.   Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  7 

78  Mr.  II.  Dnice  oa 

Cusmosorna  ])i/t>ia,  i>\\  ii. 

Male. — Head,  antennae,  and  palpi  black;  collar  and  tegulse 
yellow,  edged  with  black  ;  thorax  black  ;  a  blue  spot  on  each 
side  of  tlie  head ;  abdomen  yellow,  the  second  and  third 
segments  black,  with  bright  metallic-blue  spots  on  each  side; 
anal  segments  blacky  spotted  with  metallic  blue.  Primaries 
hyaline,  yellow  at  the  base,  the  apex  and  outer  margin 
broadly  black,  the  veins  all  black:  secondaries  hyaline,  the 
apex  and  outer  margin  black,  the  inner  margin  orange. 
Underside  very  similar  to  the  iipperside,  but  both  wings  more 
orange  at  the  base. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

JIab.  W.  Central  Trinidad,  Caparo  (Mus.  Druce). 

Cosmosoma  villia,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antenna,  collar,  thorax,  abdomen,  and  legs 
brownish  yellow,  the  collar  w'ith  two  black  spots  in  front ; 
tegulaj  black,  edged  with  yellow  ;  the  segments  of  the  abdo- 
men edged  with  yellow  and  black ;  a  double  row  of  metallic- 
blue  spots  extends  down  the  abdomen  from  the  base  to  the 
anus.  Primaries  and  secondaries  yellowish  hyaline,  the 
hinges  of  both  wings  black. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

JJab.  Peru  (Mas.  Druce). 

RJiyncho2)yga  setnirofa,  sp.  n. 

^fale. — Head,  antenna,  palpi,  and  thorax  black  ;  collar 
and  tegulae  bright  red  ;  abdomen  bright  red,  with  a  central 
black  line  from  the  base  to  the  anus;  underside  of  the  thorax 
and  legs  black  ;  a  laige  white  spot  at  the  base  of  the  abdo- 
men. Primaries  brownish  hyaline,  red  at  the  base  ;  the  veins 
all  black,  the  apex  and  outer  margin  broadly  black  :  second- 
aries brownish  hyaline,  the  apex,  outer  margin,  and  veins 
black.  The  underside  of  both  wings  with  the  veins  red  from 
the  base  to  the  black  margins. 

Expanse  1  inch. 

JJab.  Peru,  La  Mercede,  2000-3000  feet  {Mus.  Dntce). 

\  Eurota  elegans,  sp.  n. 

'Male. — Head,  antenna,  palpi,  tegula,  legs,  and  anus  black  ; 
collar  pale  yellow  ;  abdomen  pale  yellow,  the  basal  segment 
and  the  sides  of  the  second  and  third  segments  bright  red. 
Primaries  black,  the  base  pale  yellow;  a   white  hyaline  spot 

new  Species  of  Iltterocera.  79 

at  tlie  end  of  the  cell  and  a  lai<j;er  one  below;  an  apical  Ijand 
of  five  hyaline  white  spots  croddcs  the  wing  from  the  coital  to 
the  outer  margin  :  secondaries  black,  the  base  pale  yellow ; 
a  rather  large  hyaline  white  Sj)ot  about  the  middle;  the  inner 
margin  red  at  the  base.  Underside  very  similar  to  the 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Ilab.  Paraguay  [Mas.  Druce). 

^[ethysia  hilda,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennte,  palpi,  abdomen,  and  legs  black  ; 
collar,  tegulte,  thorax,  and  basal  segments  of  the  abdomen 
bright  scarlet.  Primaries  and  secondaries  dusky  semihyaline 
black ;  veins  all  black,  apex  and  outer  margin  black. 

Expanse  1  inch. 

Hah.  S.E.  Peru,  La  Oroya,  liio  Inambari,  3000  feet  [Mas. 

Pseudaclytia  major,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennae,  palpi,  collar,  tegulse,  thorax,  and 
abdomen  brownish  black,  the  back  of  the  head  reddish  orange  ; 
legs  brownish  black.  Primaries  brownish  black,  palest  from 
the  apex  to  the  anal  angle,  the  veins  all  black  :  secondaries 
whitish  hyaline,  the  apex  and  outer  margin  clouded  with 
black,  the  veins  black.  The  underside  very  similar  to  the 
upperside. — Female  almost  identical  with  the  male. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Hah.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000 feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Allied  to  Pseudaclytia  minor,  Schaus. 

Napata  superba,  sp.  n. 

Male. — H(.ad,  antennse,  and  thorax  black;  palpi  black, 
white  in  front  ;  collar,  tegulse,  and  abdomen  bright  metallic 
blue,  underside  of  the  abdomen  white.  Primaries  black,  the 
basal  half  of  the  wing  very  bright  metallic  blue  ;  two  small 
metallic-blue  spots  in  front  of  the  cell ;  apex  white  :  second- 
aries black,  the  base  and  central  part  of  the  wing  bright 
metallic  blue,  the  apex  white.  The  underside  very  similar 
to  the  upperside. — Female  like  the  male. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

Hab.  Peru,  La  Mercede,  2000-3000  feet  {Mus.  Bruce). 

Allied  to  Napata  albiplaga,  Walker,  and  Napata  qujdri- 
strigata,  Hampson. 


80  .Mr.  II.  Druce  on 

Eucerfon  OcJcendeni,  sp,  11. 

MaJe. — ITead,  antennaB,  and  collar  black  ;  sides  of  the  head 
and  tcgulaj  -vvliitc,  the  tegulaj  edged  witli  white;  thorax  and 
abdomen  black,  the  sides  of  the  abdomen  spotted  with  yellow  ; 
the  anus  black  ;  legs  black  ;  the  base  of  the  abdomen  on  the 
underside  white.  Primaries  white,  with  black  markings 
very  similar  to  Eucureon  Davidi,  Dogn.,  but  much  finer  and 
more  broken  up  into  spots:  secondaries  hyaline  white,  the 
apex  broadly  black,  the  outer  margin  edged  with  black. 

Expanse  2  inches. 

JJal>.  S.E.  Peru,  Aqualani,  10,000  feet  {Mus.  Druce). 

Eucereon  antonio,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennae,  and  palpi  black  ;  back  of  the  head 
yellow  ;  collar,  tegulse,  thorax,  and  basal  half  of  the  abdomen 
dark  brown,  tegulai  edged  with  grey;  the  four  anal  segments 
of  the  abdomen  bright  red ;  the  anus  black  ;  legs  dark 
brown.  Priniaries  yellowish  brown,  the  spots  and  markings 
all  black,  the  veins  yellow^ish  :  secondaries  black-brown. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Bob.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Allied  to  Eucereon  lufulentum,  Aloschl. 

Eucereon  pallada,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  and  thorax  pale  fawn-colour  stnaked 
with  black  ;  antennje  and  palpi  black;  abdomen  above  bright 
red,  the  base,  anus,  and  a  line  on  both  sides  black  ;  the  under- 
side orange-yellow.  Primaries  pale  fawn-colour,  streaked 
with  black  between  the  veins  ;  the  fringe  yellowish  :  second- 
aries semihyaline  pale  brown,  darkest  at  the  apex  and  round 
the  outer  margin. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

}Jab.  South  Brazil,  Parana  [Mus.  Druce). 

Eucereon  iynota,  sp.  n. 

Male. —  Head,  antennae,  palpi,  collar,  tegula^,  thorax,  and 
abdomen  brownish  grey  ;  legs  whitish.  Primaries  dusky 
while,  thickly  lined  with  dark  grey;  the  fringe  white: 
secoiu^aries  semihyaline  white,  the  apex  and  outer  margin 
broadly  banded  with  black.  Underside  of  the  primaries 
blackish  brown,  with  a  white  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell  and 
one  on  the  coslal  margin  near  the  apex  :  secondaries  similar 
to  the  upperside. 

Expanse  l.\  inch. 

lloh.   S.E.'Peru,  Santo  l\  mingo,  GOOO  feet  {}fus.  Drue). 

new  Species  of  lleterocera.  81 

Eucereon  sadnna,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Iloiul,  j)alpi,  and  antemi.'e  black,  back  of  the  head 
bright  red  ;  collar,  tcgulaj,  tlu)rax,  abdomen,  and  le^s  dark 
brown ;  the  underside  of  the  thorax  and  abdomen  bright 
))inkish  ;  legs  brown.  Primaries  dark  brown :  secondaries 
scmihyaline  brownish  black.  Underside  black-brown  ;  pri- 
maries deeply  bordered  with  brown  along  the  costal 
margin  ;  IVinge  bhick. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

JJab.  Peru,  Carabaye,  5000  feet  {.}fus.  Druce). 

Allied  to  Eucereon  Jlavicinctay  Schaus. 

Philoros  nor  a,  sp.  n. 

J\fah. — Head,  antenna",  and  thorax  black;  front  of  the 
head  and  j)ulpi  white  ;  colhir  red;  tegulaj  black,  edged  with 
white;  abdomen  blue-black;  legs  \vhite.  Pi-imaries  black, 
the  costal  margin  edged  with  white,  the  inner  margin  from 
the  base  to  the  anal  angle  edged  with  yellow;  the  fringe 
black  :  secondaries  dark  blue,  the  apex,  outer  margin,  anal 
angle,  and  inner  margin  broadly  banded  with  bright  red. — 
Female  the  same  as  the  male. 

Expanse  1.1  inch. 

Hub.  V^xn,  La  M.rcede,  2000-3000  feet  {Mas.  Brace). 

Allied  to  Philoros  lauruj  Hampson. 

Family  Arctiadae. 
RoMnsonia  morula,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head  yellow,  antennee  black,  collar  and  tegulai 
white  edged  with  brown,  thorax  white  ;  abdomen  black, 
underside  greyish  ;  a  yellowish-white  line  extends  from  the 
base  to  the  anus;  the  anus  yellow;  legs  yellowish  brown. 
Primaries  pale  brown,  the  veins  brown;  a  semihyaline  white 
band  extends  from  the  base  to  the  apex  :  secondaries  white, 
slightly  dusky  at  the  anal  angle;   the  fringe  white. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

Bah.  JS.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  GOOO  feet  {Mus.  Druce). 

Automolis  semihrunnea ,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  and  underside  of  the  thorax  reddish 
orange ;  antennae  black  ;  tegula  and  thorax  pale  yellow,  the 
base  of  the  thorax  and  first  two  segments  of  the  abdomen 
orange,  the  abdomen  and  legs  black.  Primaries  from  the 
base  to  nearly  the  middle   pale   yellow,  shading  off  to  dark 

82  Mr.  n.  Druce  on 

reddish  brown  at  the  apex  and  outer  margin  ;  tlie  fringe 
black  :  secondaries  pale  yellow,  edged  witli  black  from  the 
apex  to  the  anal  angle.  Underside  very  similar  to  the  upper- 
side,  but  the  costal  margin  and  apex  of  the  primaries  edged 
with  orange-red. — Female  the  same  as  the  male,  but  slightly 

Expanse,  c?   1^,    ?    2  inches. 

Bab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mus.  Druce). 

Automolis  roseofasciata,  sp.  n. 

Male. —  Head,  collar,  antennse,  palpi,  and  legs  reddish 
brown;  tegulse  and  thorax  pale  yellow;  abdomen  pale 
yellowish  red,  the  underside  black.  Primaries  pale  citron- 
yellow,  crossed  about  the  middle  from  the  costal  to  the  inner 
margin  by  a  wide  rose-coloured  band  ;  a  small  red  dot  at  the 
end  of  the  cell;  the  apex  and  outer  margin  rose-colour, 
shading  to  brown  :  secondaries  chrome-yellow,  shaded  with 
rose-colour  at  the  apex;  the  fringe  chrome-yellow. 

Expanse  1|  inch. 

Hab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Elysius  lavinia,  sp.  u. 

Male. — Head,  palpi,  antenna,  collar,  toguls,  thorax,  abdo- 
men, and  legs  black  ;  a  yellow  spot  on  both  sides  of  the  head. 
Primaries  very  dark  brown,  the  base  yellowish,  the  costal 
margin  from  the  base  to  the  apex  pale  yellow;  a  > -shaped 
yellow  line  at  the  end  of  the  cell ;  the  fringe  dark  brown : 
secondaries  pale  greyish  brown,  dusky  at  the  apex  and  round 
the  outer  margin.  Underside  very  similar  to  the  upperside  ; 
the  costal  margin  of  the  secondaries  yellow. 

Expanse  2  inches. 

Ilah.  S.E.  Peru,  Aqualani,  10,000  feet  {Mus.  Druce), 

Allied  to  E.  pallid icosta,  Walk.,  and  E.  carbonaria,  Dogn. 

Elysius  terra,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  and  underside  of  the  thorax  orange- 
yellow;  antennte,  tegulffi,  thorax,  abdomen,  and  legs  deep 
black,  the  anal  segments  on  the  underside  of  the  abdomen 
yellow.  Primaries  black,  with  a  bluish  shade  from  the  base 
to  the  outer  margin  :  secondaries  bluish  hyaline,  the  veins 
and  the  apex,  outer  and  inner  margin  broadly  black ;  the 
fringe  black. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Ilab.  East  Pern,  Huancabamba,  6000-10,000  feet  {Mus. 

Allied  to  E.  atrata,  Felder. 

new  Species  of  Tleterocera.  83 

Ischnocampa  farinosaf  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  tegiilfe,  and  thorax  pale  grey;  abdomen 
yellow;  antennre,  underside  of  thorax,  abdomen,  and  legs 
dark  brown.  Primaries  pale  greyish  brown  :  secondaries 
sordid  white,  brownish  at  the  apex  and  on  the  inner  margin  ; 
the  fringe  pale  brown.  Underside  very  similar  to  tiie 

Expanse  2  inches. 

Ilab.  Venezuela  {Mas.  Druce). 

Opharus  conspicuus,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennaj,  palpi,  collar,  tegulse,  thorax,  and 
base  of  the  abdomen  black;  abdomen  bright  orange,  the 
underside  and  legs  black  ;  a  iine  black  line  extends  from  the 
base  to  the  anus.  Primaries  blackish  brown,  the  veins 
darker :  secondaries  greyish  white,  darkest  at  the  apex  and 
anal  angle  ;  the  fringe  dark  greyish  brawn.  Underside  very 
similar  to  the  upperside,  but  paler  in  colour. — The  femate 
almost  identical  with  the  male,  but  larger. 

Expanse,  $  If,   ?    2  inches. 

Hab.  S.E.  Peru,  JSanto  Domingo,  GOOO  feet  [Mas.  Druce). 

Opharus  domingona,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antenna,  palpi,  collar,  thorax,  basal  half  of 
the  abdomen,  anus,  and  legs  black,  the  last  four  segments  of 
the  abdomen  banded  with  yellow  ;  a  spot  on  each  side  of  the 
thorax  and  one  at  the  base  white.  Primaries  blackish  brown, 
the  veins  black;  a  darker  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell;  the 
fringe  blackish :  secondaries  white,  the  apex  and  inner 
margin  blackish  brown.  The  underside  very  similar  to  the 
U])perside,  but  paler  in  colour. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

Hab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  [Mas.  Druce). 

Allied  to  Opharus  albipunctatus,  Druce. 

Opharus  Cornelia,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennae,  palpi,  collar,  tegulte,  and  thorax 
black ;  a  spot  at  the  back  of  the  head,  one  on  each  side  of  the 
thorax  and  at  the  base  of  the  abdomen  all  bright  blue  ;  abdo- 
men yellow,  each  segment  edged  with  black,  the  underside 
and  legs  blackish  brown.  Primaries  black,  with  a  small  blue 
spot  close  to  the  base  ;  the  fringe  black  :  secondaries  hyaline 
to  beyond   the   middle,  the  apex  and  outer  margin   broadly 

84  ]\Jr.  II.  Dnice  on 

black.     T!ie  underside  the  same  as  the  upperside,  but  slightly 
bifiwiier  in  colour. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

IJab.  S.E.  PerUj  Santo  Domingo^  6000  feet  (Mus.  Druce). 

Opharus  sestia,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head  yellow  ;  antennae  and  palpi  black  ;  collar 
Avhite,  edged  with  black  ;  tegulge  white,  with  a  yellow  spot 
at  the  base  edged  with  black  ;  thorax  dark  brown ;  abdomen 
above  yellow^  with  a  central  row  of  black  spots  from  the  base 
to  the  apex  ;  under.side  of  the  thorax  yellow,  of  the  abdomen 
black,  legs  brownish  black.  Primaries  brown;  a  small 
yellow  spot  close  to  the  base  ;  two  spots  on  the  inner  margin, 
with  a  fine  line  of  spots  beyond,  all  w^hite  ;  four  white  spots 
at  the  end  of  the  cell;  a  curved  line  of  small  white  dots 
beyond  the  cell  extending  from  the  costal  to  the  inner  margin, 
and  a  curved  submarginal  band  of  white  spots  from  the  apex 
to  the  anal  angle;  two  detached  white  spots  about  the  middle 
of  the  outer  margin;  the  fringe  brown:  secondaries  pale 
brown,  whitish  in  the  middle  ;  the  fringe  dark  brown.  Under- 
side very  similar  to  the  upperside. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

IJab.  Peru,  Huacamayo,  Carabaya^  3000  feet  {Mus. 
Druce) . 

Ainastus  rumina^  sp,  n. 
Phoegoptera  aconia,  Druce,  Biol.  Centr.-Aui.,  Het.  i.  p.  95. 

Male. — Head  and  thorax  sordid  white;  palpi  grey,  the 
upperside  black  ;  antennas  black  ;  collar  and  tegulaj  striped 
with  dark  orange;  the  underside  of  the  thorax  orange;  legs 
brownish  white  ;  abdomen  yellow,  with  a  row  of  small  white 
spots  on  each  side;  underside  of  abdomen  sordid  wiiite,  the 
anus  and  anal  tuft  orange.  Primaries  semihyaline  reddish 
brown,  with  the  marking  as  in  Amastus  aconia,  Herr.-Schatl'. : 
secondaries  semihyaline  yellowish  Avhite  ;  the  fringe  yellowish. 
— Female  the  same  as  the  male. 

Expanse  3^  inches. 

Hub.  Costa  Pica,  Candelaria  Mountain  [Undencood,  Mus. 

This  species  is  clearly  distinct  from  Amaaius  aconia, 
Herr.-Schaff.,  of  which  I  nuw  have  a  good  series  of  specimens 
from  S.  America, 

Amastus  semi/'ulvus,  sp,  n. 
Female. — Head,    collar,    t<  gala?,    thorax,    and     abdi»men 

new  Species  of  Ileterocera.  85 

white,  the  two  anal  segments  black  ;  aut<;nnai  and  |jal|)i 
l)lack  ;  underriitlc  of  the  abdomen  black;  the  le^-.s  pale  blown, 
rrimaries  hyaline,  the  veins  dark  brown  ;  the  outer  margin 
from  the  apex  to  the  anal  angle  pale  primrose-yellow,  thickly 
irrorated  with  brown  scales  ;  the  points  of  the  veins  on  tlic 
outt-r  margin  black  ;  the  fringe  primrose-yellow. 

Expanse  l.\  inch. 

JIab.   S.E."Peru,  Aqnalani,  10,000  feet  {^[us.  Druce). 

Three  females. 

Halisidota  mincosa,  sp.  n. 

Female. — Head,  antennse,  palpi,  tegula?,  abdomen,  and  legs 
black  ;  back  of  head  pale  yellow  ;  collar,  sides  and  base  of 
the  thorax  rose-colour ;  abdomen  with  a  double  yellow  line 
on  each  side.  Primaries  pale  greyish  brown,  the  costal 
margin  from  the  base  to  the  apex  yellow ;  a  yellow  line  down 
the  middle  of  the  wing  from  the  base  to  the  outer  margin  ; 
the  veins  yellow  :  secondaries  dusky  semihyaline  white, 
darkest  at  apex  and  on  the  inner  margin ;  the  fringe 

Expanse  lij  inch. 

JIab.  S.E.  Peru,  Oconeque,  Carabaya,  7000  feet  {Mus. 
Druce) . 

Heliactinidia  bimaculata,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antenna?,  palpi,  tegulaj,  thorax,  abdomen, 
and  legs  black ;  collar  yellow  ;  the  underside  of  the  abdomen 
yellow.  Primaries  pale  brown,  crossed  beyoni  the  cell  from 
the  costal  margin  to  the  anal  angle  by  a  yellowish-white 
band,  widest  on  the  costal  margin  :  secondaries  orange-yellow, 
the  apex  and  anal  angle  broadly  black. 

Expanse  Ij  inch. 

Hub.  S.E.  Brazil,  Rio  Grande  {Mas.  Druce). 

Allied  to  H.  chiquinda,  Druee. 

Turuptiana  tessellata,  sp.  ii. 

Male. — Head,  palpi,  antenna?,  and  legs  black  ;  back  of  the 
head  and  collar  yellow  ;  tegula?  black,  edged  with  yellow  ; 
thorax  black;  abdomen  yellow,  the  middle  segments  tufted 
with  black.  Primaries  yellow,  crossed  from  the  costal  to  the 
inner  margin  by  three  irregular  curved  bands  of  large  black 
spots;  a  black  spot  close  to  the  base;  the  veins  almost 
white;  the  fringe  yellow:  secondaries  pale  yellow;  a  sub- 
marginal  row  of  blackish  spots  extends  from  near  the  apex  to 
the  anal  angle ;  the  fringe  pale  yellow. 

Expanse  1|  inch. 

Dab.  S.E.  Peru,  Aqualani,  10,000  feet  {Mus.  Druce). 

86  'Mv.  11.  Druce  on 

Pitane  evora,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  and  base  of  tegulae  yellow  ;  antennae 
and  palpi  black  ;  black  spot  on  back  of  the  head,  two  on  the 
collar,  and  one  on  each  of  the  teguUe  ;  thorax  brown ;  abdo- 
men black,  the  base  yellowish  ;  the  anas  yellow  ;  the  under- 
side of  the  thorax  and  abdomen  yellow  ;  the  legs  yellow. 
Primaries  pale  brown,  palest  at  the  end  of  the  cell  and  along 
the  inner  margin ;  fringe  pale  brown :  secondaries  pale 
yellow,  the  ai)ical  half  of  the  wing  blackish  brown.  Under- 
side the  same  as  above. — The  female  almost  identical  with 
tlie  male. 

Expanse,  c?  If,    ?    2  inches. 

Hub.  Peru,  Pozuzo  {Mas.  Druce^. 

Subfamily  Lithosian^. 
Dqicnna  peculiaris^  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennae,  pal[)i,  collar,  thorax,  and  abdomen 
black  ;  two  cream-coloured  spots  on  tiie  collar  ;  tegulte  and  a 
spot  at  the  base  of  the  thorax  cream-colour  ;  anus  orange-red  ; 
underside  of  the  abdomen  white  ;  legs  black  ;  the  shaft  of 
the  antennae  fringed  with  scales  above.  Primaries  cream- 
colour,  the  base  and  a  broken  band  crossing  the  wing  beyond 
the  middle  from  the  costal  to  the  inner  margin,  a  spot  at 
the  apex  and  on  the  outer  margin,  all  dark  blackish  brown  : 
secondaries  scmihyaline  whitish  brown,  the  apex  and  outer 
margin  blackish,  the  inner  margin  black.  Underside:  pri- 
maries black  ;  secondaries  similar  to  the  upperside. 

Expanse  .1^  inch. 

Hah.  Peru,  La  Union,  Rio  Huacamayo  [Mas.  Druce). 

Quite  unlike  any  other  species  known  to  me,  but  somewhat 
resembles  a  Eucereon. 

rrocrimiina  viridis,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  palpi,  collar,  tegula"',  thorax,  abdomen,  and 
legs  greenish  black  ;  antennai  black.  Primaries  and  second- 
aries black ;  underside  of  primaries  and  secondaries  pale 
metallic  bluish  green. 

Expanse  1  j\,  inch. 

JJal>.    Brazil  {Brit.  Mas.). 

rtychoglene  ripetia,  sp.  n. 
Male. — ITcad,  antciuuo,  and  palpi   black;   collar  crimson  ; 

new  Sppcies  of  ITeleroccra.  87 

tegulaj,  tliorax,  and  abdomen  black.  Primaries  black,  serni- 
liyalinc  from  tlie  end  of  the  cell  to  the  apex  and  outer  margin  ; 
the  veins  all  black  :  secondaries  crimson  ;  the  costal  margin, 
a])ex,  and  outer  margin  broadly  black. 

Expanse  lyV  inch. 

Ilab.   J3olivia,  Chaco  {Garlopp^  Brit.  Muft.). 

Tuina  hellona^  sj).  n. 

Female. — Head,  antennas,  palpi,  collar,  tegulse,  and  tliorax 
black  ;  abdomen  glossy  dark  blue.  Primaries  and  second- 
aries glossy  dark  blue  ;  primaries  with  three  red  streaks  at 
the  base  ;  an  elongated  red  spot  close  to  the  costal  margin 
near  the  apex.  Underside  very  similar  to  the  upperside,  but 
not  so  bright  in  colour. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

Ilab.  Peru,  Oroya  Railway  to  Chichla,  12,200  feet  {Brit. 

Citliene  hodeva,  sp.  n. 

Female. — Head,  palpi,  antennae,  collar,  tliorax,  and  abdo- 
men black  ;  tegulse  and  sides  of  the  abdomen  yellow  ;  legs 
black.  Primaries  brownish  black  ;  a  yellow  streak  at  the 
base  on  the  inner  margin  ;  a  round  spot  at  the  end  of  the 
cell  and  an  angular  shaped  one  below,  both  yellow ;  the  two 
spots  are  almost  joined  by  a  fine  yellow  line  ;  the  fringe 
brownish  black  :  secondaries  yellow,  the  apex  and  outer 
margin  bordered  with  brownish  black. 

Expanse  li  inch. 

Ilab.  Peru,  Palca  {Simotis,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Family  Leparidae. 
Carama  bella,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  tegulte,  thorax,  and  abdomen  white  ; 
antennJB  bright  red.  Primaries  and  secondaries  pure  white, 
the  costal  margin  edged  with  black. — Female  the  same  as  the 

Expanse,  ^  Ij,    ?    1^  inch. 

Hah.  Peru,  La  Union,  Rio  Huacamayo,  2000  feet  {Mus. 
T>ruce) . 

Carama  modijicata.,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  tegulse,  thorax,  and  abdomen  pale 
fawn-colour ;    abdomen   clothed    with    whitish    hairs   at    the 

88  Mr.  11.  Diuce  07i 

base  ;  antennas  brown  ;  underside  of  thorax  and  abdomen 
brownisli  wliite.  Primaries  fawn-colour,  whitish  at  the  base  ; 
on  the  inner  margin  a  < -shaped  white  marking  at  the  end 
of  the  cell  ;  a  small  black  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell  and  one 
beyond  the  cell  ;  the  fringe  fawn-colour  :  secondaries  creamy 
white,  the  fringe  and  outer  margin  shaded  with  fawn-colour. 
Underside :  primaries  brown,  the  inner  margin  and  veins 
white ;  the  white  mark  at  the  end  of  the  cell  as  above  :  second- 
aries white. — Female  very  similar  to  the  male,  but  larger. 

Expanse,  c?  1|,    ?    2  inch(!s. 

IJab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Uoniiugo,  6000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Carama/uscaj  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  tegula?,  thorax,  and  abdomen  blackish 
grey;  palpi  black;  antennae  yellowish  brown;  underside  of 
abdomen  and  thorax  clothed  with  dark  grey  hairs.  Primaries 
blackish  grey ;  a  pale  grey  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell  : 
secondaries  grey,  whitish  at  the  base.  Underside  of  the 
primaries  black,  the  grey  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell  more 
distinct ;  secondaries  grey. — Female  similar  to  the  male. 

Expanse,  (^   ly'jj-,    ?    2  inches. 

JJab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  GOOO  feet  {2Ius.  Druce). 

Allied  to  Carama  (jrisea,  Schaus. 

Carama  dlstincta,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  tegulas,  thorax,  and  abdomen  creamy 
white;  antemijB  yellowish;  j)alpi  black.  Primaries  veiy 
pale  fawn-colour,  the  costal,  outer,  and  inner  margin  white; 
a  white  mark  at  the  end  of  the  cell  and  one  black  spot 
beyond:  secondaries  pure  white.  Underside  of  both  wings 
white,  the  costal  margin  from  the  base  to  beyond  the  middle 
broadly  black. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

IJab.  S.E. 'Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  GOOO  feet  {Mas.  Drucc). 

Carama  ruJiJorsata^  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennae,  collar,  tegulfe,  thorax,  and  base  of 
the  abdomen  pale  brown;  the  ui)perf<ide  of  the  abdomen 
bright  red,  the  sides  and  underside  white.  Primaries  pale 
brown,  darkest  near  the  apex;  a  small  black  dot  at  the  end 
of  the  cell  and  one  beyond  nearer  the  outer  margin  :  second- 
aiies  pale  brown,  whitish  at  the  base.  The  underside  very 
similar  to  the  upperside,  but  lather  [)aler  in  colour. 

Expanse  I,'*,  inch. 

llab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  GOOO  feet  {Mus.  Druce). 

new  Species  of  IJetf-rocera.  8'J 

Garaiwi  parmaUi,  sp.  ii. 

Male. —  Head  jviul  underside  of  the  thorax  white  ;  aiitcnnae, 
colhir,  te<2;ula),  thorax,  and  abdomen  fawn-colour.  Primaries 
and  secoiuhiries  fawn-colour  ;  a  black  spot  at  the  end  of  the 
cell  on  the  primaries  ;  fringes  fawn-colour.  The  underside 
the  same  as  the  upperside,  but  paler  in  colour. 

Ex|)anse  1|  inch. 

Hah.  S.  Brazil,  Rio  Grande  do  Sul  [Mas.  Druce). 

Carama  nox,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennse,  collar,  tegulai,  thorax,  and  ablo- 
men  black.  Primaries  and  secondaries  black.  Tlie  underside 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Ilab.  !S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  GOOO  feet  (Mas.  Druce). 

Carama  nigrovenosa,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  tegulte,  thorax,  underside  of  the 
thorax,  and  legs  black;  abdomen  pale  yellow  ;  anus  grey; 
antenna)  brown.  Primaries  white;  costal  and  inner  margins 
and  veins  black-brown  :  secondaries  white,  the  costal  margin 
and  fringe  grey.     Underside  similar  to  the  upperside. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

Hab.  Peru,  La  Union,  Rio  Huacamayo,  2000  feet  (Mus. 

Family  Limacodidae. 
Sciathos  metaleiica,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head  orange-yellow  ;  antennae  black  ;  collar  and 
tegul^  cream-colour,  tipped  with  orange;  thorax  and  base  of 
abdomen  clothed  with  long  white  hairs;  abdomen  orange- 
yellow  ;  underside  of  the  abdomen  black.  Primaries 
yellowish  white,  the  costal  margin  orange  near  the  apex  ;  a 
band  of  small  black  spots  crosses  the  wing  from  the  costal 
margin  near  the  apex  to  the  middle  of  the  inner  margin  : 
secondaries  yellowish  white. 

Expanse  Ij  inch. 

Bab.  S.E.  Peru,  Oconeque,  Carabaya,  4000  feet  (Mas. 

Sciathos  semiriifa,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head  red ;  palpi  white  ;  antennae  black  ;  collar 
white;  tegulaj  white,   tipped    with   red;   tliorax  white,  witii 

90  Mr.  U.  Druce  on 

red  spots  on  eaeli  side;  abdomen  bright  carmine-red  ;  anal 
tuft  white.  Primaries  dark  grey,  the  costal  margin  from  the 
base  to  the  apex  broadly  white;  the  fringe  yellow  :  second- 
aries bright  red;  the  fringe  yellowish.  Underside  of  both 
wings  red,  without  any  markings. 

Expanse  If  inch. 

Ilab.  Peru,  Quinton,  Carabaya,  5000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Eulimacodes  tersuJa,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  pulpi,  antennae,  collar,  tegulse,  thorax,  and 
abdomen  dark  brown;  legs  dark  brown.  Primaries:  the 
basal  half  dark  brown,  the  outer  half  pale  brown,  crossed 
from  the  costal  to  the  inner  margin  by  three  waved  greyish 
bands  ;  a  Avhite  spot  below  the  cell,  then  alternately  light  and 
dark  brown  :  secondaries  dark  brown;  the  fringe  pale  brown. 
The  underside  of  both  wings  pale  brown. 

Expanse  \\  inch. 

Hah.  Peru,  La  Oroya,  Carabaya,  3000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Perola  antelia,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  palpi,  antenna,  collar,  tegula?,  thorax,  and 
abdomen  greyish  brown.  Primaries  dark  grey  from  the  base 
to  beyond  the  middle;  a  white  curved  line  crosses  the  wing 
from  the  costal  margin  near  the  apex  to  the  inner  margin 
near  the  anal  angle ;  the  outer  margin  white  at  the  apex, 
irrorated  with  reddish-brown  scales  at  the  anal  angle  ;  a 
marginal  row  of  small  black  spots  extending  from  the  apex 
to  the  anal  angle  ;  the  fringe  pale  brown  :  secondaries  pale 
brown,  lightest  at  the  apex. 

Expanse  1  inch. 

Ilab.   Peru,  La  Oroya,  Carabaya,  3000  t'oet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Echedorus  fascialus,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  colhir,  tegular,  thorax,  and  abdomen  white  ; 
antennaj  yellowish ;  anal  tuft  yellowish  brown.  Primaries 
white,  clouded  with  black  at  the  base  and  apex;  the  fringe 
white  :  secondaries  white ;  a  blackish  band  partly  crosses 
the  middle  of  the  wing  from  the  apex  ;   fringe  white. 

Ex])anse  1  inch. 

Ilab.   Peru,  La  Union,  Carabaya,  3000  feet  [Mas.  Druci). 

Family  Bombycidae. 
Bombijx  inornata,  sp.  n. 
Male. — Head,   collar,  tegula?,   thorax,  and   abdomen  dark 

neto  Sjxcies  of  llelm>c<'i'<i.  91 

brown  ;  aiiteniiiu  hhick  ;  imdersiKlo  ot  iibiloincii  aucl  leg.s  biouii.  i'liinuiics  duik  brown,  shade  J  with  olive- 
green  at  the  apex  and  across  the  middle  of  the  wing  ;  a 
curved  dark  brown  band  extends  from  tiie  apex  to  the  anal 
angle;  the  fringe  daik  brown:  secondaries  dark  brown, 
palest  at  the  base  ;  a  dark  brown  line  crosses  tlie  middle  of 
the  wing  from  the  costal  to  the  inner  margin.  Underside  of 
both  wings  reddish  brown  ;  primaries  witb  a  large  black  spot 
at  the  end  of  the  cell  ;  the  apex  and  outer  margin  dark 

Expanse  1|  inch. 

Ilab.  8.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  [Mas.  Drue  ). 

Carthara  bifasciata,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennae,  collar,  tegulas,  thorax,  and  abdomen 
greyish  black,  with  some  brown  hairs  on  the  upperside  of  the 
abdomen;  the  anal  tuft  yellowish.  Primaries  dark  brown, 
with  a  reddish  spot  close  to  the  base  ;  two  waved  greyish 
lines  cross  the  wing  from  the  costal  to  the  inner  margin, 
the  first  near  the  base,  the  second  beyond  the  cell ;  three 
metallic-silver  dots  at  the  end  of  the  cell  in  the  form  of 
a  triangle  :  secondaries  dark  reddish  brown,  palest  on  the 
costal  margin  ;  the  anal  angle  yellowish  brown.  Underside  : 
both  wings  pale  reddish  brown. 

Expanse  1^  inch, 

Jlab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Family  LasiocampidEB. 

To  type  nigrescens,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennge,  collar,  tegulte,  thorax,  and  abdo- 
men black  ;  two  white  spots  at  the  base  of  thorax  and  some 
white  hairs  on  each  side ;  underside  of  the  thorax  and  legs 
thickly  clothed  with  white  hairs.  Primaries  hyaline  black, 
the  veins  black :  secondaries  hyaline  black,  the  inner  half  of 
the  wing  brownish  black. 

Expanse  2  inches. 

Ilab.   Peru,  Quinton,  Carabaya,  5000  feat  {Mas.  Druce). 

Tlydrias  OJioba,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennse,  collar,  tegula3,  thorax,  and  abdo- 
men greyish  brown  ;  the  anus  and  underside  of  the  abdomen 
light  yellow  ;  legs  yellowish  brown.  Primaries  pale  brown, 
thickly  irrorated  with  grey  scales ;  an  orange-red  spot  at  the 

92  :\rr.  IT.  Dnice  on 

end  of  tlie  cell  ;  the  fringe  at  the  apex  and  outer  margin 
yellow  :  secondaries  pale  brown,  thickly  irrorated  with  grey 
scales  ;  the  fringe  yellow.  The  underside  similar  to  the 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Hah.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  GOOO  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Och.a  hefh'Ja,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  togulffi,  and  tliorax  wliite  ;  collar  pale 
brown,  edged  with  white  ;  antennae  pale  brown  ;  abdomen 
pale  brown,  the  sides  and  underside  white.  Primaries  pale 
brown,  the  base,  a  streak  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  the  apex,  and 
part  of  the  outer  margin  white:  secondaries  white,  clouded 
near  the  apex  and  round  the  outer  margin  witii  blackish 
brown.  Underside  of  both  wings  white  ;  the  costal  margin 
of  the  primaries  from  the  base  almost  to  the  apex  yellowish 
brown  ;  a  dark  brown  spot  in  the  cell. — The  pmnle  is  very 
similar  to  the  male,  but  the  abdomen  is  all  white  and  the 
nndersides  of  the  primaries  are  much  more  clouded  with 
blackish  brown  ;  the  female  is  larger  than  the  male. 

Expanse,  (J   1,    ?    1^  inch. 

Hah.  Peru,  La  Oroya,  Carabaya,  3000  feet  [Mus.  Druce). 

A  female  of  this  species  is  in  the  British  Museum  from 

Ocha  meroma,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  collar,  tegulfe,  and  thorax  greyish  white; 
antennge  pale  brown ;  abdomen  black ;  anal  tuft  wiiite. 
Primaries  grey,  irrorated  with  small  black  scales ;  the  apex 
white,  the  outer  margin  broadly  banded  with  pale  brown  : 
secondaries  black,  the  outer  margin  from  the  apex  to  the  anal 
angle  yellowish  white.  Underside  very  similar  to  the  upper- 
side,  but  the  primaries  blacker. 

Ex|ianse  1:^  inch. 

Hah.  Peru,  La  Union,  Eio  Huacamaya,  2000  feet  {Mas. 

Oclia  patara,  sp.  n. 

Mule. — Head,  antennje,  collar,  tegulae,  thorax,  and  abdo- 
men cream-colour.  Primaries  cream-colour,  tiie  base  thickly 
spotted  with  reddish  brown  ;  a  central  band  of  reddish-brown 
spots  extends  from  the  base  to  the  outer  margin  :  secondaries 
cream-colour,    with    a    reddish-brown    streak    at    the    apex. 

nrin  Spreifin  of  fleterocera.  9.'5 

Underside:  both  wings  cream-colour;  a  reddish-brown  spot 
on  the  primaries  at  the  end  of  the  cell. 

l]x|)UMse  I  inch. 

Ilah.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mas.  Dmce). 

Apatelodes  striata,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antennie,  collar,  tegulse,  thorax,  and  abdo- 
men brownish  fawn-colour.  Primaries  fawn-colour,  with  six 
angular  lines  near  the  apex;  a  white;  spot  at  the  apex;  a 
black  dot  on  the  inner  margin  close  to  the  base;  the  fringe 
fawn-colour  :  secondaries  brownish  fawn-colour,  the  veins  all 
paler  in  colour.  Underside  pale  fawn-colour ;  the  secondaries 
crossed  about  the  middle  by  two  waved  pale  linos ;  a  rather 
large  brown  spot  at  the  apex. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Hab.  Peru,  La  Union,  Rio  Huacamaya,  2000  feet  {Mas. 

Apatelodes  bicolorata,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head  and  palpi  bright  red;  collar,  tegulre,  thorax, 
and  abdomen  cream-colour  ;  a  few  reddish  hairs  at  the  base 
of  the  abdomen.  Primaries  cream-colour,  thickly  irrorated 
with  small  red  scales,  crossed  from  the  costal  to  the  inner 
margin  by  two  pale  fawn-coloured  lines,  the  first  nearest  the 
base,  the  second  beyond  the  cell ;  two  submarginal  black  spots 
near  the  apex :  secondaries  creamy  white,  darkest  on  the 
inner  margin.  The  underside  of  both  wings  similar  to  the 
upperside,  but  paler  in  colour. 

Expanse  1^  inch. 

Ilab.  S.E.  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mas.  Druce). 

Family  Cossidge. 

Costria  Ochendenl,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head  white;  antenna?  pale  brown;  collar  blue- 
grey  ;  tegulae  white,  edged  with  black  ;  thorax  grey,  reddish 
brown  at  the  base  ;  abdomen  white ;  underside  of  the  thorax 
and  abdomen  black  ;  legs  greyish  black.  Primaries  white, 
the  inner  half  shaded  with  brown ;  four  blue-grey  waved 
bands  cross  the  wing  from  the  costal  to  the  inner  margin, 
the  first  and  second  near  the  base,  the  third  about  the  middle, 
and  the  fourth  beyond;  the  wing  is  striated  with  many  \t\y 
fine  brown  lines,  which  cross  from  the  costal  to  the  inner 
margin  ;  two  large  submarginal  black  spots,  surrounded  with 

Ann.  (J&  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.    Vol.  xviii.  8 

94  ^liss  G.  RicarJo  07i  the  Genus  Hajmatopota 

white  nearest  the  apex  :  secondaries  ^^llite,  slightly  brownish 
near  the  base.     Underside  very  similar  to  the  upperside,  but 
.    Expanse  2  inches. 

Ilah.  S.E,  Peru,  Santo  Domingo,  6000  feet  {Mus»  Bruce). 

I  have  named  tliis  beautiful  species  after  Mr.  Rosenberg's 
late  collector  G.  Ockenden,  who  died  in  Peru  of  typhoid  in 
the  early  pait  of  this  year. 

Family  Noctuidae. 
Euglyphia  proserpiJia,  sp.  n. 

Male. — Head,  antenna?,  collar,  tegulre,  thorax,  and  abdo- 
men blue-black  ;  anus  scarlet  ;  underside  of  head,  thorax, 
and  part  of  abdomen  scarlet ;  legs  clothed  with  long  scarlet 
hairs.  Primaries  steel-black,  shaded  wnth  deep  black  along 
the  inner  margin  to  the  end  of  the  cell ;  two  curved  black 
lines  beyond  the  cell,  crossing  the  wing  from  the  costal  to 
the  inner  margin  ;  a  marginal  row  of  black  spots  extends 
from  the  apex  to  the  anal  angle  ;  the  fringe  black  :  secondaries 
steel-black,  the  veins  deep  black.  IJnderside :  primaries 
greyish  black,  darkest  along  the  costal  half  of  the  wing : 
secondaries  pale  glossy  greyish  black,  the  veins  deep  black. 

Expanse  1  inches. 

Hub.  Peru,  La  Oroya,  Carabaya,  30C0  feet  {Mus.  Druce). 

Allied  to  Eu(jlyphia  hieroylypkica,  Cram. 

XVIII. — Notes   on  the   Genus  H?eraatopota    of  the  Family 
Tabanidffi?«  the  British  Museum  Cullection.     By  Gektkude 


[Plates  III.-VI.] 

HjEmatopota,  Mcigen. 
HcBmalopota,  Meig.,  lUigei's  Mag.  ii.  267.  40  (1803). 

This  genus  is  readily  distingnishcd  by  the  peculiar  markings 
of  the  wings,  but  the  species  are  not  easy  to  dtsrribe. 

Locw  gives  what  he  considers  good  characteristics  for  the 
distinction  of  the  species  in  his  Dipt.  JSiidafrik.,  reiving  on 
the  shape  of  the  head,  tlic  position,  shape,  and  size  of  the 
paired  spots,  and  the  absence  or  presence  of  the  unpaired 
spot,  and,  in  a  lesser  degree,  on  tlie  markings  on  the  face ; 
the  shape  of  the  antcnme  ho  considers  a  doubtful  character, 

of  the  Family  Tabanida?.  95 

especially  as  to  the  inoras.satc  or  rylindrical  first  joint,  but 
the  legs  alTord  good  characteristics,  lie  considers  the  wings 
very  diflicult  to  describe,  but  gives  some  of  the  chief  points. 
To  the  above  I  am  inelincnl  to  add  the  shape  and  size  oE  the 
frontal  callus  as  useful,  the  general  shape  of  the  anteniue 
(which  vary  considerably),  and  to  rely  upon  the  presence  or 
absence  of  rings  on  the  legs  and  the  possession  of  a  white 
base  to  the  tibiic. 

Tliough  the  markings  of  the  wings  may  be  relied  upon  as 
a  rule,  there  is  uo  doubt  that  they  vary  slightly  in  different 
specimens  of  one  species,  as  in  the  shape  or  length  of  the 
ai)ical  band  and  in  the  presence  or  absence  of  the  pale 
markings  at  the  openings  of  the  cells.  The  rings  on  the 
legs  also  are  not  to  be  implicitly  relied  upon,  a  second  faint 
pale  ring  sometimes  appearing  in  a  species  which,  as  a  rule, 
has  only  one  ring ;  this  occurs  ehicHy  on  the  fore  tibia). 
jNfy  tables  are  drawn  up  only  for  the  females. 
Those  species  marked  with  an  asterisk  denote  there  arc 
specimens  of  them  in  the  IJritish  ]\Inseum  collection. 

Tlirough  the  kindness  of  Mr.  J.  A.  Gerald.  Strickland,  who 
has  devoted  a  great  deal  of  time  and  trouble  to  the  work,  I  am 
enabled  to  give  photographs  of  the  wings  of  all  the  new 
species  but  one,  of  four  of  Bigot's  types,  and  of  two  of 
Walker^s  types,  which  it  is  hoped  w  ill  be  of  assistance  in  the 
identification  of  the  species  and  will  save  the  wearisome 
labour  of  reading  through  long  descriptions  of  the  intricate 
markings  of  the  wings.  The  actual  colouring  of  the  wings 
is  given  in  the  letterpress  as  nearly  as  possible  as  it  strikes 
the  naked  eye.  The  magnification  is  approximately  ten 

The  species  described  by  Wiedemann  as  Hmmatupoia 
coarctata  (Auss.  zweifl.  Ins.  p.  578)  from  South  Amereia  does 
not  belong  to  this  genus,  but  to  Acanthocera,  Macq.,  as 
surmised  by  Bigot  (Bull.  Soc.  Zool.  Fr.  xvi.  p.  74,  1890), 
and  is  included  in  my  table  of  the  latter  genus  in  Ann.  it 
Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  xiv.  (7)  p.  363  (1904).  This  genus  does 
not  occur  in  South  America. 

Palcearctic  Region. 

For  a  catalogue  of  the  Hcematopota  of  the  Palaearetic 
Region,  that  of  Bezzi,  published  1903  in  his  '  Katalog  der 
palaarktischen  Dipteren,^  should  be  referred  to. 

The  following  amendments  to  it  should  be  noted,  viz. 
H.  lusitanica,  Guer.,  is  a  distinct  species,  not  a  synonym 
of  H.  phivialis,  L.,  and  H.  tristis,  Bigot,  is  a  synonym  of 
U.  pluvialis,  L.,  not  a  distinct  species. 


96  Miss  G.  Ricavdo  on  the  Genus  Haematopota 

The  following  table  does  not  include  IL  obscuruta,  Bigot, 
which  is  unknown  to  me : — 

1.  Wings  reddish  brown    rujipennis,  Bigot. 

Wiugs  grey 2. 

2.  Wings  with  a  clear  hind  margin *pallens,  Loew. 

Wings  with  no  such  clear  hind  margin  .  .     3. 

3.  First   joint   of   antenna}    largely    yellow. 

Fem(jra  wholly  or  partly  yt.-liow   *variegata,  Fubr. 

First  joint  of  antenna)  blacli  or  brown. 
Femora  usually  blackish  or  grey 4. 

4.  First  joint  of  antenna)  cylindricJil,  as  long 

as    and   hardly  thicker   than   the   third 

joint,  with  dense  grey  tomentum *italica,  Meigen. 

First  joint  of  antennte  elliptical,  thicker 
and  shorter  than  the  third  joint,  shining 
black *pluviaUs,  Linn. 

First  joint  of  antenna)  very  stout,  not  con- 
stricted at  the  tip,  with  only  grey  tomen- 
tum at  the  extreme  base     5. 

5.  Larger  species,  13  mm *lusitamca,  Guerin. 

Smaller  species,  10  mm *crasstcornis,  Walilb. 

The  males  of  H.  rufpennis  and  H,  lusitanica  are  not  known. 

Hamatopota  rujipennis,   ?  ,  Bigot. 

The  type  is  much  denuded  and  deteriorated,  but  may  be 
easily  known  by  the  dark  colour  of  its  wings,  whicli  are  a 
reddish  brown  with  clearer  spots  and  markings  ;  the  abdomen 
is  apparently  black  and  the  legs  reddish  with  some  black 

Hamatopota  paUens,   ?  ,  Loew. 

Six  females  from  Algeria,  21'^  vii.  93  [Eaton),  91.  111. 
These  answer  to  Locw^s  description,  but  the  fir>t  joint  of  the 
antenniu  is  grey,  not  black. 

Hicmaiopota  variet/ata,  ^  $  ,  Fabr. 

Three  females  from  Ilyercs,  4.  ix.  93  {Yertjuri/),  93.  123. 

Two  females  from  Castel  Fusano,  Ostea,  Italy  {Dr.  Sambon), 

Two  females  from  Eoseoff,  Brittauv,  G.  ix.  9:2  (O.  nomas), 
m.  13.j. 

Two  females  from  Kanca,  Crete,  first  weeiv  in  May,  1904 
{Miss  M.  D.  Bates),  1905.  25;  and  others  from  Morea  and 

This  species,  originally  described  from  a  specimen  froiu 
Tangiers,  must  be  very  nearly  reflated  to,  if  not  ideutieal  w  ith. 

of  ihc  Fainllij  Tabaiiidjv.  \)1 

IT.  itul'ico,  botli  specie's  being  distiiiguislied  by  the  cylin- 
drical \o\\\i,  first  joint  of  the  antennic.  The  ch.'iractcrs  given 
in  the  table  to  distinguish  tiie  two  species  are  taken  from 
Sehiner  and  other  authorities,  but  Mill  probably  not  prove 
satisfactory,  judging  from  the  material  in  the  National 
Collection,  which,  however,  is  too  poor  to  throw  further  light 
on  the  (jucstiou. 

Hmmatopota  itulica^  $  ?  ,  ]\Ieigcn. 

One  female  from  Nicosia,  Cyprus  {Miss  M.  D.  Bates), 
1903.  Gl. 

One  female  from  France. 

Mik,  in  'Fauna  llernstein,'  Becker,  iii.  p.  515  (1886), 
distingtiishes  this  species  from  //.  pluvialis  by  the  cylin- 
drical first  joint  of  the  antcnnte,  which  \sas  lung  as  the  tfiird 
joint  and  hardly  thicker,  and  adds  that  the  grey  tomcntuiu 
covering  it  is  so  thick  that  only  here  and  there  is  the  shining 
black  colour  to  be  seen  through. 

Hcematopota  pluvialis,  (J  ?,  Linn. 

Specimens  are  in  the  Brit.  Mus.  Coll.  from  Norway, 
Lecnane,  Co.  (jalway,  Gloucestershire,  Avon  Valley,  Boi)pard 
on  the  Rhine,  Alps,  Spain,  The  Hague,  Italy,  and  France. 

It  is  distinguished  from  H.  italica  by  its  thickened  first 
antennal  joint,  which  is  distinctly  wider  in  the  middle  and 
much  shorter  than  the  third  joint,  and  the  bright  black 
colour  is  not  obscured  by  grey  pubescence. 

The  H.  fristis,  ?  ,  Bigot,  type,  with  the  exception  of  the 
moie  yellow  colour  of  the  middle  and  posterior  femora,  is 
identical  with  this  common  European  species ;  the  type 
comes  from  Japan. 

Hcematopota  lusitanica,   ?  ,  Guerin. 

Five  females  from  Portugal  (O.  Thomas),  98.  99. 

A  large  blackish  species,  evidently  distinct  from  H.  crassi- 
cornis  ;  but  at  present  the  only  distinction  I  can  give  to 
separate  them  is  the  larger  size  of  the  above. 

Hcematopota  crassicornis,  (^  ?  ,  Wahlberg. 

One  male  from  Beaulieu,  New  Forest  (Ricardo),  14.  vii.  98. 

One  male  from  Avon  Valley,  24.  v.  96. 

One  male  from  Bantham,  26.  vi.  96. 

Four  males  from  Wick,  near  Bristol  (Ricardo),  27.  vi.  05. 

One  female  from  Gravesend  (Yerburi/),  91.  l-l.  3. 

98  Mids  G.  Elcardo  on  the  Genus  Ilaetnatopota 

One  female  from  Glen  Avon^  S.  Banffsliire  {fV.  R.  O.- 
Grant), 93.  95. 

The  male  of  this  spceies  may  easily  be  distinguishctl  by 
the  wholly  black  eolour  of  the  antennae  and  by  tlie  very  thick 
first  joint. 

The  female  is  less  easily  distin^jnishcd  from  that  of 
H.  phwialis,  but  Strobl,  in'Mittheil.  Ver.  Steierm.  1892, 
xviii,  (1893),  recognizes  it  by  the  extraoi'dinarily  thick 
first  joint,  which  is  short,  stout,  and  not  constricted  near  the 
tip ;  only  at  its  base  is  it  obscured  by  grey  tomentum  ;  the 
shining  black  band  above  the  antennae  is  narrower  and  not 
])roduced  above  in  the  centre  ;  the  third  joint  of  the  antennae 
is  only  red  at  the  base.  In  H.pluvialis  the  first  joint  is  much 
slenderer,  covered  Avith  grey  tomentum  to  the  middle  and 
strongly  constricted  before  the  tip  ;  the  red  colour  on  the 
third  joint  is  more  extended,  the  black  band  broader, 
produced  in  the  centre  as  a  triangle. 

The  four  males  collected  by  me  form  part  of  a  scries  of 
two  dozen  or  so  caught  in  one  Aveck,  resting  on  the  highest 
and  sunniest  parts  of  a  stone  wall  round  an  unoccupied 
farmyard  ;  no  females  were  to  be  seen.  I  was  not  successful 
in  discovering  their  breeding-place. 

Nearctic  Reyion. 

There  are  only  two  species  known  in  N.  America,  both 
said  to  be  fairly  common.  There  was  a  specimen  in  the 
British  Museum  Collection  labelled  "  N.  America"  and 
])laeed  under  H.  pvnctidata  ;  it  is  apparently  a  specimen  of 
//.  varieyata,  and  certainly  does  not  agree  with  the  description 
of  either  of  the  N. -American  species ;  the  locality-label  is 
probably  incorrect. 

II.  jninctu/ata,  Maoq.,  Pipt.  Exot.  i.  p.  163  (1838);  "Walker,  List  Dipt. 

V.  p.  295  (1854)  ;  Osten  i-^acken,  Cat.  Diptera  N.  Amer.  p.  55  (1878); 

Bigot,  Bull.  Soc.  Zool.  Fr.  xvi.  p.  77  (18'JO) ;  Iline,  Tabanidje  of  Ohio, 

Ohio  Acad.  Science,  Special  Papers,  no.  v.  p.  i'3  (1903). — Uuited 

II.  (wiej-icana,  Osten  Sacken,  Meiu.  Boston  Soc.  ii.p.  395(1870)  :  id.  Cat. 

Diptera  N.  Amer.  p.  55  (1878) ;  Bigot,  /.  c. ;  Jolinsou,  rioc.  Acad. 

Nat.  S>i.  riiilod.  p.  323  (1895) ;  Iline,  /.  c. ;  id.  Ohio  Nat.  v.  no.  2, 

p.  231  (1904).— Colorado,  British  Columbia. 

Ethiopian  Reyion. 

The  described  species  of  Hcvmatopota  from  this  region 
number  nineteen,  counting  //.  rnjicornis,  J,  Macq.,  and 
//.  rvficornis,  ? ,  AValkcr,  as  two  distinct  species,  and 
II.    dorsn/is,    Loew.    as    a    synonym    of    //.    (/crura,    AVlk.  ; 

of  ihe  Famllij  Tabaiiidx.  99 

thirteen  of  tliosc  are  from  South  Africa,  two  from  West 
Africa,  and  five  from  East  Africa.  Ten  new  species  arc 
dcscril)c(l  in  this  paper,  of  which  five  come  from  Uganda, 
four  from  East  Africa,  and  one  from  the  Transvaal,  bringing 
up  tlie  total  of  described  species  to  thirty.  Loew^s  Dipt. 
Siidafrik.  should  be  consulted  for  species  from  South  Africa. 
The  character  given  in  the  table  of  the  first  joint  of  the 
antennic  as  incrassate  or  not  incrassatc  should  not  be 
regarded  as  absolute,  as  it  is  difficult  in  some  cases  to  decide 
under  which  bead  a  species  should  be  placed.  I  have  inter- 
preted incrassate  after  Mik's  definition  ('  Fauna  Hcrnstein,' 
Becker,  iii.  p.  515,  1886),  viz.  when  the  first  joint  is 
elliptical  in  shape,  that  is  distinctly  widened  in  the  middle 
looked  at  from  above,  it  is  incrassate  .as  distinguished  from 
simply  cylindrical  or  not  incrassate.  I  have  not  seen  the 
type  of  H.  inappendiculuta,   $  ,  Bigot. 

H.  ocellata,  $,  Wied.,  Zool.  Ma;?,  iii.  p.  38  (1819);  id.  Dipt.  Exot.  i. 

p.  100  (1821)  ;  id.  Auss.  zweid.  lus.  i.  p.  217  (1828)  ;  Walker,  List 

JDipt.  pt.  i.  p.  100  (184(J)  ;  Loew,  Dipt.  Siidafrik.  p.  48  (note)  (18iJ0)  •, 

Scbiuer,  Raise  der  Novara,  p.  81  (1806). — Cape  of  Good  Hope. 
H.  imbrium,  2  ,  Wied.,  Auss.  zweid.  Ins.  i.  p.  215  (1828)  ;  Macq.,  Dipt. 

E.xot.  Suppl.  1,  p.  4(){1848)j  Walker,  List  Dipt.  pt.  v.  Siippl.  1, 

p.  295  (1851). — Caffraria,  Cape. 
H.  rufieornis,  (S ,  Macq.,  Dipt.  Exot.  Suppl.  1,  p.  45  (1848)  ;  Walker, 

List  Dipt.  pt.  T.  Suppl.  1,  p.  206  (1854).— Port  Natal. 
H.  rufieornis,  $  ,  Walker,  Dipt.  Saund.  p.  453  (1850).— Port  Xatal. 
H.  decora,  $ ,  Walker,  Dipt.  Saund.  p.  454  (1850).— Port  Natal.    [H.  dor- 

salis,  Loew,  Dipt.  Siidafrik.  p.  52.] 
H.  duplicata,  ?,  Loew,  Dipt.  Siidafrik.  p.  47,  pi.  i.  fig.  24  (1800).— Cape 

H.  ohscura,  S ,  Loew,  ib.  p.  48,  pi.  i.  fig-.  25  (I860).— Cape. 
H.  scutellaris,  2,  Loew,  ib.  p.  40  (1860). — Catiraria. 
H.  recurrens,  $,  Loew,  ib.  p.  50,  pi.  i.  tig-.  26  (I860).— Port  Natal. 
H.  vittata,  2  ,  Loew,  ib.  p.  50,  pi.  i.  tig.  28  (I860).— N'Giimi,  S.  Ati'ica. 
H.  histriyata,  J,  Loew,  ib.  p.  51, pi.  i.  fig.  27  (1860);  Schiner,  Reisa  der 

Novara,  p.  81  (1866). — Caffraria. 
H.  circumscripta,  $,  Loew,  ib.p.  51,  pi.  i.  fig.  31  (1860). — Caflraria. 
H.  inappendiculata  ( $  ?),   Bigot,  Archiv.   Entom.  ii.  p.  350  (1858). — 

Gaboon,  W.  Africa. 
H.gidneensis,  $,  Bigot,  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  1801,  p.  369;  id.  Bull.  Soc. 

Zool.  Fr.  xvi.  p.  76  (1891).     [.ff.  cordiyera,  Bigot,  /.  c,  name  twice 

chosen.] — Abyssinia. 
H.  hieroglyphica,  $ ,  Gerstacker,  Arch,  fiir  Nat.  xxxvii.  p.  362  (1871) ; 

id.  Decken's  Reisen  in  Ost-Afrik.  pt.  iii.  p.  385  (1873). — Endara, 

II.  maculiplena,  2 ,  Karscli,  Berlin,  ent.  Zeit.  xxxi.  p.  371,  pi.  iv.  fig.  5 

(1887).— Bondei,  E.  Africa. 
H.  albihirta,    2 ,  Karsch,  /.  c.  pi.  iv.   fig.  4  (1887). — Usambara,   East 

H.  strigipeiuiis,  2 ,  Karsch,  Ent.  Nachr.  xv.  p.  239  (1890).— Gaboon, 

West  Africa. 
H.  meteorica,  2,  Corti,  Ann.  Mus.  Civ.  Geuova,  xxxv.  p.  131  (1895). — 
Gallaland,  E.  Africa. 

too  Miss  G.  Ricardo  on  the  Genus  ILematopota 

1.  Winp:s  with  n.,  appendix    inapprndicidala,  >  9 ,  Bifrot. 

Winj^s  with  an  apix-udix o  »    -f  »      r>^  • 

ipi)eudix 2, 

2.  Legs  uniform  in  colour,  with  no  riu-'s  of 

lighter  colour  °_  _  _     29. 

Legs  with  rings  of  light  and  dark  colour.     3. * 
6.  liind   tibite    with    two   rings   of    lio-ht 

colour    ^         ^ 

Hind  tibite  with  one  ring  of  light  colour.     •>A 

4.  ^^  ings  with  two  milk-white  bands  ....     strujinennis,  9 ,  Kartell. 
\:  ^"^'?  yi^^  "o  such  bands   5, 

5.  First  joint  of  anteniue  not  incrassate,  or 

hardly  so q 

First  joint  distinctly  incrassate    .  ..  ..       16. 

6.  Anterior  tibite  dilated,  with  one  white 

niig    .  .        circvjmcrijjta,  9 ,  Loew. 

Anterior  tibise  not  dilated     7. 

7.  Anterior  tibiie  with  two  white  or  yel- 

low rings g 

A  nterior  tibise  with  one  white  or  yellow 

ring   g^ 

8.  Wings  with  the  apical   band' double; 

antennae  brownish      dupUcata,  $ ,  Loew. 

\\ing3   with   the  apical   band   sino-le ; 

antennae  reddish T.  . .  *hi,t      j    ^     ^ 

9.  Abdomen  with  spots "10 

Abdomen  with  no  distinct  spots  .' .' . , .  .'  1.5 ' 

10.  Legs  pitchy  brown     \\\\  i\\ 

Legs  yellowish  or  reddish  brown ......  12." 

11.  Abdomen  light  brown,  base  and  spots 

10    xT}!'  ^'''"^•i- ,•••,•  V hierofflyphka,  $,  Geist. 

IJ.  Abdomen  reddish  brown   13. 

Abdomen  blackish  grey     "..'..*.".  I4'. 

13.  Abdomen  dark  red-brown,  with  light 

brown  spots ;    the   first  joint  of  an- 

tenn*  short .        maculiplena,  ? ,  Karscli. 

Abdomen  red-brown,  with  lighter  spots; 

,  ,       «rf  joint  of  antennas  not  short '  *n,ficornis,  9,  Wlk. 

14.  First  joint  of  antennae  short *nujrescens,  ?    sp.  n. 

lirst  joint  of  antennaj  long *fo„,,„    9  '  ^  '^  ^ 

15.  Abdomen  brown;  legs  yellowish  brown.  guk^mi:s,  $,  Bigot. 

16.  Scutellum    almost    wholly    dark;    an- 

tenna)  deep  black,  reddish  at  the  base 

of  the  third  joint *oh,cura,  J  9  ,  Loew. 

Scutellum  not  almost  wholly  dark 17         '  "^  +  ' 

17.  Basal  joint   of  hind  tarsi  with  wliite 

hairs  at  t^«  base  alhihirta,  $ ,  Karsch. 

Basal  joint  of  hmd  tai-si  with  no  such 

white  hairs   23 

18.  Thorax  with  a  broad  median  stripe.  . ,'  ]  19.' 
Thorax  with  no  broad  median  stripe  '>i' 

19.  The  upper  part  of  the  face  black  .....".'  lit'tata,  9  ,  Loew 
1  lie  upper  part  of  the  face  not  black   .  .  20. 

20.  A  yellowisli-brown   species,    with   the 

rosettes  of  the  wings  very  distinct.  . . .  *ugand<i',  9  ,  sp  u 
A    blackish-browu    species,    with    the  '  +y   i      • 

rosettes  of  the   wings  indistinct,  but 
the  veins  shaded *di,thuta,  ^  ,  sp.  n. 

of  ihe  Family  Tabuiiiila'.  101 

21.  (5roiiu(]-colour    of    wings    light    rusty 

brown  bidrigata,  $  ,  Loow. 

Ground-colour  of  wings  pale  blackish 
prey  or  brownish  grey     22. 

22.  Antennae  browni!*h  or  blackish 23. 

Antennte  testaceous  or  reddish  brown, 

sonietiuies  black  at  the  extreme  apex  .     25. 

23.  Abdomen  with   triangiijar  median  spots 

of  whitish  colour  on  the  segment*)    .  .   *imhrium,  2  >  Wiedem. 
Abdomen  with  no  such  spots    24. 

24.  Pirst  joint  of  antennaj  distinctly  incras- 

sate  ;  the  two  black  spots  on  the  face 

joined    scutelluris,  5 ,  Loew. 

First  joint  of  antennae  hardly  incrassate  ; 
the  two  black  spots  on  the  face  small, 
widely  separated reciirrens,  $ ,  Loew. 

25.  Upper  part   of  lace  yellowish  brown, 

with  no  spots   26. 

Upper  part  of  face  not  yellowish  brown, 
but  with  spots 27. 

26.  First  joint  of  antennae  moderately  in- 

crassate,  small,  yellow    *bninnescens,  $ ,  sp.  n. 

First  joint  of  antennae  much  inerassate, 
large,  greyish *biptinctata,  $ ,  sp.  n. 

27.  Wings  with  distinct   ocelli :    an  ashy- 

grey  black  species  (from  the  Cape)   . .  *ocellata,  5 ,  Wiedem. 
?  Wrings  with  no  distinct  ocelli :  a  brown 

species  (from  East  Africa) meteortca,  2  .  Corti. 

[27  a.  Antenuce  red,  apex  black nificornis,  J ,  Macq.] 

28.  Thorax  with  a  broad  white  stripe.    Face 

black  above.     Third  joint  of  antennae 

wide,  short    *decora,  $  ,  Walker. 

29.  Wings  have  a  chequered  appearance    .  .   *hrunnipennis,  2 ,  sp.  n. 
Wings   have  not  a  chequered  appear- 
ance;   the   dark   colour  predominates 

only  on  the  poatei-ior  border  and  at  the 
apex 30. 

30.  Palpi  and  antennae  yellowish    *tinifoIo7-,  2,  sp.  n. 

Palpi  and  antennae  blackish *si}7iili.s,  2  >  sp.  u. 

Hcematopota  hirta,   $  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female),  Uganda  {Lt..CoI.  Bruce),  1903.  206,  and 
nine  other  females. 

These  were  collected  and  sent  by  Lt.-Col.  Bruce  to  the 
British  Museum  (Natural  History)  in  a  box  with  tsetse-flies 
and  other  Tabanidae. 

A  dark  hairy  species ;  face  with  long  white  pubescence; 
the  grey  spots  on  the  abdomen  large  and  prominent,  appearing 
at  first  sight  as  grey  stripes. 

Face  greyish,  with  long  white  hairs ;  some  brown  colour 
appears  on  the  sides,  but  there  are  no  black  spots.  Palpi 
yellowish,  with  white  hairs  at  the  base  and  black  pubescence 
on  the  apical  half.     Antenna  red,  the  first  joint  not  iucras- 

102  Miss  G.  liicaido  on  the  Genus  Ilicmatopota 

sate,  with  long  blacic  pubescence;  the  second  joint  round 
with  black  liairs ;  the  third  wide,  rather  short,  black  at  its 
extreme  apex.  Frontal  callus  broad,  black,  shining,  barely 
reaching  the  eyes  on  its  anterior  border,  receding  from  them 
entirely  on  the  posterior  border,  which  is  straight ;  the  spot 
between  the  antennae  black,  being  a  continuation  of  the 
callus;  brown  rings  round  the  antennse;  the  paired  spots 
small,  black,  not  reaching  the  eyes;  the  forehead  yellowish 
brown  near  the  callus,  darker  on  the  vertex.  Thorax  brown, 
w'\t\\  three  yellowish-brown  linear  stripes;  a  large  oblong 
spot  at  the  suture  on  each  side-stripe  and  another  one  at  the 
base  of  each  stripe ;  sides  of  thorax  grey,  the  pubescence  on 
the  dorsum  spare  and  short,  of  a  pale  yellow  colour,  on  the 
sides  with  long  black  and  then  white  hairs.  Scutellum 
brown,  with  pale  yellow  pubescence.  Abdomen  dark  brown, 
with  large,  irregular-shaped,  grey  spots  on  each  side,  almost 
reaching  the  anterior  border  of  each  segment,  but  not  the 
posterior  border ;  the  posterior  borders  of  the  segments  of 
the  same  colour,  widest  in  the  middle,  the  sides  partly  grey  ; 
underside  greyish.  Legs  yellow  and  brown,  the  femora 
yellow  with  white  pubescence,  which  is  thickest  on  the  fore 
femora ;  all  the  tibite  have  two  yellow  rings ;  the  tarsi  are 
darker  on  the  apical  half  of  the  joints ;  the  tibiae  and  tarsi 
with  black  pubescence.  Wings  greyish,  with  yellowish- 
brown  stigma  and  veins,  the  pale  markings  fairly  distinct, 
the  apical  band  short,  single. 

Length  8  ram. 

Li  some  of  the  specimens  the  paired  spots  are  larger  and 
reach  the  eves. 

V\.  IlL  fig.  1,  type  (female). 

Hcematopota  rnficornis,   ?  ,  Walker. 

Type,  68.  4  {Saunders),  Natal. 

One  female  from  Cape  Town  {H.  A.  Spencer),  91.  29. 
The  type  is  a  well-preserved  specimen. 

The  species  is  distinguished  from  If.  /lierogfi/phica,  Gerst., 
by  the  characteristics  mentioned  in  the  table,  and  also  by 
the  presence  of  spots  on  the  face,  whereas  they  are  appa- 
rently absent  in  Gerstacker's  species,  and  the  transverse 
callus  is  shining  red-brown,  not  pitchy  black.  From 
H.  meteorica,  Corti,  it  is  distinguished  by  the  absence  of  any 
large  brown  longitudinal  band  on  the  undcrsiile  of  the 
abdomen,  and  only  the  extreme  tip  of  the  antcnnre  is  black. 
The  following  redcscription  may  be  found  useful : — 

A  red-brown  species,  with  distinct  grey  spots  on  the 
abdomen  and  testaceous  antenna?. 

of  the  Familij  Tabanidm.  103 

Face  grey ;  the  spots   uiulcr  the  antenna)  arc  red   rather 
than   bhick,  as   is   also   the   transverse   stripe,   which  is  in- 
distinct and  broken  up  into  red  dot-like  spots.     Palpi  reddish, 
with   dense  black   pubescence   above   and   some    grey    hairs 
below.     Antennje  rather   long,  the  first  joint  light  yellow, 
cyliuilrical,  but  not  very  slender,  with  black  pubescence;   the 
second  the  same  colour,  with  similar  pubescence;  the  third 
reddish,  only  the  last  divisions  black,  a  little  longer  than  the 
first  two  joints  together.     Frontal  callus  the  same  colour  as 
the  first  antennal  joint,  slightly  lunate  in  front,  very  slightly 
sinuous  on  the  posterior  border,  narrow,  reaching  the  eyes  ; 
there  is  a  faint  brown  double  s[)ot  between  the  antennae ; 
the  paired  spots  are  brown,   large,   touching  the  eyes,  the 
unpaired  spot  nearly  as  large,  brown  ;  the  forehead  yellowish 
brown,    with    grey    pubescence.       Thorax    red-brown,    with 
narrow  grey  stripes,  the  outer  ones  only  reaching  the  suture 
and  ending  in  the  usual  spots ;  sides  of  thorax   and  breast 
greyish;    scutellum   yellow-brown,    with    grey    pubescence. 
Abdomen  yellow-brown,  darker  at  the  apex,   the   spots  on 
the  sitles  of  the  segments  very  distinct  and  large,  the  median 
ones   indistinct ;  the  sides  of  the   first  three  segments  are 
grey,  also  the  posterior  borders  of  the  segments ;  the  pubes- 
cence is  chiefly  grey  ;  the  underside  of  abdomen  faint  red, 
with  grey  tomentum  and  pubescence.     Legs  yellowish,  the 
rings    on    the  middle   and   posterior  legs  dark  brown  ;  the 
tarsi  black,   as   are  also  the  fore   tibiae  on  the  apical  half. 
Wings  grevish  brown,    the    white    markings     conspicuous, 
especially  so  at  the  opening  of  the  fifth  posterior  cell ;  the 
apical  band  sinuous,  single;  veins  yellowish  brown  ;  there  is 
a  distinct  ocellus  above  the  brown  stigma;  all  the  posterior 
cells  except  the  fourth  with  clear  margins,  that  of  the  fifth 
being  the  largest. 
Length  9  mm. 

PI.  IIL  fig.  2,  type  (female). 

A  smaller  specimen  from  Cape  Town  seems  identical.  It 
liardly  seems  probable  that  the  male  described  by  Maequart 
as  H.  ritficurnis  is  identical  with  the  above,  as  suggested  by 
"Walker;  Maequart  describes  his  species  as  blackish,  and 
says  the  third  joint  of  the  antennae  is  a  little  shorter  than 
the  first  joint ;  the  locality  is  Port  Natal. 

Hcematopota  nigrescens,   ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Tvpe  (female),  Altri-iga,  Mawe,  B.  E.  Africa  (C.  S.  Bettun), 
1900.  35,  13.  iii.-4.  v.  99. 

A  small  black-grey  species  with  yellow  antennae  and  yellow 
legs  ;  the  first  joint  of  the  antennae  short. 

104  Miss  G.  llicardo  on  ihe  Genus  Ilicmatopota 

Face  grey,  with  no  black  spots;  a  narrow  brown  stripe 
between  the  antennae  and  the  eyes,  bordering  tlie  frontal 
co.llus.  Palpi  the  same  colour,  with  black  pubescence. 
Frontal  callus  shining  black,  narrow,  bordering  the  antenna 
closely,  leaving  only  a  small  triangular  black  spot  between 
the  antennae,  reaching  the  eyes,  not  produced  in  the  middle. 
Antennae  light  yellow;  the  first  joint  short,  cylindrical,  the 
second  round,  short,  with  no  cup-like  prolongation  above, 
the  third  with  the  basal  annulation  not  very  wide;  there  are 
ong  black  hairs  on  the  first  two  joints.  Forehead  wide, 
greyish,  with  the  dark  ground-colour  apparent,  becoming 
shining  on  the  vertex ;  the  paired  black  spots  are  small,  not 
touching  the  eyes;  there  is  no  sign  of  the  unpaired  black 
spot.  Thorax  black,  with  three  faint  grey  stripes  and  grey 
tomentum,  which  latter  covers  the  scutellum.  Abdomeu 
black,  with  a  well-marked  series  of  hoary-grey  undefined  spots 
on  each  side ;  the  hind  margins  of  the  segments  are  also 
grey.  Legs  the  same  colour  as  the  antennae;  the  tarsi 
darker  ;  the  rings  of  the  middle  and  posterior  tibiae  are 
faintly  outlined  by  a  dark  ring  of  colour,  but  even  this  is  not 
ap[,arent  on  the  fore  tibiae.  Wings  greyish,  the  rosettes  of 
light  colour,  fairly  distinct ;  the  apical  sinuous  band  is  double ; 
stigma  and  veins  yellowish  brown. 

Length  8  mm. 

PI.  111.  fig.  3,  type  (female). 

It  was  not  possible  to  get  a  very  satisfactory  photograph 
of  the  wing,  owing  to  its  imperfect  condition. 

Hwmatopota  longa,    ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female),  Nyasaland,  Nov.  1892  {H.  H.  Johnston), 
91.  i.  2;  one  female  from  Ndi,  E.  Africa  {IT.  S.  Godfrey), 
98.  G9;  one  female  from  Lunigina  River,  Henga,  west  of 
Lake  Nyasa,  3000  feet,  29.  i.  9J.  {R.  Crawshmj),  98.  81. 

A  small  black  species,  distinguished  by  the  long  cylin- 
drical first  joint  of  the  yellow  antenuie. 

Face  grey,  with  two  black  spots  in  the  centre,  not  con- 
tiguous ;  the  usual  stripe  is  almost  resolved  into  a  large  spot 
bordering  on  the  eyes  and  small  punctuated  spots.  Palpi 
yellowish,  with  white  hairs  at  the  liase  and  black  hairs  beyond. 
Antennae  light  yellow,  the  third  joint  darker  on  its  a[ucal 
half  ;  the  first  joint  long  and  slender,  together  with  the  second 
nearly  as  long  as  the  third  joint ;  the  second  short,  with 
tuft-like  black  hairs  below  anil  above  on  its  upper  edge. 
I'rontal  callus  black,  shining,  in  front  lunate,  with  two 
black   spots  proceeding   from  it  between  tlie  autcunic;  the 

of  the  Familj  Tabaiiidto.  105 

liind  Ijonlcr  soniowlKit  siiiiious ;  tlie  paired  spots  large, 
toucliiiij;  the  eyes,  the  uiij)airecl  spot  small  and  indistinct. 
Forehead  bi-o\vnish,  with  grey  tonientum  forming  a  broad 
arrow  on  the  vertex  (the  arrow-like  shape  is  only  distinct  on 
the  type).  Thorax  brown-blaek^  rather  shining,  with  grey 
stripes.  Abdomen  brownisli  black,  the  hind  borders  of  the 
segments  greyish ;  there  are  indistinct  grey  spots  on  the 
liind  segments.  Legs  brownish,  the  usual  hghter  rings  and 
the  base  of  the  metatarsi  yellow,  the  tarsi  black,  the  fore 
tibiai  slightly  dilated.  Wings  brown,  with  the  rosettes  of 
light  colour  clearly  marked  ;  the  apical  sinuous  line  broad 
and  single,  the  posterior  cells  usually  with  light  colour  on 
the  outer  border;  stigma  and  veins  yellowish  brown. 

Length  9  ram. 

PI.  III.  fig.  4,  female  (not  type). 

Hcemaiopota  ohsciira^  $  ?  ,  Loew. 

Two  females  from  Karkloof  and  one  female  from  Port 
Natal  seem  to  agree  with  the  description  of  the  female  given 
by  Loew  ;  the  spots  on  the  abdomen  are  hardly  visible  ou 
one  of  the  specimens. 

Hcematopoia  Uganda,   ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Tvpe  (female)  and  nine  other  females  from  Uganda 
{Lt^Col.  Bruce),  1903.  206. 

This  species  is  nearly  allied  to  H.  vittata,  Loew,  but  is 
distinguished  from  it,  firstly,  by  the  absence  of  the  black 
band  on  upper  part  of  face ;  secondly,  by  the  broader  frontal 
callus  produced  to  a  point  on  the  posterior  border; 
thirdly,  by  the  shape  of  the  antennae,  which  are  longer  and 
more  slender  and  the  first  joint  is  less  incrassate ;  and 
fourthly,  by  the  absence  of  the  unpaired  black  spot  on  the 
forehead.  From  H.  distincta,  sp.  n.,  it  is  easily  distin- 
guished by  the  difference  in  the  wings,  its  smaller  and  less 
robust  appearance,  and  its  lighter  colouring. 

Face  brownish,  covered  with  grey  tomentum,  the  brown 
colour  appearing  as  the  usual  spots  and  as  the  transverse 
stripe :  the  spare  pubescence  is  yellowish.  Palpi  faint  red, 
with  grey  tomentum  and  short  black  pubescence.  Antennae 
yellowish  brown,  with  some  grey  tomentum,  the  last  divisions 
of  the  third  joint  deep  black ;  the  first  joint  slightly  incras- 
sate, the  second  short,  both  with  black  pubescence,  the  third 
rather  long  and  slender.  Forehead  brown,  yellowish  at  the 
sides  and  round  the  spots.  Frontal  callus  reddish  brown, 
shilling   (in  some  of  the  other  specimens  it  is  darker,  almost 

106  Miss  G.  Rlcardo  on  the  Genus  Haeinatopota 

black),  broad,  produced  on  its  anterior  border;  tbe  paired 
spots  large,  not  reaching  the  eyes,  deep  brown  ;  the  unpaired 
spot  is  not  apparent.  Thorax  brown,  with  three  narrow 
yellowish  stripes,  the  central  one  expanding  beyond  the 
suture  into  a  broad  median  stripe  with  spots  at  its  base,  the 
side  ones  end  in  the  usual  spots,  sides  yellowish ;  or  the 
thorax  might  be  described  as  yellowish  brown  with  three 
brown  stripes,  the  middle  one  divided  by  a  yellow  line  and 
terminating  at  the  suture.  Scutellum  brown,  w  ith  a  central 
yellowish  stripe.  Abdomen  brownish,  yellower  at  the  base 
and  on  the  sides,  where  the  yellow  appears  as  large  irregular 
spots,  and  the  posterior  borders  of  the  segments  are  yellow 
with  short  yellow  pubescence ;  the  underside  greyish  brown. 
Legs  reddish  browai  with  yellow  rings  ;  the  fore  tibiae  only 
yellow  at  the  base.  Wings  brown,  with  the  rosettes  more 
distinctly  marked  than  in  fl.  distincta,  often  lighter  in  the 
centre;  veins  brown;  stigma  dark  brown;  apical  band 
single ;  the  blotch  on  the  apical  line  in  the  type  is  not 
always  present,  and  may  perhaps  be  accidental,  due  to  a  loss 
of  colouring-matter. 

Length  10  mm. 

PI.  IIL  fig.  5,  type  (female). 

Hcematopota  distinct  a,   $  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female)  from  Plateau  of  Zomba,  Nyasaland  {A. 
Sharp),  97.  46;  one  female  from  Kasungu  ]\It.,  Nyika, 
Nvasaland,  4.  iii.  96  (R.  Crawshay),  98.  81  ;  one  female, 
British  East  Africa  (C.  S.  Bet  ton),  1901.  319. 

A  well-marked  distinct  species,  the  thoracic  markings 
allied  to  those  of  H.  vittata.  In  colour  dark  brown,  the 
scutellum  yellowish  brown,  the  legs  with  the  usual  white  or 
yellow  rings. 

Face  reddish,  with  grey  tomentum;  no  black  spots  and 
only  a  trace  of  the  transverse  stripe.  Palpi  rather  long, 
yellowish  red,  with  black  hairs  and  some  white  hairs  below. 
Antennic  brown-black,  dull  red  at  the  base  of  the  first  and 
third  joints,  the  first  only  slightly  incrassate,  and  w  ith  the 
second  joint  covered  with  black  pubescence,  the  last  annula- 
tions  of  the  third  joint  black.  Forehead  reddish  brown,  the 
frontal  callus  and  paired  spots  darker  brown;  the  callus 
shining,  broad,  reaching  the  eyes,  lunate  on  the  posterior, 
almost  straight  on  the  anterior  border;  the  spots  between  the 
antennas  black  ;  the  uni)aircd  spot  small,  joineil  to  a  dark 
median  s])ot  on  the  vertex.  Thorax  brown-black,  the  sides 
reddish  grey ;  the  stripes  narrow,  grey,  the  median  one  not 
very   distinct,  prolonged   into  an   oblong  sjiot  witii   a   wide 

of  the  Fdinilij  Tabanicliy.  107 

base,  tlie  outer  oiios  ciidiiii^  in  small  spots.  Scutclluin 
yollowisli  l)i()\vn,  uitli  very  distinct  i^i'cy  toinciitam  on  the 
anterior  border,  Alxloineii  brown,  with  yellowish  borders 
to  tlie  segments  and  fairly  distinct  ^vcy  spots  on  each  side 
of  every  segment ;  the  underside  brown,  with  faint  yellow 
borders  and  -with  grey  tomentum.  Legs  dark  brown,  the 
rings  light  yellow  ;  the  fore  legs  only  yellow  at  the  base  of 
the  tibi;c.  Wings  large,  dark  brownish  ;  the  dark  markings 
give  many  of  the  veins  the  appearance  of  being  shaded  ;  the 
rosettes  are  fairly  distinct,  the  apical  sinuous  line  single, 
concave,  sliort,  only  reaching  just  beyond  the  anterior  fork 
of  the  third  vein. 

Length  1 1  mm. 

PI.  111.  tig.  G,  type  (female). 

Hcbmatopota  brunnescens,   ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Tvpe  (female)  and  other  females  from  Uganda  [Lt.-Col. 
Bruce),  1903.  20G,  and  British  Central  Africa. 

A  small  brown  species  with  grey  wings ;  the  upper  part  of 
the  face  yellow-brown  and  the  first  joint  of  tlie  antennte 
rather  short. 

Face  grey,  with  grey  pubescence  and  no  black  spots,  the 
upper  part  yellowish  brown,  where  it  reaches  the  callus 
becoming  yellower.  Palpi  fairly  long,  grey,  with  black 
pubescence.  Antennae  yellowish,  darker  at  the  extreme  apex 
and  on  the  upper  angle  of  the  base  of  the  third  joint ;  first 
joint  rather  short,  slightly  incrassate,  the  second  small, 
both  with  black  pubescence.  Frontal  callus  yellowish  brown, 
shining,  almost  straight  on  both  borders,  reaching  the  eyes ; 
the  paired  spots  black,  reaching  the  eyes.  Forehead  reddish 
brown,  with  grey  tomentum,  most  noticeable  in  contact  with 
the  callus  and  on  the  vertex  ;  some  very  short  black  pubes- 
cence apparent.  Thorax  brown,  with  three  yellowish-grey 
linear  stripes,  the  middle  one  very  faint,  the  outer  ones 
ending  at  the  base  in  enlarged  spots  ;  the  sides  of  the  thorax 
and  shoulders  grey ;  scutellum  reddish  brown,  the  red 
rather  apparent,  probably  owing  to  the  denudation  of  the 
grey  tomentum,  which  is  most  noticeable  on  the  borders. 
Abdomen  dark  brown,  with  the  posterior  borders  of  the 
segments  yellowish  ;  the  spots  on  the  sides  grey,  round ;  the 
■underside  grey  and  brown.  Legs  yellowish  brown,  some 
grey  tomentum  on  the  femora  and  tibiae  and  some  yellow 
pubescence  on  the  posterior  femora,  the  usual  rings  yellowish. 
Wings  uniformly  grey,  with  faint  pale  markings;  stigma 
yellowish  brown,  veins  brown,  appendix  long. 

103  Miss  G.  Ilicardo  on  the  Genus  lUcmatopota 

Length  9  mm. 

PI.  IV.  fig.  7. 

Ill  other  specimens  the  abdomen  is  redder,  tlie  grey  spots 
very  distinct,  and  often  a  grey  median  line  is  present  ;  the 
abdomen  of  type  is  evidently  denuded. 

A  series  from  Buruli,  Uganda,  "in  patch  of  forest  on 
Lukogo  River,  halfway  between  Junda  and  Kiseliza,^'  have 
the  following  note  : — "  Especially  virulent  species,  complained 
of  by  natives  as  injuring  if  not  actually  killing  their  cattle  " 
{Lt.-Col.  Bruce). 

H(^matopota  bipundata,   ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female),  from  Volksrust,  Transvaal,  5400  feet, 
17.  xi.  1903  [Crawshay),  and  anotlier  female  from  same 

A  well-marked  species  with  distinct  ocelli  and  markings 
on  the  brown  mottled  wings ;  the  black  abdomen  witli  two 
rows  of  grey  spots.  It  is  nearly  related  to  H.  dnplicata, 
Loew,  but  the  apical  band  of  wing  is  not  double,  though  at 
its  end  it  throws  off  an  indistinct  branch  ;  the  first  joint  of 
the  antennae  is  incrassate,  a  point  not  mentioned  by  Loew  in 
regard  to  his  species,  and  there  is  no  median  line  on  the 
abdomen,  which,  with  the  very  distinct  spots  on  each  segment, 
distinguishes  it  from  H.  dapUcata,  besides  other  small 

Face  grey,  with  black  pubescence  and  no  spots,  the  upper 
part  yellowish  brown;  above  yellowish;  below  brown,  but 
broken  up  in  the  centre,  which  is  greyish.  Palpi  long  and 
slender,  stouter  at  base,  tapering  to  an  obtuse  point,  yellowish, 
with  grey  tomentum  and  black  hairs.  Antcnnaj  reddish 
brown,  the  basal  joint  densely  covered  with  grey  tomentum, 
with  long  black  hairs  and  a  few  yellow  shorter  hairs,  stout 
and  large,  in  length  api)roaching  that  of  the  third  joint ; 
the  second  joint  small,  red,  with  black  hairs;  the  third  red, 
at  the  apex  blackish,  the  red  basal  portion  broader.  Frontal 
callus  very  inconspicuous,  being  covered  with  grey  tomentum ; 
it  is  yellowish,  small,  and  narrow,  not  attaining  the  eyes, 
hardly  extending  beyond  the  base  of  the  antenna?,  straight 
on  both  borders  ;  the  paired  spots  black,  large,  reaching  the 
eyes.  Forehead  wide,  brownish,  covered  with  grey  tomentum ; 
on  the  vertex  a  large  heart-shaped  brown  spot,  with  a  tine 
grey  median  line  dividing  it  into  two  halves  ;  the  pubescence 
of  the  forehead  black,  short.  Beard  white.  Thorax  blackish 
brown,  with  two  interrupted  grey  stripes  and  a  trace  of  a 
nairow  median  one;  shoulders  and  sides  grey  ;  the  seuttllnni 

of  the  Family  Tal)aiii<la'.  109 

tlic  same  colcMir,  with  a  gi'cy  median  stripe;  and  grey  on  the 
outer  borders.  Abdomen  black-brown,  with  distinct  large 
grey  spots  on  each  side,  beginning  from  the  first  segment 
and  reaching  to  the  last  segment ;  the  posterior  borders  grey  ; 
on  the  second  sc,i;nK'nt  the  ))order  is  enlarged  to  a  triangular 
median  spot;  traces  of  similar  spots  are  seen  on  the  other 
segments,  but  they  form  no  distinct  median  stripe;  the  very 
sliort  pubescence  is  chiefly  black  on  the  dark  colouring  and 
grc}"-  on  the  grey  colouring,  ^vith  the  sides  the  same.  Under- 
side brown,  with  inconspicuous  yellow  pubescence.  Legs 
brown,  the  knees  of  the  femora  yellow  ;  the  tibiae  with  two 
yellow  rings  ;  the  tarsi  brown,  the  basal  joint  yellow,  brown 
at  the  extreme  apex  ;  the  pubescence  of  the  legs  black,  with 
some  few  white  hairs.  Wings  brown,  the  extreme  base 
and  fore  border  lighter,  all  the  rosettes  fully  formed  and 
distinct ;  the  stigma  brown ;  veins  brown ;  the  appendix 

Length  10  mm. 

PI.  IV.  fig.  8,  type  (female). 

The  second  female  is  apparently  the  same  species,  though 
much  discoloured. 

Hcematopota  imbrium,    ?  ,  Wiedem. 

Two  specimens  in  poor  preservation  labelled  "  South 
Africa  {Dr.  Smith),"  44.  6,  are  probably  identical  with  this 

Loew  remarks  that  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  between  this 
species  and  his  H.  recurrens  and  H.  scutellutus  ;  the  whitish 
triangular  spots  on  the  median  line  of  the  abdomen  mentioned 
by  Wiedemann  are  not  present  in  his  species.  Macquart 
declares  H.  imbrium  to  be  a  common  species  in  Kaffraria. 

Hamatopota  ocellata,    ?  ,  Wiedem. 

One  female  from  Estcourt,  Jan.  1897  (G.  A.  K.  Marshall), 
19)3.  17. 

Two  females  from  Cape  Colony,  40.  6.  26.  702  and  703. 

It  is  impossible  to  add  anything  to  the  original  description 
of  this  species  from  the  want  of  a  good  series  of  specimens. 
H.  meteorica,  ?  ,  Corti,  seems  difficult  to  distinguish  from 
Wiedemann's  species  ;  the  distinction  regarding  the  wings 
given  in  the  table  is  from  the  author's  description. 

Hamatopota  meteorica,    ?  ,  Corti. 

Two  females    from   Zomba,   Nyasaland   {Sharp).   97.  46, 
may  belong  to  this  species,  but  are  in  too  bad  conditiou  for 
Ann.  d;  Mag.  N,  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  y 

110  Miss  G.  Hicaido  on  the  Genus  Ilaematopota 

more  exact  determination;  the  legs  are  rather  darker  than 
the  author  describes  in  his  species  and  no  median  grey  line 
is  apparent  on  the  abdomen. 

There  are  two  specimens  from  the  same  locality,  likewise 
badly  preserved  ;  in  the  wings  the  light  colour  is  almost 
entirely  broken  up  into  minute  spots;  probably  they  will 
prove  to  be  a  new  species. 

Hamatopota  decora,   ?  ,  Walker  [//.  dorsuVis,  Loew] . 

Type  (female),  Saunders  Coll.,  68.  4,  Natal ;  and  seven 
females  from  Busoga,  Uganda  [Bruce),  1903.  270. 

These  specimens  have  not  the  stripes  of  the  thorax  con- 
tinuous as  in  table  i.  fig.  33  of  Loew^s  'Diptera  Slidafrika/ 
but  interrupted  at  the  suture  for  a  space;  otherwise  they 
agree  with  Loew's  description  ;  his  type  came  from  Caffraria, 
S.  Africa.  The  figure  of  the  antenn?e  in  his  fig.  34  is 
evidently  incorrect,  the  first  joint  being  very  much  incrassate 
and  the  third  joint  much  broader  than  usual,  as  noted  in  the 

PI.  IV.  fig.  9,  type  (female) . 

HcBmatopota  guineensis,   ?  ,  Bigot. 

Type  (female)  from  Abyssinia. 

This  species  was  first  named  H.  cordigera,  but  was  changed 
to  the  above  naiue  by  the  author,  cordigera  being  already 
used,  for  a  species  from  Asia.  The  type  was  described  with 
the  antennje  incomplete,  only  the  first  two  joints  remaining; 
these  are  cylindrical,  yellow  in  colour.  The  frontal  callus 
is  pitchy  brown,  broad,  produced  on  its  hind  border,  almost 
straight  on  the  anterior  border ;  the  paired  spots  large,  brown, 
reaching  the  eyes  ;  the  unpaired  spot  is  very  small  and 
indistinct  ;  the  spots  on  the  face  are  brown  and  the  trans- 
verse broAvn  stripe  is  placed  on  a  line  with  them,  nearly 
joining  them.  The  thorax  is  reddish  brown,  with  three 
narrow  grey  stripes,  the  outer  ones  ending  at  the  suture  iu 
the  usual  spots;  there  are  also  half-moon  spots  at  the  base 
of  the  thorax ;  scutellum  the  same  colour,  with  grey 
tomcntum ;  the  abdomen  is  brownish,  yellower  at  the  base, 
and  the  posterior  margins  of  the  segments  are  lighter 
coloured.  Legs  yellowish  brown,  the  fore  tarsi  somewhat 
dilated.  "Wings  brown-grey,  the  extreme  apex  clear ;  veins 
and  stigma  brown  ;  the  apical  sinuous  line  begins  below  apex, 
reaching  the  posterior  branch  of  the  third  vein,  where  it 
joins  another  short  band  from  the  anterior  branch. 
Length  9  mm. 

PI.  IV.  tig.  10,  type  (female). 

of  (he  Fainili/  TaljaiuMH'.  1  1  I 

H<ematoi)i)t(i  /jnanii/jc/iiiis^    ^'  ^  s[).  ii. 

Type  (female)  and  anotlici-  female  from  Salisbury,  Dec. 
1899  [G.  A.  K.  Mn shall). 

Que  female  from  Lunigina  River,  Ilenga,  west  of  Lake 
Nyasa,  3000  feet,  29.  i.  91.  {R.  Crawshay),  98.  81. 

Five  females,  21  miles  from  Blantyre,  13rit.  Centr.  Africa, 
22.  i.  1905,  G  to  7  a.m.  {Dr.  J.  E.  S.  Old),  with  note :  "  Tn 
tall  green  reeds  :  bit  donor  and  Lis  man.  Usually  silent  and 
very  sluggish. ^^ 

This  and  the  following  species  are  distinguished  by  the 
absence  of  lighter  rings  of  colour  on  the  legs. 

A  greyish-brown  species  with  brownish  wings  and  yellow 
legs  aud  antcnnce,  the  tips  of  the  latter  being  black. 

Face  brown,  the  dense  tomentum  gives  it  a  grey  appear- 
ance ;  no  black  spots  or  stripe  present.  Palpi  pale  yellow, 
wiili  yellow  pubescence  and  some  black  pubescence  on  the 
upper  surface.  Antennae  yellowish,  the  tips  dull  black;  the 
first  joint  only  slightly  inerassate,  the  third  rather  long  and 
slender,  the  first  two  joints  with  some  black  pubescence. 
Frontal  callus  mahogany-brown,  shining  (on  the  one  from 
Lake  Nyasa  it  is  more  yellowish  brown),  narrow,  attaining 
the  eyes,  much  produced  in  front ;  a  narrow  brown  stripe 
between  the  antcnnre ;  the  paired  spots  large,  triangular, 
black,  not  reaching  the  eyes,  the  unpaired  spot  indistinct ; 
the  sparse  pubescence  on  the  foreheacl  white ;  on  the  vertex 
are  two  oblong  brown  spots  divided  in  the  middle.  Thorax 
brown,  with  three  grey  stripes,  the  median  one  linear,  the 
side  ones  indistinctly  continued  from  the  suture ;  the  sides 
and  breast  grey.  Scutellnm  brown,  grey  in  the  middle  and 
at  the  sides.  Abdomen  brown,  with  grey  spots ;  the  grey 
colour  apparent  at  the  sides  and  on  the  posterior  border  of 
the  segments,  also  as  a  fine  median  line,  the  first  segment 
being  almost  wholly  grey.  The  underside  brown,  grey  at 
the  sides,  on  which  some  minute  black  dots  are  scattered. 
Legs  yellowish,  the  femora  with  grey  tomentum,  and  some 
black  pubescence  on  the  tarsi.  Wings  have  a  chequered 
appearance,  the  brown  and  the  white  colour  very  distinct  ; 
seen  with  the  naked  eye  the  brown  colour  is  more  marked  at 
the  apex  and  on  the  fore  border  as  blotches ;  stigma  light 
brown  ;  veins  brown. 

Length  9.\  mm. 

PI.  IV.  fig.  11,  type  (female). 

Hamatopota  unicolor,   ?  ,  sp.  u. 

Type  and  one  other  female  from  Uganda  (Lt.-Col.  Bruce), 

112  ^liss  G.  Uicaido  on  the  Genus  Ilajmatopota 

1903.  206 ;  and  another  female  from  Uganda  Protectorate 
[C.  S.  Bettun),  1902.  146. 

This  species  is  distinguished  by  the  absence  of  the  lighter 
rings  on  the  legs  and  by  the  appearance  of  the  wings,  which 
are  almost  wholly  pale  at  the  base,  the  dark  colour  predomi- 
nating on  the  apical  half  and  on  the  posterior  border. 

Face  grey,  with  some  silvery-white  pubescence;  no  spots 
or  stripes  are  visible.  Palpi  yellow,  large,  robust,  with  white 
pubescence,  mixed  with  some  black  hairs.  Antennae  reddish, 
the  third  joint  darker  and  wholly  black  on  the  last  three 
annulations  ;  the  first  joint  is  slightly  incrassate,  the  second 
short,  both  with  black  pubescence;  the  third  is  rather  long. 
Frontal  callus  yellowish  brown,  shining,  slightly  sinuous  on 
both  borders,  with  a  triangular  projection  in  the  centre  of 
the  anterior  border.  Forehead  brown,  covered  with  grey 
tomentum  ;  the  paired  spots  large,  black,  not  reaching  the 
eyes,  the  unpaired  spot  small,  brownish ;  the  sides  with 
yellowish  tomentum.  Thorax,  scutcllum,  and  abdomen  of  a 
uniform  sandy-yellowish  colour,  the  dark  ground-colour 
rarely  visible;  the  pubescence  pale,  short,  and  yellow,  thickest 
on  the  abdomen ;  the  grey  stripes  on  the  thorax  are  faint. 
Legs  yellow.  Wings  to  a  great  extent  pale  on  the  basal 
half;  the  basal,  anal,  and  discal  cells,  and  fore  border  as  far 
as  the  stigma  almost  wholly  pale-coloured,  only  a  few  brown 
blotches  appearing;  the  dark  colour  on  the  apical  half  of  the 
wing  is  greyish  brown;  stigma  and  first  two  longitudinal 
veins  yellowish,  other  veins  brown ;  only  two  rosettes 
distinctly  marked  ;  the  appendix  long. 

Length  11  mm. 

ri.  IV.  fig.  12,  type  (female). 

H(Ematoj)ota  similis,   $  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female)  and  three  other  females  from  Uganda 
{Lt.-Col.  Brnce),  1903.  270. 

This  species  is  nearly  related  to  H.  unicolor,  sp.  n.,  but 
may  be  distinguished  from  it  by  its  dark  palpi  and  antennae 
and  in  the  following  i)artienlars  : — 

There  are  traces  of  a  dark  stripe  between  the  antennae  and 
the  eyes,  but  it  is  liardly  visible  in  the  other  specimens. 
Palpi  greyish  black,  with  thick  black  pubescence  and  some 
yellow  hails  at  their  bases.  Antenna^  greyish  black,  the 
stcond  joint  and  the  base  of  the  thiid  reddish;  tlic  three 
last  annulatitins  of  the  third  joint  black,  all  joints  with 
black  pubescence  ;  the  first  joint  is  not  so  incrassate  as  in 
H.  unicolor,  but  is  almost  cylindiical.     Frontal  callus  black, 

of  ihe  Fainilj  T.ibaiiiilie.  113 

sliiiiiiig,  narrow,  rcachiiif^  tlic  eyes,  the  autciior  border 
concave,  the  posterior  border  sli;i;litly  produced  iu  the  centre; 
there  are  two  small  brown  stripe-like  spots  between  the 
antcmuic ;  the  paired  spots  are  larj^e,  black,  reaching  the  eyes  ; 
the  foreiiead  is  yellower,  the  tonientum  being  of  this  colour. 
The  stripes  on  the  thorax  are  distinct.  Legs  darker,  the 
base  of  the  tibire  yellow  ;  the  femora  blackish,  with  grey 
tomcntum  ;  the  fore  tarsi  black,  the  basal  joint  of  the  middle 
and  posterior  tarsi  yellow,  the  other  joints  black;  on  the 
middle  and  posterior  tibiic  the  black  pubesc;'nce  gives  the 
a|)pcarance  of  a  dark  ring  in  the  middle.  Wings  rather 
darker,  especially  on  the  fore  borders  ;  the  anal  cell  is  dark, 
but  the  first  posterior  cell  is  light-coloured  for  two  thirds  of 
its  length  ;  the  upper  rosettes  are  broken  up,  so  that  none 
arc  distinct  ;  veins  and  stigma  dark  brown. 

L;'ngth  10  mm. 

PI.  A',  fig.  l.'i,  not  type  (female). 

Oriental  Reyion. 

The  described  species  of  H(pmatoputa  from  the  Oriental 
Region  are  fourteen  in  number,  given  iu  Wulp's  Cat.  Dipt. 
S.  Asia.  As  the  material  in  the  British  ^Museum  (Natural 
History)  Collection  chicHy  consists  of  new  species  from 
India  and  Ceylon,  I  have  given  a  separate  table  fur  these 
and  the  Bigot  types  belonging  to  Mr.  Verrall,  including  one 
I'abrician  species  of  which  there  are  specimens  in  the  Collec- 
tion and  one  of  AValker^s  types  from  India.  Another  table, 
mostly  of  the  older  species,  chiefly  from  the  East  Indies, 
including  one  of  Walker's  types,  is  given  as  a  possible  help 
to  identification. 

The  six  new  species  described  are  all  from  India  and 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Verrall  I  have  had  access  to 
the  Bigot  types  with  the  exception  of  H.  cilipes  and 
H.  pachycera.  Of  the  former  there  is  an  example  in  the 
British  Museum  Collection.  Of  the  latter  I  have  no  know- 
ledge ;  it  is  distinguished,  according  to  the  author,  by  the 
antennae  being  twice  as  long  as  the  head,  with  a  black 
abdomen,  two  rows  of  spots  and  the  borders  of  the  segments 
indistinctly  grey.  The  author  is  doubtful  whether  these  two 
species  should  belong  to  the  genus. 

H.  concentralis,  ?  ,  Walker,  is  not  included  in  the  tables, 
the  type  being  without  a  head  or  wings,  and  no  locality 

H.  serpentina^    Wied.,    described    without    a    locality,    is 

114  Miss  G.  Ricavdo  on  the  Genus  Ilsematopota 

probably  an  Asiatic  species,  but  1  have  not  seen  any  specimens 
to  correspond  to  the  description. 

Table  of  Indian  and  Ceylon  Species. 

1 .  Legs  uniform  in  colour    2. 

Legs  with  rings  of  lighter  colour,  or,  at  least, 

■with  the  base  of  the  fore   tibia3  white  or 
yellow 5. 

2.  Tiie  first  joint  of  the  antennae  as  long  as  the 

second  and  third  combined 3. 

The  first  joint  of  the  antennae  not  so  long  as 
tiie  third  joint    4. 

3.  Abdomen  brown,  with  grey  stripe  and  spots.  .   ^roralis,  $  ,  Fabr. 

4.  Abdomen  brown,  with  a  very  distinct  hoary 

grey  stripe limhata,  $  ,  Bigot. 

G.  Legs  white  or  yellow  at  the  base  of  the  fore 

tibiffi,  but  no  typical  rings  of  lighter  colour .     6. 
Legs  with  typical  rings  of  lighter  colour  on 
the  middle  or  posterior  tibia;,  or  on  both   .  .     9. 
G.  Antenna;   long   and   slender,   the    first    joint 

cylindrical 7. 

Antennae  stout,  the  first  joint  incrassate   ....     8. 

7.  A  narrow  brown  species,  no  spots  apparent  on 

the  abdomen indiima,  J  ,  Bigot. 

8.  A  yellowish-brown  narrow  species,  with  grey 

.spots  on  the  abdomen    *cnna,  $  ,  "Walker. 

9.  Antennae   long   and   slender,    the   first  joint 

cylindrical 10. 

Antennae  rather  long,  the  first  joint  incrassate.  12. 
Antennae  with  the  fost  joint  very  short,  only 

half  as  long  as  the  third  joint 10. 

10.  Middle  tibiae  only  have  rings  of  lighter  colour.  *unizonata,  sp.  n. 
Middle   and   posterior   tibiae   with    rings   of 

lighter  colour 11. 

11.  The  paired  spots   coalesce;    a    dark    brown 

species,  with  no  spots  on  the  abdomen   ....     cordigera,  5 ,  Bigot. 
The  paired  spots  do  not  coalesce;  a  greyish- 
brown    species,   with    grey    spots    on    the 

abdomen *cinf/alensis,  5 ,  sp.  n. 

]  2.  A  grey  species,  with  chequered  wings *fes$ellafa,  $ ,  sp.  n. 

Species  with  wings  not  chequered 13. 

13.  Species  with  pale  baud  across  the  wing  and 

no  rosettes 14. 

Species  with   no   pale   band,  but   the  usual 
rosettes    15. 

14.  lieddish  species,  Avitli  hind  tibiae  incrassate 

and  fringed *nibi(Ia,  $ ,  sp.  u. 

Black   species,   with    all    the    tibia;    densely 

fringed  and  the  anterior  and  posterior  tibitB 

incrassate    *cilij)es,  9 ,  Bigot. 

]o.  Blackish  specie.",  with  the  hind  tibiae  fringed, 

but  not  incrassate *l<ita,  $ .  sp.  n. 

JU.  J)ark  brown  species;  abdomen  grey  at  base, 

with  white  borders  to  the  segments    *l>r('n'f,  9  .  •'^P-  !'• 

(if  the  lunnilij  T,il>;iiiiil;o.  115 

//.  ciuia,  ?  ,  AValkcr,  might  almost  ho  iiichidod  under  tliosc 
with  lc{;.s  uniform  in  colour,  hut  that  the  lore  tibiic  arc 
yellow  at  the  base. 

Table  of  Species  from  the  East  ladies. 

1.  Base  of  fore  tibi;c  Avliite,  no  typical  rings  on 

the  It'o's  2. 

Base  of  fore  tibiie  ^xllite,  with   typical  rings 

on  tlie  h'gs 4. 

2.  Thorax  with  a  broad  yellow  stripe     cimjulata,  5,  Wied. 

Thorax  with  no  such  stripe     3. 

3.  Thorax  and  autonnfc  red  ;  abdomen  brownish 

yellow    at    bas(%    black    on    the    posterior 

segments borneaim,  5  »  I^ond. 

Thorax    brownish  ;    abdomen    brown,    with 
grey  spots  at  sides  and  a  grey  median  stripe,     inmctifera,  2  ,  Bigot. 

4.  Hind  tibiae  with  rings 5. 

Middle  tibia)  only  with  rings (i. 

5.  Abdomen  yellow irrorata,  J ,  Macq. 

Abdomen  blackish  brown,  with  white  borders 

to  the  segments limuhita,  5  ,  Macq. 

Abdomen  reddish  brown,  with  grey  spots  and 

'  stripes juvana,  $  ,  Wiedem. 

G.  Small  dark  species    *at.omaria,  § ,  Walk. 

The  figures  of  the  wings  of  H.  Inimlata,  irrorata,  and 
javaua  by  Wulp  in  '  Fauna  jMidden-Sumatra/  pt,  ii.  p.  19, 
tab.  i.  figs.  14,  13,  12  (1892),  should  be  consulted. 

H(Ematopota  limbata,   ?  ,  Bigot. 

Type  (female)  from  Bengal,  and  another  female  from 
Khasi  Hills. 

A  fair-sized  species,  easily  distinguished  by  the  prominent 
bluish-grey  median  stripe  of  abdomen,  with  large  black  spots 
on  the  upper  part  of  the  face. 

Brown.  Face  grey  ;  a  large  irregular-shaped  black  spot 
on  each  side  of  antennae,  reaching  to  the  eyes.  Frontal  callus 
yellow,  shining,  narroAv,  concave  on  the  anterior  border;  the 
spot  between  the  antennae  black.  Forehead  grey  ;  the  paired 
spots  black  and  distinct,  the  unpaired  spot  brown,  indistinct. 
Antennae  yellow ;  the  first  joint  stout,  not  so  long  as  the 
third  joint,  with  black  pubescence;  the  second  joint  very 
small,  with  black  hairs ;  the  third  joint  broad,  becoming 
narrower  where  the  annulations  begin,  and  tapering  to  a 
point.  Palpi  yellow,  with  dense  black  pubescence.  Thorax 
blackish  brown,  lighter-coloured  at  the  sides,  with  faint 
narrow  grey  stripes,  the  breast  with  hoary  markings.     The 

1 IG  Miss  G.  Ricardo  on  the  Genus  Ilsematopota 

abdomen  brown,  the  posterior  borders  of  the  segments 
narrowly  yellowish  ;  some  faint  black  markings  on  the  sides 
of  al)donien ;  the  underside  brown,  covered  Avith  grey 
tomentum.  Legs  yellow,  with  fine  black  pubescence;  the 
coxae  grey  pollinose.  "Wings  grey,  with  yellow  veins  and 
a  long  appendix ;  most  of  the  veins  are  faintly  shaded 
with  darker  colour ;  the  typical  markings  are  faint ;  there 
is  one  rosette  apparent,  enclosing  the  appendix,  and  another 

Length  \\\  mm. 

Hcematopota  r  or  alls,  Fabr. 

One  male  from  Yelverry,  Ceylon,  25.  x.  91  (Yerbury), 
92.  192;  one  female  from  Pankullam  Koad,  Trincomalce, 
1.  i.  91  {Yerbury),  92.  192;  one  female  from /Hot  Wells, 
Trincomalce,  8.  xi.  91  {Yerbury),  92.  192. 

A  black-brown  species,  Avith  grey  stripes  and  spots  and 
long  yellow  antennae. 

The  original  description  (of  the  female)  being  short  and 
incomplete,  the  following  particulars  may  be  found  useful  : — 

?  .  Face  grey,  no  spots  below  the  antennae ;  the  frontal 
callus  yellow,  shining,  broad,  the  anterior  border  slightly 
concave;  a  small  brow^n  spot  exists  between  the  antennae. 
Forehead  grey,  the  paired  spots  large,  black;  the  unpaired 
spot  is  not  present.  Antennae  yellow  ;  the  first  joint  as  long 
as  the  two  following,  fairly  stout,  Avith  some  fine  black 
pubescence;  the  second  small,  round,  w'ith  black  hairs;  the 
third  broad,  not  ending  in  as  tapering  a  point  as  usual. 
Thorax  black-brown,  with  three  grey  stripes  and  grey  sides  ; 
breast  grey.  Abdomen  black-brown  ;  the  grey  spots  at  the 
sides  large,  nearly  square,  the  median  stripe  narrow,  the 
posterior  borders  of  the  segments  lighter.  Legs  of  a  uniform 
yellow  colour.  Wings  grey,  Avith  brown  veins  and  stigma ; 
the  usual  rosettes  and  markings  distinct  ;  an  appendix 

The  male  is  similar,  Avith  the  exception  of  the  antenna?, 
Avhich  differ,  the  first  joint  being  stout  and  short,  not  so 
long  as  the  third  joint. 

licngth  9  mm. 

Hcematopota  cana,   ?  ,  Walker. 

Type  (female).  Northern  Bengal,  42.  25  {Lieut.  Campbell). 
A  small  yellow-brown  species,  with  large  grey  spots  at  the 
sides  of  abdomen  and  an  indistinct  median  stripe. 

of  the  /'a///////  Tal);uiiiUe.  117 

The  type  is  in  very  poor  preservation,  wliicli  makes  any 
description  of  it  incomplete. 

lace  grey,  no  spots  ;  tlie  frontal  eallns  brown,  both  its 
borders  somewhat  irregular ;  a  small  brown  spot  is  situated 
between  the  antenmc;  the  paired  spots  are  brown,  large, 
oblong,  the  unpaired  one  is  small.  Forehead  grey.  An- 
tennae broMU,  the  first  joint  yellowish,  stout,  not  quite  so 
long  as  the  third ;  the  palpi  yellow,  with  black  pubescence. 
Thorax  blaekisli,  with  three  grey  stripes,  the  sides  and  breast 
greyish.  Abdomen  yellowish,  darker  at  the  tips,  with  large 
lioary  grey  spots  on  the  sides  ;  the  median  stripe  apjjcars 
incomplete,  the  hind  borders  of  the  segments  narrowly 
yellow.  Legs  yellow  ;  the  fore  eoxje  very  long  ;  the  femora 
brownish  ;  the  fore  tibise  brown,  yellow  at  the  base;  the  tarsi 
brown  at  the  tips.  Wings  grey,  the  veins  yellow,  with  an 
appendix  ;  the  light  rosettes  and  spots  fairly  distinct. 

Length  8  mm, 

Hamatopota  alomaria,   ?  ,  Walker. 

Type  (female),  Sarawak,  Borneo  {Wallace),  56.  44,  and 
two  other  females  from  Sarawak,  57.  36. 

A  small  dark  species,  with  brown  wings,  distinctly  marked 
with  the  usual  rosettes  and  spots;  the  first  joint  of  the 
antennae  inerassate. 

Face  grey ;  two  small  black  spots  beneath  the  antennae  ; 
the  upper  part  of  the  face  with  a  brown  stripe,  which 
becomes  yellowish  near  the  antennae ;  the  palpi  yellow,  with 
black  pubescence ;  the  beard  white.  Frontal  callus  pitehy 
brown,  shiiiiug,  broad,  reaching  the  eyes,  with  the  posterior 
border  convex,  rounded,  the  anterior  border  reaching  round 
theantennte;  the  paired  spots  black,  round,  reaching  the 
eyes  and  the  frontal  callus,  with  yellow  borders.  Forehead 
brown,  yellower  on  the  vertex ;  the  unpaired  spot  not 
present.  Antennae  blackish  ;  the  first  joint  dark  red,  shining, 
with  black  hairs,  slightly  inerassate,  considerably  shorter 
than  the  third  ;  second  very  small ;  third  broad,  ending  in  a 
point.  Thorax  brown,  with  traces  of  darker  stripes  and  of 
short  white  pubescence  ;  scutellum  the  same  colour  ;  breast 
brown.  Abdomen  brown,  with  narrow  greyish  borders  to 
the  segments,  which  are  broader  on  the  underside.  Legs 
reddish  brown,  with  black  pubescence,  which  becomes  fringe- 
like on  the  hind  legs ;  the  base  of  the  anterior  tibiae  w  hite, 
the  middle  tibiae  with  the  typical  rings,  the  posterior  tibise 
brown  at  the  extreme  base,  then  white  and  brown  on  the 
apical    half.       AVings    brown,    with    brown    veins    and    an 

118  ]\Iiss  G.  Hicarclo  on  ilie  Genus  Hrematopota 

appendix;  the  apical  band  sinj^le;  all  the  posterior  cells  and 
aj)ical  cell  with  a  triangular  ^hite  spot  at  their  openings, 
Avith  the  exception  of  the  fourth  posterior  cell. 

Length  9  mm. 

PI.  V.  fig.  14,  not  type  (female). 

Hamatopota  unizonata,  (^  ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (male),  Hakgala,  Ceylon,  9.5.  91  (Yerhwi/),  9.2.  192. 

Type  (female),  Hakgala,  Ceylon,  24.  v.  91  [Yerbury), 
92.  192;  three  females,  from  Niuwara  Eliva,  16.  v.  91, 
12.  V.  91,  5.  V.  91  {Yerburij),  92.192;  five' females  from 
Pandaluoya,  Ceylon  {Green),  90,  115  and  95.  91,  and  one 
female,  April  1898,  1903.  150;  one  female  from  Galagedara, 
Ceylon,  June  1897  (Green),  1903.  150. 

There  is  a  note  by  Col.  Yerbury  on  this  species,  viz. :  "  Very 
common  at  Niuwara  Eliya,  May  1891.^' 

A  reddish-brown  species,  witli  rings  on  the  middle  tibire 
only ;  the  other  tibiae  white  at  the  base  ;  the  antennae  long, 

Face  grey;  a  yellowish  stripe  covered  with  brown  dots 
and  spots  reaches  from  the  antennae  to  the  eyes  on  each  side ; 
palpi  yellow,  with  white  pubescence  ;  beard  white.  Frontal 
callus  dark  brown,  sliining,  concave  on  the  anterior,  convex 
on  the  ])osterior  border ;  the  .spot  between  the  antennae 
black,  oblong;  the  paired  spots  black,  oblong,  just  reaching 
the  eyes,  with  grey  borders.  Forehead  brownish  yellow, 
darker  on  the  vertex,  grey  at  the  sides.  Antennae  long  and 
slender,  reddish  yellow,  the  third  joint  darker;  the  first  joint 
not  quite  so  long  as  the  third,  the  second  small,  both  with 
black  pubescence.  Thorax  reddish  brown,  the  shoulders, 
two  stripes  which  reach  the  suture  and  end  in  two  spots,  the 
base  of  thorax,  and  a  spot  on  each  side  grey;  traces  of  a 
short  white  pubescence  on  the  dorsum  ;  breast  brown  with 
brown  pubescence,  then  grey  with  white  pubescence ;  seutel- 
luni  reddish  brown.  Abdomen  a  redder  brown,  segments 
bordered  Avith  narrow  whitish  bands ;  pubescence  black, 
white  on  the  borders  of  the  segments  and  at  the  sides  ;  traces 
of  grey  spots  on  the  apical  segments  ;  the  underside  brown, 
Avith  Aviiitc  borders  to  the  segments,  grey  at  the  sides.  Legs 
dark  brown,  the  middle  tibiie  redder,  Avith  tAvo  Avhite  rings, 
and  the  base  of  the  tarsi  yellowish,  as  are  also  the  [)Ostcrior 
tarsi ;  the  middle  femora  are  reddish,  Avith  Avhitc  pubescence. 
Wings  brownish,  with  brown  veins  and  an  appendix  ;  the 
light  markings  distinct,  Avith  three  rosettes,  the  apical  band 

Jjcn-ith  8  mm. 

of  the  luaniJij  TiibaiiicUc.  11'.) 

The  male  is  identical,  but  the  stripe  on  the  face  is  deep 
brown;  the  antenna;  darker,  the  first  joint  shining  brown, 
incrassate,  with  long  black  hair,  the  second  short,  the  third 
slender,  lonj^cr  than  the  first  joint  ;  tlie  frontal  callus  is  tlie 
same  colour ;  the  forehead  above  is  grey,  the  pubescence  on 
the  sides  of  the  thorax  is  thicker,  and  the  apical  band  of  the 
wing  is  broader,  and  there  arc  more  light  nuukings  at  the 
openings  of  the  cells. 

PI.  V.  tig.  15,  type  (male)  ;  fig.  lor/,  type  (female). 

Htematopoia  cinyulensis,   ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female),  19th  milestone,  Candy  Road,  Ceylon, 
22.  X.  90  [Yerbiiry)  ;  two  females  from  'J'amblegam,  5.  x.  90 
{Yerbury)  ;  and  a  series  of  females  from  Anaradhupura, 
Ceylon  (Oliver  Bartholometc),  27.  xii.  99. 

There  is  a  notcAvith  Col.  Yerbury's  specimens  to  the  effect 
that  the  species  is  common  on  the  road  near  Tamblegam  in 
October  and  November. 

This  species  is  distinguished  from  H.  cordigera,  Bigot,  by 
the  paired  spots  not  coalescing,  by  the  longer  first  joint  of 
the  antennae,  and  by  the  fore  legs  being  ligliter  in  colour. 

A  dull  greyish-brown  species. 

Face  grey;  an  ol)long  black  spot  under  the  antennae,  and 
a  black  stripe  reaching  from  the  eyes  halfway  across  to  the 
lower  edge  of  this  spot,  the  colour  above  the  stripe  being 
yellowish.  Frontal  callus  pitchy  brown,  shining,  with  a 
concave  fore  border,  from  which  a  black  spot  jjroceeds  to 
between  the  antennse  ;  the  posterior  border  is  produced  in 
the  middle ;  the  paired  spots  are  black,  large,  almost  touching 
the  eyes;  the  unpaired  spot  apparent,  sometimes  indistinct; 
forehead  yellowish,  grey  at  the  sides.  Antennae  yellow ;  the 
third  joint  darker,  its  last  three  annulations  dull  black ;  the 
first  joint  curved,  not  quite  so  long  as  the  third ;  the  second 
joint  very  small.  Thorax  brown,  with  three  well-marked 
grey  stripes  and  four  grey  spots  on  its  posterior  border,  the 
side  ones  ending  at  the  suture  in  a  spot;  there  are  traces  of 
short  W'hite  pubescence  on  the  dorsum  ;  the  breast  is  grey, 
with  some  white  hairs.  Abdomen  light  mahogany-brown  or 
brownish,  Avith  light  yellow  borders  to  the  segments  and  a 
well-marked  grey  stripe  starting  from  the  second  segment ; 
there  are  also  distinct  oblong  grey  spots  on  each  side, 
beginning  from  the  third  segment ;  there  is  some  short  white 
pubescence,  thickest  on  the  yellow  borders  of  the  segments ; 
the  underside  with  grey  tomentum.  Legs  reddish  yellow, 
the  fore  tibiie  white  at  the  base,  or,  rather,  with  one  narrow 

120  Miss  G.  liicardo  on  the  Genus  Ila-matopota 

Avliite  ring  on  tlie  basal  lialf ;  tlie  a])ical  half  Ijlack  ;  tlic 
middle  and  hind  tibite  uith  well-marked  typical  whitish  rings. 
AVings  greyish,  with  a  yellowish-brown  stigma  and  yellow 
veins  and  an  appendix ;  the  rosettes  and  markings  are 
distinet ;  the  apical  band  in  the  type  and  other  specimens  is 
double,  but  in  others  the  double  branch  is  only  represented 
by  tM'o  small  spots,  as  shown  in  the  photograpli. 

Length  8  mm. 

PI.  V.  fig.  IG,  not  type  (female). 

Hcematopota  tessellata,    ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female),  Hot  Wells,  Trincomalee,  8.  xi.  91  [Yerbury), 
92.  192.' 

A  grey  species  with  brown  wings,  the  white  markings  very 
clearly  defined,  so  that  the  wings  have  a  chequered  ap{)ear- 
ance  :   the  middle  and  hind  tiljiie  with  rings. 

Face  grey,  only  a  trace  of  a  brown  stripe  between  the 
antennae  and  the  eyes.  Frontal  callus  black,  short,  not 
reaching  the  eyes,  very  much  produced  on  tlie  posterior 
border,  ending  in  a  point  ;  the  anterior  border  almost 
straight ;  the  paired  spots  large,  black,  not  reaching  the  eyes  ; 
the  forehead  is  apparently  grey,  and  no  paired  spot  visible. 
Antennje  yellow  ;  the  third  joint  dusky,  the  fiist  joint  incras- 
sate,  rather  shorter  than  the  third,  the  second  very  short,  the 
third  long,  tapering  to  a  point.  Thorax  brown,  with  three 
grey  stripes ;  the  shoulders,  base,  and  sides  of  thorax  grey  ; 
a  short  white  pubescence  on  the  dorsum  ;  the  breast  grey. 
Abdomen  brown,  with  rather  wide  white  borders  to  the 
segments,  grey  spots  on  the  posterior  segments,  and  a  faint 
grey  median  stripe.  Legs  brown,  the  femora  lighter,  the 
middle  and  posterior  tibise  with  rings,  the  basal  joint  of  the 
tarsi  of  the  middle  and  posterior  legs  whitish.  "Wings 
brown,  with  yellowish-brown  veins  and  an  api)cndix  ;  the 
apical  band  double;  the  openings  of  the  posterior  cells  light- 

Length  8i  mm. 

PI.  V.  fig"  17,  type  (female). 

A  male  from  YelveiTV,  Ceylon,  20.  x.  91  (Ytrbunj), 
92.  192,  in  poor  preservation,  is  probably  the  male  of  this 

H(Lnnatopota  rub'ida.   ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female)  from  lUirmah,  57.  10  {Mrs.  JTaring'S. 

An  easily  distinguished  red  species,  with  the  hind  tibioe 
incrassatc  ;  the  hind  (emora  with  a  white  bunch  of  hairs 
above  and  a  fringe  of  black  hairs  on  the  underside. 

of  the  Fainilij  'l^abiiiiKUe.  121 

Face  grov,  the  whole  upper  part  dee])  bhiek  ;  tlie  palpi 
yeUow,  uitit  black  pubescence  and  white  hairs  i)elow. 
Frontal  callus  shining  brown,  protuberant,  rounded,  the 
])()steri()r  border  produced,  the  anterior  border  with  a  deep 
incision  in  the  middle,  filled  by  the  black  spot  usually  present 
between  the  antennre,  which  is  lar<re  and  S{[uare  with  yellow 
borders  ;  the  frontal  callus  is  short,  not  reaching  the  eyes ; 
forehead  grey,  darker  in  the  centre  ;  the  paired  spots  are 
black,  small,  and  isolated,  the  unpaired  spot  not  present. 
Antenna}  are  of  an  nnnstuil  form;  the  first  joint  very  much 
incrassate  and  large,  nearly  as  long  as  the  third  joint,  yellow 
and  shining,  the  second  very  small  and  narrow,  yellow,  both 
joints  with  black  pubescence ;  the  third  joint  very  broad, 
ending  in  an  obtuse  point,  reddish  yellow,  darl;er  at  the  tip. 
Thorax  reddish  brow^n,  with  lighter  stripes,  darker  at  the 
sides;  the  breast  grey,  with  white  hairs;  the  seutellum  the 
same  colour.  Abdomen  reddish  brown,  with  very  narrow 
j'cllow  borders  to  the  segments,  darker  at  the  apex  ;  the 
underside  yellow,  with  grey  tomentum.  Legs  reddish  brown  ; 
the  anterior  and  posterior  pairs  the  darkest,  the  anterior 
tibiae  white  at  base,  the  middle  tibiae  yellowish  brown,  the 
two  yellow  rings  not  well  defined  ;  the  posterior  femora 
broad,  with  the  fringe  of  hairs  on  the  underside  black,  on 
the  upperside  black  on  the  basal  half,  on  the  apical  half  a 
tuft  of  white  hairs  are  present ;  the  posterior  tibise  very- 
stout  and  broad,  \s'\i\\  ill-defined  rings  as  on  the  middle  pair, 
and  fringed  Avith  black  hairs  above  and  below ;  the  basal 
joints  of  the  middle  and  posterior  tarsi  pale  yellow.  Wings 
reddish  brown,  the  veins  yellow,  with  a  long  appendix,  the 
apical  band  single ;  the  pale  streak  across  the  middle  of  the 
wing  is  very  noticeable,  and  at  once  distinguishes  the  species 
from  H.  lata,  sp.  n. 

Length  10  mm. 

PI.  VI.  fig.  18,  type  (female). 

HcEmatopota  lata,    $  ,  sp.  n. 

Type  (female)  from  Khasi  Hills  district,  India  (Chennell), 
1878.  9fi.  135  ;  five  females  from  N.  Chin  Hills,  Burmah, 
iv.  93  {Watson),  91..  4. 

A  dark  brown,  broad-bodied  species,  distinguished  by  the 
broad  hind  tibise  fringed  with  black  hairs. 

Face  grey,  with  some  brown  marks  below  the  antennae  ; 
the  stripe  between  the  antennae  and  the  eyes  yellow,  with 
some  brown  dots  ;  the  beard  white  ;  the  palpi  yellow,  with 
white  pubescence  and  a  few  black  hairs  intermixed.     Frontal 

122  Bliss  G.  Ricaido  on  tJie  Genus  Ha3rnatopota 

callus  brown,  shining,  narrow,  reaching  the  eyes;  the  ante- 
rior border  irregular,  with  yellow  edges ;  the  posterior 
border  nearly  straight ;  the  paired  spots  black,  large,  touching 
the  eyes  ;  the  unpaired  spot  small,  bordered  with  yellow  ; 
forehead,  grey,  yellower  on  the  vertex,  with  short  black 
pubescence.  Antenna  very  similar  to  those  of  H.  rubida, 
long,  robust,  yellowish  red,  darker  at  the  tip,  with  black 
pubescence  ;  the  first  joint  shorter  than  the  tliird,  stout,  in- 
crassate,  the  second  very  small,  the  third  broad,  ending  in  an 
obtuse  point.  Thorax  brown,  with  a  narrow,  indistinct,  grey 
median  stripe  continued  to  the  scutelhun  ;  tiie  side  stripes 
grey,  broa  ler,  ending'  at  the  suture  in  trim^ular  spots  ;  the 
shoulders  and  posterior  border  of  the  thorax  grey ;  a  short 
grey  stripe  from  each  side  of  the  base  o£  the  thorax  running 
up  to  the  suture  outside  the  usual  side-stripes;  the  sides  and 
breast  grey,  the  latter  with  white  hairs;  traces  of  silvery- 
white  pubescence  on  the  dorsum,  with  some  black  pubes- 
cence. Scutellum  brown,  grey  on  its  anterior  border. 
Abdomen  brown,  with  distinct  greyish-white  borders  to  the 
segments  ;  the  sides  of  the  first  four  segments  grey;  from 
the  fourth  segment  large  grey  spots  are  apparent  on  each 
side;  a  grey  median  stripe  is  here  indistinct,  but  apparent 
on  the  other  specimens  ;  the  pubescence  brown,  with  some 
white  hairs,  especially  at  the  sides  ;  underside  grey.  Legs 
yellowish,  the  fore  tibiae  white  at  base,  dark  brown  on  the 
apical  half;  the  fore  tarsi  brown,  t!ie  middle  and  posterior 
pale  at  base  ;  tiie  anterior  and  middle  femora  with  whitish 
pubescence,  the  hind  ones  with  a  heavy  fringe  of  black  hairs  ; 
the  tibiae  yellowish,  with  a  brown  ring  in  the  middle  and 
brown  at  base,  thus  appearing  as  yellow  rings  on  the  tibiie  ; 
the  hind  tibiie  with  a  heavy  fringe  of  black  hairs  extending 
two  thirds  of  the  length  to  the  apex. 

Wings  greyish,  with  yellow  veins  and  stigma  and  a  long 
appendix ;  the  apical  band  single,  divided,  in  half,  the  two 
upper  rosettes  distinct ;  in  the  corner  of  the  wing  is  a  round 
circle,  and  above  this  a  double  concave  circle  eKtending  into 
the  anal  cell ;  above  the  stigma  is  a  small  round  circle  ;  the 
basal  half  of  the  first  posterior  cell  is  wholly  pale  ;  only  the 
upper  part  of  the  third  rosette  is  distinct. 

Length  9  mm. 

in  \}\c  females  from  Burmah  the  wings  are  browner  and 
the  white  markings  more  numerous  at  tbc  opening  of 
posterior  cells. 

Hcematoputa  brev'is,   ?  ,  sp.  n. 

Type   (fcnuile),   Kautiialla,    Ceylon,   19.  x.  90  {Yerbury), 

of  the  FariiUij  Tiiljaiiida!.  123 

92.  102,  and  aii(«tlicr  fenuilc  ;  one  i'cmalc  from  Velverry, 
Cevlun,  18.  i.  91  [Yerhury),  92.  192;  two  females  from 
Bangalore,  INIysore,  Juno  21  [U^utson),  95.  28,  and  type 
(male)  from  tin;  same  locality. 

This  species  is  {listiii<;uisl)ed  from  //.  cAngaleyisis  by  the 
short  first  joint  ol'  the  antomuc,  and  from  [I.juvana,  Wiedcm., 
by  the  bhiekish- brown  abdomen  with  white  incisions  and  a 
mere  trace  of  a  j^rey  stripe. 

A  brown  species,  distinguished  by  its  short  first  antennal 
joint  and  by  the  rings  on  the  middle  and  posterior  tiljiae. 

Face  grey,  with  brown  pubescence;  a  dark  spot  under 
each  antenna  and  some  darker  colour  continued  to  the 
mouth;  the  stripe  on  each  side  yellowish,  with  brown  dots 
and  spots ;  the  beard  brown ;  the  palpi  yellow,  with  black 
pubescence  and  white  hairs  below.  Frontal  callus  yellow- 
brown,  in  some  specimens  darker  in  the  middle,  short,  broad, 
not  reaching  the  eyes,  the  anterior  bordcT  nearly  straight, 
the  posterior  convex ;  the  spot  between  the  anttinne  small, 
ill-defined,  brown.  Forehead  yellowish  brown,  darker  on 
the  vertex ;  the  paired  spots  black,  triangular,  the  apices 
touching  the  frontal  callus.  Antennae  yellowish,  densely 
covered  with  grey  tomentum,  at  the  apices  black  ;  the  first 
joint  short,  roi)ust,  with  black  pubescence,  the  second  small, 
with  black  hairs,  the  third  slender,  twice  as  long  as  the 
first.  Thorax  brown,  with  short  silvery-white  tomentum, 
and  three  grey  stripes  all  ending  in  a  grey  spot,  but  the 
median  one  the  longest;  the  base  of  thorax  and  shoulders 
grey  ;  scutellum  brown,  grey  on  the  posterior  border,  pubes- 
cence at  the  sides  brown  ;  breast  reddish  brown.  Abdomen 
the  same  colour  as  the  thorax,  the  borders  of  the  segments 
whitish,  the  sides  of  the  first  two  segments  grey  ;  there  is  a 
trace  of  a  grey  stripe  on  the  second  segment  only.  Legs 
brown-black,  the  base  of  the  tibiae  white;  the  first  joint  of 
the  fore  tarsi  nearly  as  long  as  the  four  remaining  joints, 
which  are  broad  and  short ;  the  middle  and  posterior  tibiae 
reddish  brown,  with  yellow  rings;  the  base  of  the  middle 
and  posterior  first  joint  of  the  tarsi  yellow.  Wings  brownish, 
the  veins  brownish,  with  an  appendix ;  the  apical  band 
double;  the  openings  of  the  posterior  cells  mostly  light- 

Length  9  mm. 

Type  (male)  differs  in  the  third  joint  of  the  antennse  being 
broader  and  shorter,  the  forehead  grey,  Avith  a  large  oblong 
brown  spot.  The  abdomen  is  redder  brown,  with  a  distinct 
grey  stripe;  the  scutellum  wholly  grey,  the  fore  tarsi  not  so 

124  Miss  G.  Ricardo  on  the  Genus  Hsematopota 

broad,  the  wings  and  the  base  of  the  tarsi  more  white  than 
yellow,  the  apical  line  of  the  wing  broader. 
PL  VI.  fig.  19,  type  (female). 

A  fuller  description  of  the  three  following  species  may  be 
found  useful. 

Hcsmatopota  Indiana,   ?  ,  Bigot. 

A  brown  species,  distinguished  by  its  long  slender  antennae 
and  all  the  tibiae  white  at  the  base. 

Face  grey,  dark  brown  in  the  centre,  immediately  below 
the  antennae ;  the  stripe  between  the  antennae  and  the  eyes 
brown,  but  broken  up  into  dots  and.  spots.  Palpi  reddish, 
rather  long,  with  brown  pubescence  and  some  white  hairs  ; 
beard  Avhite.  Frontal  callus  narrow,  long,  reaching  the 
eyes,  shining  brown,  both  borders  nearly  straight ;  the  spot 
between  the  antennae  black,  bordered  with  grey ;  the  paired 
spots  dark  brown,  large,  reaching  the  eyes  and  almost 
touching  the  callus  ;  the  unpaired  spot  brown,  small  ;  fore- 
head yellowish,  with  brown  markings  and  grey  tomentum 
and  short  black  pubescence.  Antennae  long,  slender,  yellow  ; 
the  third,  joint  dusky,  reddish  at  base,  black  at  ajiex  ;  the 
first  joint  as  long  as  the  part  of  the  third  joint  which  is 
unannulated,  the  second  joint  small,  both  with  black 
pubescence.  Thorax  brown,  with  grey  shoulders  and  three 
narrow  grey  stripes  ;  short  yellowish  pubescence  is  visible  on 
the  dorsum;  the  sides  brown,  with  black  hairs;  the  bieast 
grey.  Abdomen  a  redder  brown,  with  light  narrow  borders 
to  the  segments,  darker  at  the  apex ;  the  pubescence  on  the 
light  borders  short  and  yellow  isb,  on  the  other  parts  black ; 
a  hoary  grey  median  stripe  is  very  distinct  from  the  second 
to  the  fifth  segment ;  the  underside  brown,  grey  at  the  sides. 
Legs  reddish  brown,  the  fore  tibite  and  tarsi  darker  brown, 
with  black  pubescence ;  the  base  of  all  the  tibiie  whitish,  on 
the  middle  tibia^  the  white  extends  further;  the  basal  joint 
of  the  middle  and  posterior  tarsi  whitish.  ^Vings  brown, 
with  yellowish-brown  veins  and  stigma  and  an  appendix  ;  the 
apical  band  single,  broad;  the  first,  second,  third,  and  fifth 
posterior  cells  light-colourcd  at  their  apices  ;  the  dark  spot 
in  the  fifth  posterior  cell  (as  shown  in  figure)  is  only  notice- 
able on  the  wing  in  certain  lights. 

Length  9  mm. 

The  type  is  labelled  "  Mergherita,  5373.  8.'' 

PI.  VI.  fig.  20,  type  (female). 

of  the  Family  Tiibanldfc.  125 

lliematoputu  cordujcni,   $  ,  Bigot. 

Type  from  India. 

This  species  is  easily  distiiiguislicd  by  the  colouring  of  the 
{'(U'chcad,  by  the  cylindrical  antennie,  and  by  the  rings  on 
the  middle  and  posterior  tibiae. 

Face  grey,  no  spots  except  faint  traces  of  two  below  the 
antennae.  Palpi  yellow  with  black  pnbesccnce;  beard  white. 
Frontal  callus  dark  brown,  shining,  reaching  the  eyes, 
broad,  bordered  in  front  by  a  shining  ycOlow  narrow  band, 
which  is  continued  between  the  antennae  instead  of  the 
usual  black  spot.  Forehead  grey,  with  a  large,  brown-l)lack, 
heart-shaped  spot  in  place  of  the  nsual  paired  spots;  it  joins 
the  posterior  border  of  the  frontal  callus  and  almost  reaches 
the  eyes  at  the  sides,  becoming  narrower  on  its  posterior 
half  it  is  continued  to  the  vertex  as  a  broad  stripe.  An- 
tennae yellow,  long,  slender,  but  not  so  long  as  those  of  the 
preceding  species,  the  first  joint  being  not  much  more  than 
half  as  long  as  the  third,  the  second  joint  short,  both  with 
black  pubescence;  the  third  with  the  extreme  apex  dusky. 
Thorax  brown,  with  grey  shoulders  and  grey  stripes,  ending 
in  spots  at  "the  suture ;  grey  spots  at  the  base  ;  the  sides  are 
also  grey,  as  is  the  breast,  which  has  white  hairs.  Scutellum 
brown,  grey  in  the  centre.  Abdomen  dark  brown,  with 
distinct  white  borders  to  the  segments,  but  no  sign  of  stripe 
or  spots  ;  the  underside  brown,  with  grey  tomentum.  Legs 
yellowish  brown;  the  fore  tibia?  and  tarsi  dark  brown,  the 
fore  tibiae  white  at  base,  the  middle  and  posterior  tibiae  with 
the  typical  rings,  and  the  basal  joint  of  the  tarsi  whitish. 
Wings  pale  bronn,  with  brown  veins  and  an  appendix;  the 
apical  band  single,  broad,  and  curved. 

Length  8  mm. 

PI.  VI.  fig.  21,  type  (female). 

HiPmatopota  punctifera,   $  ,  Bigot. 

From  Java. 

The  antennae  are  incomplete  ;  the  first  joint  reJ,  short,  and 
incrassate,  the  second  one  red,  small. 

Face  grey,  with  white  hairs,  no  spots,  but  a  dark  brown 
bund  between  the  eyes  and  the  antennae.  Palpi  reddish, 
with  black  pubescence.  Frontal  callus  black,  shining, 
reaching  the  eyes,  narrow,  curved  on  the  posterior  border 
and  produced  to  a  j  oint  in  the  centre ;  a  black  spot  between 
the  antennae.  Forehead  (denuded)  blackish,  with  grey 
tomentum  and  some  golden  pubescence.     Thorax  (denuded) 

Ann.  cO  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  10 

126  On  iJte  Genus  Haematopota. 

brown,  with  grey  stripes  and  tomentnm  and  some  black  and 
grey  puijescence  ;  sides  grey,  with  traces  of  fulvous  and  grey 
pubescence;  scutellum  iDrown,  with  median  grey  stripe  and 
greyish  pubescence.  Abdomen  brown,  with  grey  median 
stripe,  grey  spots  on  each  side,  and  grey  sides  ;  the  greyish 
pubescence  lather  dense.  Legs  reddish  brown,  the  tibiae 
yellower,  the  anteiior  ones  whitish  at  the  base,  brown  at  the 
apex;  the  anterior  tarsi  brown,  the  middle  and  posterior 
tarsi  yellow,  darker  at  the  joints  and  apex ;  coxa;  with 
rather  long  white  pubescence ;  femora  with  short  , white 
pubescence  ;  tibise  and  tarfri  with  some  black  pubescence. 
Wings  greyish,  with  appendix ;  veins  yellowish  brown ; 
stigma  brown  ;  a  darker  spot  is  visible  above  the  stigma. 

Lengtii  8  mm. 

PI.  VI.  fig.  2.2,  type  (female). 

Hmnatopota  cilipes,   ?  ,  Bigot. 

One  female  from  near  Nhatrang^  Annam,  22.  x.  1905 
{Dr.  Vassal). 

The  type  came  from  Laos. 

Bigot  suggests  that  this  species  and  H.  pachycEra  should 
properly  belong  to  a  new  genus.  Certainly  this  handsome 
small  black  species  with  densely  hairy  legs,  and  the  striking 
brown  wings  with  faint  pale  streaks,  but  no  rosettes,  differs 
considerably  from  other  species  of  Hcemaiopota  from  the 
Oriental  Region  as  yet  known  to  me ;  but  the  shape  of  the 
antennse  is  very  similar  to  those  of  H.  rubida,  sp.  n.,  and 
H.  lata,  sp.  n.,  described  above,  more  especially  to  those  of 
the  former  species,  with  the  long  incrassate  first  joint,  the 
very  small  second  joint,  and  the  broad  basal  division  of  the 
third  joint,  the  last  divisions  being  small  and  short ;  it  also 
resembles  H.  rubida  in  its  wings,  which  are  distinguished  by 
the  pale  streak  across  them,  in  this  species  more  marked, 
owing  to  the  dark  brown  colour  of  the  wings,  and  continuous 
from  the  round  pale  spot  above  the  stigma  to  beyond  the  apical 
cell;  the  pale  markings  of  the  apex  and  the  internal  border 
are  so  placed  that,  viewed  by  the  naked  eye,  a  second  pale 
streak  is  seen  divided  from  the  first  by  a  brown  parallel 
band,  with  a  few  brown  markings  on  it,  but,  as  in  H.  rubida, 
no  rosettes  are  visible.  The  fore  and  hind  tibije  are  incras- 
sate;  the  very  hairy  tibije  and  femora  will  easily  distinguish 
this  species. 

It  is  placed  in  the  Indian  and  Ceylon  table. 

On  Culeoiitera  from  Portuguese  West  Africa.  127 

Tlatr  IIL 

Fig.  \.  H.  hirta,  $. 
I'jff.  2.  H.  rujicornis,  2  . 
Fig.  3.  H.  nigrescent,  2  • 

Fig.  7.  H.  brun>ie<:cens,  J  , 
Fig.  8.  H.  bipunctatn,  $  , 
Fig.  9.  //.  decora,  $  . 

Fig.  1.'5.  H.  siniilis,  $ . 
Fig.  14.  //.  atomaria,  $ . 
i'V/7.  15.  //.  unizonata,  cf, 

P/9.  18.  -ff.  rubida,  $ . 
i-V^.  19.  H.  brevis,  $ . 
i^V/   20.  H,  indicma,  $ 

i'Vy.  4.  H.  longa,  $  . 
J**}/.  5.  if.  ugandcB,  2  . 
J^i]^'.  6.  Z?.  distincta,  $ , 

Plate  IV. 

Plate  V 

Plate  VI, 

Fig.  10.  H.  guineensis,  $. 
i^/(/.  11.  /f.  brunnipennis,  2 
i^//7.  12.   i/^.  iinicolor,  $. 

J^/y.  1.5 «.  //.  unizonata,  J. 
i^iV/.  1 6.  ^.  cingalensis,  $ . 
i^zV/.  17.  H.  tessellata,  $. 

/"ey.  21.  H.  cordigera,  $. 
/•^y.  22.  H.  punctifera,  J  , 

XIX. —  On  LamelUcorn  Goleoptera  from  Portuguese  West 
Africa,  with  Descriptions  of  neio  Species.  By  Gilbert  J. 

The  British  Museum  collection  contains  a  considerable 
number  of  interesting  Goleoptera  from  the  little-known  region 
of  Angola  and  the  interior  of  Portuguese  West  Africa.  A 
few  of  the  Lamellicornia  are  here  described^  together  with  a 
new  genus  and  some  observations  on  species  previously 

Copris  dracoy  sp.  n. 

C.  Elphenori  et  C.  Anceo  affinis,  sed  multo  major,  clypeo  fere 
integro,  elytris  politis,  leviter  punctato-striatis ;  maris  capite 
cornu  valido  curvato,  dimidio  superiors  intus  utrinque  perspicue 
serrato,  thorace  rugoso,  medio  multo  elevato,  utrinque  excavato 
et  lateraliter  lamina  maxima  alseiformi  praedito ;  foeminae  capite 
cornu  magno  bifido,  ramis  retro  curvatis,  spatium  includentibus 
fere  ad  caput  aequali,  prothorace  medio  paulo  elevato,  lateribus 
minute  carinatis. 

Long.  29-32  mm. 

Hah.   Bihe. 



Mr.  G.  J.  Arrow  on  Cohoptera 

This  is  the  Lirgest  and  most  remarkably  accoutred  species 
of  its  large  genus  yet  known.  It  is  allied  to  C.  Elphenor^ 
Klug,  and  C.  Anceus,  Oliv.,  and  represents  in  its  armature  a 
great  development  of  that  type.  Tlie  clypeus  is  relatively  a 
little  less  wide  tlian  in  those  species  and  almost  uninterruptedly 
curved.  It  is  narrower  in  the  male  than  in  the  female 
and  the  thorax  is  correspondingly  contracted  in  front.  In 
both  sexes  the  head  bears  a  horn,  but  without  any  similarity 
between  the  two.  That  of  the  male  is  over  20  mm.  long  in 
our  specimen,  comjjressed  laterally  so  as  to  be  rectangular  in 
section  for  most  of  its  length,  but  beyond  the  middle  it  is 
hollowed  out  on  its  inner  face  and  the  edges  of  the  channel 
are  strongly  dent:ite.  The  horn  of  tiie  female  has  the  form 
of  a  crescent  att-iched  by  a  short  footstalk  to  the  front  of  the 

Co])ris  draco,  cJ  and  5  ,  uat.  size. 

head.  The  two  extremities  are  about  8  mm.  apart  in  our 
examples  and  the  footstalk  about  3  mm.  long.  The  thorax 
in  both  sexes  is  coarsely  rugose  except  for  a  small  median 
posterior  area,  which  is  moderately  punctured.  In  the  male 
this  median  part  is  strongly  humped  and  divided  in  front, 
where  it  terminates  in  three  obliquely  placed  teeth  on  each 
side.  The  lateral  margin  in  the  ssame  sex  is  furnished  at  the 
middle   with   a    large  leaf-like  or  wing-like  process,  curving 

Jrvin  Vurluijuese    West  A/rir-i.  129 

upwards  and  forwards  and  tapering  to  a  point.  Immediately 
behind  this  the  thoracic  margin  is  deej)ly  excised,  and  between 
the  wing-like  processes  and  the  dorsal  hump  are  deep  and 
very  rugose  excavations.  In  the  female  the  lateral  processes 
are  very  slightly  and  the  dorsal  hump  rather  more  strongly 
indicated.  In  other  respects  the  sexes  are  alike.  The  elytra 
are  highly  polished,  with  feebly  punctured  stri;x3,  and  the 
})ygidium  is  thinly  and  shallowly  but  uniformly  punctured. 

Catharsius  peregrinus,  llarolJ. 

We  have  received  this  very  peculiar  species  from  Bihe  and 
S;in  Salvador.  It  is  remarkable  for  its  depressed  form, 
elongate  clypeus,  and  the  proportionately  small  developuient 
of  its  hind  body. 

Gymnopleurus  azureus,  Fabr. 

Specimens  from  Bihe,  agreeing  with  the  description  of 
G.  olivaceus,  Qued.,  seem  to  belong  to  this  widely  distributed 
Fabrician  species.  G.  insidiosuSj  Pering.,  is,  I  believe,  also 
inseparable  from  it. 

Copturrhiiia  angolensiSj  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  opaca,  sat  convcxa,  capite  crebre  rugose,  clypoo  bideutato, 
dentibus  paulo  produclis ;  prothorace  crebre  puuctato-rugoso, 
postice  elevato,  parte  elevata  leviter  4-aeuminata,  lateribus  sub- 
tiliter  marginatis,  regulariter  arcuatis,  autice  paulo  divergentibus  ; 
elytris  dense  punctatis,  subtilissiine  striatis,  lateribus  pone 
humeros  sinuatis. 

Long.  12-16  mm. 

I  lab.   Huilla  {Welwitsch). 

This  species  is  very  closely  related  to  6'.  auspicata^  Pering., 
with  which  it  almost  exactly  agrees  in  size,  sculpture,  and 
general  form.  The  prothorax,  however,  is  slightly  different 
in  shape.  In  the  male  of  C.  auspicata  it  is  broadest  behind, 
the  sides  slightly  approximating  anteriorly  in  a  sinuous  line. 
In  the  new  species,  on  the  contrary,  there  is  a  slight  widening 
towards  the  front  and  the  sides  are  uniformly  curved.  The 
raised  margin  is  extremely  narrow,  and  not,  as  in  the  other 
species,  widened  at  its  posterior  part.  The  dorsal  elevation 
does  not  extend  quite  so  far  forward,  and  exhibits  four  angu- 
lations, the  slight  outer  ones  being  entirely  absent  in 
C.  auspicata.     This  difference  is  traceable  also  in  the  females. 

130  Mr.  G.  J.  Arrow  on  Coleoptera 

Notocaulus  laticolli's,  sp.  n. 

Piceo-niger,  opacus,  capite  antice  laevi,  obtuse  bidentato,  fronte 
longitudinaliter  tricarinata,  carina  media  abbreviata,  posticequo 
bituberculata,  vertice  crebre  punctulato  ;  prothoracc  transverso, 
carinis  tribus  integris  duobusque  lateralibus  pone  medium 
evanescentibus,  angulis  anticis  obtusis,  posticis  rectis,  lateribu3 
valde  irregularibus,  interstitiis  duobus  interioribus  grosse  irregu- 
lariter  punctatis,  exterioribus  levitcr  punctulatis  ;  utroque  elytro 
fortiter  tricarinato,  interstitiis  luevibus,  bistriatis,  striis  subtiliter 
punctatis  ;  abdomine  grosse  varioloso. 

Long.  45  mm. 

Hah.  Huilla  (IVehoitsch). 

The  unique  specimen  of  tliis  species  is  rather  larger  than 
the  type  of  JV.  nigropiceus,  Qaed.,  in  M.  Oberthiir^s  collection, 
^vith  which  I  have  kindly  been  enabled  to  compare  it.  Its 
thorax  is  relatively  rather  shorter  and  much  less  constricted 
in  I'ront.  Tiie  front  angles  in  that  form  are  very  prominent, 
but  in  N.  laticolli's  they  are  truncated  and  so  each  replaced  by 
two  obtuse  angles.  The  front  margin  is  thickened  at  each 
end  for  a  short  distance,  and  at  eacli  end  of  the  posterior 
margin  a  right  angle  is  formed  by  a  curved  longitudinal 
carina  about  half  the  length  of  the  thorax.  The  broad  lateral 
flange  vanishes  at  about  the  middle  of  tiiis  carina.  In 
iV.  nigropiceus  the  posterior  carina  is  continued  until  it  meets 
the  anterior  carina,  and  the  outer  flange  is  narrower  and  more 
sinuated.  The  two  median  thoracic  interspaces  are  coarsely 
punctured,  but  scarcely  so  coarsely  as  in  the  allied  species, 
and  the  outer  spaces,  which  in  that  are  almost  smooth,  are 
rather  sparsely  pitted.  There  are  three  strong  carinas  on 
each  elytron,  each  bordered  by  finely  punctured  stria?.  The 
six-jointed  abdomen  is  very  coarsely  pitted,  but  less  coarsely 
than  in  If.  nigropiceus. 

PhceocJirous  dispar^  Qued. 

Both  sexes  of  this  remarkable  species,  of  which  the  elytra 
of  the  female  are  shining  and  those  of  the  male  sooty,  were 
brought  from  Garenganze. 

The  imperfect  female  specimen  of  unknown  origin  called 
SUphodes  duhia  by  Westwood  nearly  resembles  the  female  of 
P.  dispar,  but  is  rather  smaller,  the  sides  of  the  prothorax 
are  rather  more  curved  and  the  jnincturcs  upon  its  disk  rather 
less  line. 

from  PortiKjuese  West  Ajrica.  l.'U 


ARiEOHOPLiA,  geii.  nov. 

Corpus  gracile,  paulo  (Icprcssuin.  Cl3peus  planus,  lateribus  rec-tis, 
paiilo  convcrgentibns,  antice  abruptc  productis,  virguliformibus. 
Labium  oraniuo  corncuin,  augustura.  Palpi  robusti,  longi. 
Antenna}  9-articulatic.  Pedes  longi,  tibiis  poslicis  (maris  pra^- 
cipue)  inflatis.  Ungues  pedum  4  auteriorum  duplici,  fissi,  pedum 
2  posticorura  unici,  intcgri. 

TypPj  "  Pdchycaeina  "  Dehindti^  Nonfricd. 

Both  sexes  of  this  very  peculiar  insect  were  collected  by 
Dr.  Welwitsch  at  Iluilla.  Ilerr  Nonfiied  appears  to  have 
described  the  species  from  tlie  male  alone,  the  female  having 
the  hind  tibia3  only  slightly  swollen  and  the  single  hind  claw 
of  normal  size.  The  form  of  the  hind  tibiae  evidently  led 
him  to  place  it  in  Pachycnema,  with  which  it  has  really  no 
near  relationship.  Whereas  that  genus  is  the  type  of  the 
suctorial  division  of  the  Ilopliinoe  with  membranous  ligula, 
Arti'ohoplia  belongs  to  the  true  Hopliinae,  distinguished  by 
entirely  horny  mouth-organs  of  the  usual  biting  type.  Its 
most  remarkable  feature  is  the  form  of  the  clypeus,  the  outer 
margins  of  which  are  drawn  out  into  long  straight  compressed 
rods,  as  in  the  Cetoniid  genus  Gnathocera. 


Anomala  cerea,  sp.  n. 

Elongata,  robusta,  testacea,  clypeo.  tibiis  poslicis,  anticorura  mar- 
ginibus  externis  tarsisque  omnibus  piceis ;  capite  sat  fortiter 
punctato,  clypeo  brevi,  rugoso,  margine  valde  retlexo,  uigro  ;  pro- 
thorace  subtilissirae  baud  crebre  punctato,  latoribus  leviter 
arcuatis,  baud  angulatis,  antice  approximatis  ;  scutello  late,  vix 
augulato,  subtiliter  punctato ;  elytris  haud  costatis,  laevissime 
punctatis,  punctis  plerumque  irregularibus,  seriebus  4  gemiuatia 
ordinatis  ;  pygidio  modice  punctato  ;  pectore  pedibusque  sat  longo 
fulvo-birtis ;  abdomiuenitido, parum punctato;  unguibusmajoribus 
pedum  anticorum,  focminaeque  pedum  mediorum  fissis. 

Long.  15-18  mm. 

Hab.  Bihe,  Garenganze,  Bembe. 

This  is  another  member  of  the  African  group  of  Anonialce, 
pale  in  colour,  with  darker  tarsi  and  tibite,  in  which  the  male 
lias  the  larger  claw  of  the  front  foot  only  cleft  and  the  female 
those  of  the  front  and  middle  feet.  The  other  species  of  the 
group  are  A.  imimdura,  Boh.,  dypeata,  Arr.,  transvaUnsia, 
Arr., Distanti,  Arr., ustulaiipes^  Fairm.  (  =  rufa,  Kolbe, intrusuy 

132  Mr.  G.  J.  Arrow  on  Coleoptera 

P^r.),  pinguifi.  Per.,  zamhesicola,  Pcir.,  repensa,  Per.,  and 
denudciy  Arr.  A,  cerea  is  the  largest  and  most  stoutly  built 
of  them  all,  the  female  being  rather  larger  and  more  robust 
than  the  male  and  the  puncturatioii  rather  stronger. 

From  specimens  in  our  collection  I  believe  Mr.  Peringuey 
has  been  misled  in  recording  the  claw-structure  of  A.  repensa 
and  intrusa,  an  occurrence  which  is  very  liable  to  happen,  as 
specimens  abnormal  in  this  respect  are  not  uncommon.  In 
this  way  1  was  myself  misled  into  describing  the  claws  of 
Nongoma  calcarata^  Arr.,  as  differing  sexually,  whereas  they 
are  normally  alike. 

Anoviala  fimehris,  sp.  n. 

Nigra,  capita,  prothorace  (margine  postico  augulisque  posticis 
exceptis)  et  pedibus  (femoribus  posticis  tarsisque  omnibus  ex- 
ceptis)  laeto  flavis ;  pygidio  vel  rufo-tlavo  vel  fusco,  medio 
pallidiore ;  capita  dense,  fere  rugose,  punctate,  clypeo  brevi, 
margine  antico  recto  ;  prothorace  nitido,  subtiliter  late  punctato, 
lateribus  sat  regulariter  arcuatis,  margine  postico  leviter  tri- 
siuuato  ;  scutello  lato,  fere  semicirculari,  laxe  irregulariter  punc- 
tato ;  elytris  nitidis,  irregulariter  punctatis,  costis  parum  per- 
spicuis ;  pygidio  crebre  trausversim  rugoso-punctato ;  pectore 
fusco,  fulvo-hirto. 

(S  .  Tibiis  anticis  latis,  bidantatis,  pedum  4  antcriorum  ungue  majore 

Long.  15-lG  mm. 

Hab.  Garenganze,  Bihe. 

Seven  specimens  of  this  species  are  all  males.  In  the 
absence  of  the  other  sex  I  should  have  refrained  from 
describing  it,  but  for  its  very  well-marked  and  unusual 
colouring.  The  head  and  thorax  are  bright  yellow,  except 
for  the  hind  margin  and  a  roughly  triangular  patch  in  each 
hind  angle  of  the  latter,  whicli  are  black.  The  elytra  are 
entirely  jet-black  and  shining,  their  surface  rather  th.ickly 
punctured.  There  are  no  stripe,  but  some  of  the  punctures 
form  quite  indistinct  series.  The  pygidium  is  closely  and 
aciculately  punctured,  reddish  testaceous,  and  generally  more 
or  less  infuscate  at  the  sides. 

JSannopopilUa  Damara,  Ohaus. 

A  good  series  of  a  very  variable  insect,  which  I  identify 
with  Dr.  Ohaus's  Daniaraland  form,  was  brought  from  Iluilla 
by  Dr.  Welwitsch.  Only  a  ^qw  of  them  show  the  type  of 
colouring  described  by  Dr.  Ohaus!,  in  which  there  is  a  large 
yellow  stripe  upon  each  elytron.     The  greater  number  have 

from  Portuguese  Went  Africa.  133 

the  elytra  testaceous,  but  sli;^litly  puler  in  the  niidfUe,  with 
the  suture  bhick  and  a  tendency  to  a  darkening  round  the 
sciitelluin.  There  is  also  a  variety  (male)  in  which  the 
elytra  arc  entirely  black,  and  no  doubt  all  intermediates 
occur.  The  notable  disparity  in  breadth  between  the  sexes 
given  by  Dr.  Ohaus  is  not  confirmed  by  our  larger  series, 
nor  is  there  a  sexual  difference  in  the  thickness  of  the  hairy 
clothing.  The  latter  is  scarcely  closer  at  the  sides  of  the 
segments,  as  stated  by  Dr.  Ohaus. 

Fycnoschema  nigra,  sp.  n. 

Modice  convcxa,  nigra,  supra  sat  grosse  punctata,  subtus  rufo-hirta, 
capito  ante  oculos  utrinque  acute  angulato. 

Long.  13-15o  ram. 

(S  .  Capite  irapresso,  grosse  punctate,  cornu  gracile  armato ;  pro- 
thorace  transverso,  convexo,  ajqualitcr  puuctato,  antice  paulo 
excavate,  postice  kevissime  longitudinaliter  iuiprcsso,  lateribus 
fortiter,  tire  ajqualitor  arcuatis,  luargine  postoriore  utriaque  pro- 
funda impresso ;  scutello  minute  punctulato  ;  elytris  Hnea  ira- 
pressa  sutiirali,  puuctis  grossis  parum  profundis  aliisque  minutis 
interspcrsis ;  pygidio  valde  couvexo,  glabro,  basi  et  lateribus 
subtiliter  punctato-rugoso. 
5  .  Capite  grosse  punctato-rugoso,  carina  transversa  medio  magis 
elevata  armato  ;  prothorace  minus  transverso  et  couvexo,  grosse 
et  crebre  punctato,  lateribus  minus  aequaliter  arcuatis,  margine 
posteriore  trisinuato,  utrinque  impresso  ;  elytris  linea  suturali 
punctisque  similibus  sed  fortioribus  impressis  ;  pygidio  ubique 
minute  rugoso,  sat  longe  rufo-hirto. 

Uab.   HulUa  {Dr.  Welwitsch). 

A  small  species,  rather  lirger  than  the  South- African 
P.  Corydon,  Oliv.,  and  quite  black  above.  The  cephalic 
horn  of  the  male  is  rather  slender  and  a  little  compressed 
laterally,  and  is  represented  only  by  a  very  slight  prominence 
in  the  female.  Tlie  thoracic  excavation  in  the  male  is  very 
small  in  our  only  example  of  that  sex  and  its  posterior  margin 
is  not  sharply  defined. 

Pycnoschema  polita,  sp.  n. 

Paulo  depressa,  rufo-picca  vol  rufa,  supra  polita,  fero  impunctata, 
subtus  fulvo-setosa,  capite  ante  oculos  utrinque  acute  angulato. 

Long.  18-21  mm. 

cJ .  Capite  rugoso-punctato,  cormi  compresso,  valde  curvato, 
armato  ;  prothorace  polito,  impunctato,  leviter  convexo,  antice 
perparum  excavate  ibique  paulo  punctato,  lateribus  arcuatis,  hand 

134  Mr.  G.  J.  Arrow  on  Cohoptera 

angulatis,  angulis  anticis  fere  rectis,  posticis  obtusis,  margine 
postico  trisinuato  ;  scutello  parce  subtilissirae  punctulato ;  elytris 
brevibus,  politis,  prope  suturam  et  latera  solum  lineis  punctorum 
obsoletorum  ;  pygidio  convexo,  crebre  punctato, 
$  .  Capite  punctato-rugoso,  carina  transversa,  medio  fere  angulata 
munito  ;  prothorace  leviter  punctato,  punctis  dorsi  postice  fere 
obsoletis,  lateribus  medio  fere  angulatis,  margine  postico  minus 
sinuato  ;  elytris  politis,  obsolete  puuctato-striatis ;  pygidio  dense 

Hah.  BUie. 

This  is  a  very  distinct  species  owing  to  the  extremely 
smooth  and  glossy  surface  of  the  prothorax  and  elytra,  esp<;- 
cially  in  tlie  male.  Of  the  four  specimens  in  our  collection 
tlie  two  females  are  a  lighter  red  colour  than  the  male, 
but  this  difference  may  not  be  constant.  The  male,  as  is 
usually  the  case  in  the  genus,  is  shorter  and  more  parallel- 
sided  than  the  female.  It  is  also  almost  devoid  of  punctures 
upon  the  thorax  and  elytra.  The  thorax  is  only  slightly 
excavated  in  front  and  the  hind  margin  of  the  cavity  is  not 
at  all  produced  or  carinated.  In  the  female  the  sides  of  tlie 
thorax  are  less  uniformly  curved,  there  are  punctures  which 
become  denser  at  the  front  and  sides,  and  the  elytra  are 
obsoletely  striate-punctate. 

All  the  males  in  this  and  the  allied  genera  have  the  front 
tarsi  thickened  and  their  inner  claws  strongly  hooked  and 
very  broad. 

The  genus  Astahorus,  which  has  not  hitlierto  been  asso- 
ciated with  Pycnoschema  and  in  the  Munich  Catalogue  is 
widely  separated  from  it,  is  really  a  section  in  which  the 
thoracic  armature  has  reached  its  greatest  development.  As 
the  number  of  known  species  increases  it  may  very  possibly 
become  inseparable  from  rycnoschema.  I  have  identified 
both  sexes  of  Astahorus  Antinorii,  Gestro,  the  female  of 
which  has  a  curved  ce})halic  horn  and  bifid  thoracic  process 
very  much  as  in  the  male,  but  the  former  is  less  flattened 
and  the  latter  less  produced  and  very  strongly  punctured  all 
over.  As  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  very  nearly  related 
typical  species,  A.  anuatus,  Thoms.,  has  a  similar  female, 
the  armature  of  this  sex  forms  the  best  distinctive  character 
of  Astahorus.  There  is  also  a  slight  elongation  of  the  front 
tibiae  in  the  nuile,  a  feature  which  is  not  found  in  the  known 
species  of  Pycnoschema. 

M.  Raffray  seems  to  have  overlooked  the  existence  of  the 
latter  genus  when  he  described  four  species  nearly  related  to 
its  typical  forms,  which  he  placed  in  Astahorus  as  a  new 
section  of  that  genus.     The  two  species  of  Astahorus  I  have 

from  Porlmjuese   West  Ajiica.  135 

mentioned  arc  the  only  ones  really  belonging  to  it.  Of 
Ft/cnoschema  seventeen  spccio-i  in  all  are  now  known,  and 
those  remaining  to  bo  discovered  in  all  parts  of  Africa  are 
no  doubt  very  numerous. 


Sisyraphora  cicatricosa,  Burm. 

Specimens  from  Iluilla  and  Bihe  closely  allied  to  the 
South-African  S.  tomentosa,  G.  &  P.,  appear  to  belong  to 
Jkirmeislei's  Anoplocliilus  cicatricosus,  which  was  attributed 
by  iiiin  to  India,  but  is  referred  in  the  iMunieh  Catalogue  to 
Senegal.  It  differs  from  S.  tomentosa  in  the  absence  of  the 
pale  markings  of  the  upper  surface  and  the  existence  of 
smooth  longitudinal  ridges  upon  the  elytra.  The  scutellum, 
liowever,  is  not  very  obtuse,  as  it  is  described  by  Burmeister, 
and  it  is  rugose  except  for  smooth  lateral  and  median  lines. 

Myoderma  pusUla,  sp.  n. 

Nigro-picea,  vertice  prothoraceque  nigris,  supra  glabra,  nitida, 
subtus  cum  pygidio  longe  fulvo-hirta ;  clypeo  subquadrato, 
margine  late  reflexo,  arcuato,  medio  vix  producto,  disco  parce 
pimctato ;  prothorace  quam  longitudinem  paulo  latiore,  sat 
rcgulariter  hand  crebre  punctato,  antice  emarginato,  lateraliter 
et  postice  sat  regulariter  curvato,  angulis  omnibus  obtusis ; 
scutello  magno,  puuetato ;  elytris  fortiter  sed  paulo  irregulariter 
striatis,  interstitiis  convexis,  subtilissime  sat  parce  punctulatis, 
interstitiis  2°  et  4;°  angustis,  minus  elevatis;  pygidio  valde  convcxo, 
antice  subtilissime  rugoso,  postice  parce  transversim  strigoso  et 

Long.  10-11  mm. 

Hah.  Bihe,  Pungo  Andongo  [Dr.  Ansorge). 

This  seems  to  be  an  abundant  species,  as  I  have  seen  a 
considerable  number  of  it.  It  is  smaller  than  any  other 
described  species  of  the  genus,  and  its  glabrous  upper  surface 
gives  it  a  very  distinctive  appearance.  It  is  clothed  beneath 
with  very  coarse  tawny  hairs,  but  above  is  smooth  and 
shining.  The  thorax  is  fairly  coarsely  but  not  thickly  punc- 
tured and  the  elytra  are  almost  devoid  of  punctures,  only  a 
few  very  line  ones  being  traceable  upon  the  broad  smooth 
costse.  The  clypeus  is  not  pointed,  although  the  broadly 
turned  up  margin  is  sliglitly  wider  in  the  middle  than  at  the 

136  ilr.  0.   J'liomas  on  new 

Dijyloa  trideiifi,  sp.  n. 

Oblongo-ovata,  ohesa,  fusco-nigra,  corpore  subtus  p\-gidioque  rufis, 
longe  fulvo-liirtis,  supra  undique  creberrime  puuctato,  minute,  cl3peo  subquadrato,  crebre  punctat'^,  margine  valde 
reflexo,  medio  paulo  angulato  ;  prothorace  densissime  punctato, 
lateribus  sat  regulariter  arcuatis,  aiigulis  omnibus  obtusis,  margine 
postico  leviter  trisinuato ;  scutello  dense  punctato ;  elytris  con- 
vexis,  vage  costatis,  subtiliter  punctato-striatis  atque  rugoso-punc- 
tatis,  lateribus  ubique  arcuatis  ;  pygidio  subtiliter  rugoso,  longe 
fulvo-hirto ;  pedibus  piceis,  f ulvo-setosis,  tibiis  anticis  acute 

Long.  14'5-17'5  mm. 

Hah.  Bihe,  Garengaiize. 

This  form  is  identical  in  its  general  appearance  with 
T).  [Ligyromorphus)  rujiventris,  Arrow,  inhabiting  Mashona- 
land,  but  close  examination  reveals  differences  which  are  very- 
slight  but  sufficient  for  their  separation.  The  most  easilv 
recognizable  is  in  the  armature  of  the  front  tibia?,  wliich  is 
alike  in  the  two  sexes,  but  constantly  differs  in  the  Eastern 
and  Western  forms.  In  D.  rujiventris  there  are  two  broad 
and  very  blunt  teeth,  and  a  third  is  scarcely  indicated.  In 
v.  tridens  there  are  three  well-developed  teeth,  and  all  are 
acutely  pointed.  The  sculpture  of  the  upper  surface  is  rather 
less  rugose  in  the  Angola  species.  The  punctures  upon  the 
pronotum  are  coarse  and  very  dense,  but  are  mostly  distinct, 
not  completely  coalescing  as  in  the  Eastern  species,  and  the 
sculpturing  of  the  elytra  is  correspondingly  rather  less  indefi- 
nite and  rugose,  producing  a  rather  more  shining  appearance. 

I  described  this  genus  as  new  in  lUOl,  having  overlooked 
the  previous  existence  of  Diploa,  which  was  placed  by  its 
author,  Herr  Kolbe,  in  a  different  subfamily  to  the  genus 
Myoderma.  with  which  it  is  undoubtedly  nearly  related.  I 
have  not  seen  Diplua  proles^  Kolbe,  but  that  insect  has  a 
bidentate  front  tibia,  and  is  no  doubt  very  closely  allied  to 
D.  rujiventris,  and  possibly  identical. 

The  genus  Xiphoscelis  no  doubt  has  some  affinity  to  these 
forms  and  should  be  placed  in  the  Trichiinaj. 

XX. — Descriptions  of  new  MdmmaJs  from  Mount  Ruwenzori. 
By  Oldfield  Thomas. 

The  first  collection  sent  home  by  the  members  of  the 
Ruwenzori  Expedition  contains  examples  of  the  following 
new  sjieciesand  subspecies.  All  were  collected  on  Ruwenzori 
East,  at  altitudes  from  6000'  to  lo,00(>'. 

Mtimmals  from  MoniU  liuwenzori.  137 

1.   Rousettus  hifiosus,  sp.  n. 

A   member   of  the   R.    coUaris   group;    the    limbs   thickly 

tSize  and  general  characters  about  as  in  R.  collaris.  Fur 
loose  and  shaggy,  very  abundant,  its  limits  not  sharply 
defined  as  in  li.  coUaris  ;  that  on  the  head  about  8  mm.  in 
length,  mixed  with  a  large  number  of  much  longer  hairs, 
attaining  over  20  mm.  On  the  back  the  fur  is  thick  and 
woolly,  passes  out  on  to  the  proximal  halt  of  theupperside  of 
the  forearms,  and  is  continued  thickly  down  the  hind  limbs 
and  the  wing-membrane  external  to  them  to  the  ankles,  the 
feet  being  also  thinly  clothed  above.  Interfemoral  thickly 
furry  above,  except  just  along  its  posterior  margin.  Below, 
the  wings  are  thinly  iiairy  to  a  point  level  with  the  middle  of 
the  forearm,  the  hind  limbs  and  interfemoral  membrane  being 
also  less  thickly  haired  than  on  the  upper  surface.  Ears 
narrow,  rather  longer  than  the  muzzle.  Palatal  ridges  as  in 
11.  collaris. 

General  colour  above  bistre-brown,  becoming  warmer 
posteriorly  ;  head  darker.  Under  surface  near  broccoli-brown, 
but  with  a  yellowish  sulfusion  ;  some  of  the  longer  hairs 
quite  yellow-. 

Skull  rather  more  delicately  built  than  in  R.  collaris^  the 
bones  thinner  and  lighter,  muzzle  rather  longer  and  narrower; 
postorbital  processes  very  thin  ;  anterior  palatine  opening 
unusually  broad. 

Teeth  conspicuously  smaller  throughout,  each  molar  and 
premolar  slightly  shorter  and  very  much  narrower  than  in 
the  allied  species. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  on  the  sjjirlt-specimen) : — 
Forearm  88  mm. 

Head  and  body  13-4  ;  tail  16,  tail  free  from  membrane  9  ; 
head  46  ;  ear  23  ;  third  finger,  metacarpus  60,  first  phalanx  41, 
second  phalanx  57;  lower  leg  and  foot  (c.  u.)  62. 

Skull  :  length  to  tip  of  nasals  42  ;  basal  length  37"5  ; 
zygomatic  breadth  25;  breadth  of  brain-case  17*4;  palate 
length  from  anterior  palatine  foramina  19  ;  breadth  of  pala- 
tine foramina  3*4  ;  length  of  upper  tooth-row  from  front  of 
canine  14*5;  the  same  below,  16'2;  first  upper  molar 
2-3  X  1-2. 

Hab.  Ruwenzori  East,  at  13,000'. 

Type.  Adult  male  (in  spirit).  B.M.  no.  6.  7. 1.  2.  Collected 
by  K.  B.  Woosnan).     Three  specimens  obtained. 

This  species  is  allied  to  R.  collaris^  but  is  at  once  distin- 
guishable  from    that  and   every  other  species   by   the   thick 

138  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on  ne 


woolly  covering  of  its  hind  limbs  and  its  remarkably  narrow 

The  occurrence  of  a  fruit-but  at  such  an  altitude  as  13,000' 
is  very  noteworthy. 

2.    Crocidura  niobe,  sp.  n. 

General  proportions  of  C.  maurisca,  Thos.,  with  which  it 
shares  the  unusual  character  of  the  almost  entire  absence  of 
long  bristles  on  the  fail.  Fur  about  5  mm.  long  on  the  back. 
General  colour  dark  bhickisli  grey  ("blackish  slate'"),  with 
indistinct  silvery  mottling.  Under  surface  scarcely  lighter, 
the  tips  of  the  hairs  brown.  Hands  and  feet  pale  brown  ; 
fore  claws  rather  smaller  tiian  hind.  Tail  long,  slender,  not 
incrassated,  practically  without  longer  bristles — a  few  present 
on  the  base  only;   uniformly  blackish  above  and  below. 

Skull  normal  in  build,  without  the  peculiar  delicacy  of  that 
of  C.  maurisca ;  the  brain-case  low,  the  muzzle  stout  and 
conical.  Teeth  as  usual,  the  unicuspids  broader  than  long, 
very  unlike  the  narrow  slender  teeth  of  C.  maurisca. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  68  mm. ;   tail  63  ;   iiind  foot  13  ;  ear  10. 

Skull  :  greatest  lengtii  (including  incisors)  20 ;  greatest 
breadth  9*1  ;  length  of  upper  tooth-row  8*2. 

Hab.  Ruwenzori  East,  6000'.     Another  from  7000'. 

T^pe.  Female.  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  32.  Original  number  618. 
Collected  10th  January,  1906,  by  R.  B.  Woosnam.  Three 

This  shrew  may  be  readily  distinguished  from  C.  maurisca^ 
the  only  species  with  its  proportions  and  tail-characters,  by 
its  more  plumbeous  colour  and  its  broader  skull  and  teeth. 

3.   Crocidura  fumosa  montis,  subsp.  n. 

Size  and  other  essential  characters  as  in  the  C.  fumosa  of 
Mount  Kenya,  but  the  fur  longer  (hairs  of  back  7'0-7"5  mm.) 
and  the  general  colour  a  dark  plumbeous  grey,  without  the 
distinct  brownish  tone  so  marked  in  true  fumosa.  The  ends 
of  the  hairs  blackish,  with  a  silvery  subterminal  ring. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  77  mm.;  tail  61  ;   hind  foot  15;  ear  11. 

Skull  :  greatest  length  (including  incisors)  22  ;  greatest 
breadth  10. 

Altitude  12,500'. 

Ti/jye.  Female.  B.M.  no.  G.  7.  1.  28.  Original  number  78. 
Collected  16th  Feb.,  1906,  by  K.  E.  Dent.  Tliree  specimens, 
all  from  about  the  same  altitude. 

Mdininals  from  Muunt  Ruwenzori.  13'J 

4.  Myosorex  hlarina,  sp.  n. 

A  dark  short-tailed  species  with  the  mole-like  appearance 
of  M.  Scldteri  talpinus. 

ISizt!  lather  less  than  in  ^[.  Sclaterl.  Fur  thick  and  rnoh;- 
like ;  hairs  of  back  about  8  mm.  in  length  ;  a  number  of  inter- 
spersed longer  hairs  on  the  rump  attaining  12-13  mm. 
General  colour  blackish  brown,  slightly  iridescent,  very  much 
as  in  M.  Sdateii  talpinus;  under  surface  scarcely  ligiiter, 
more  smoky  brown  than  in  talpinus.  Hands,  feet,  and  tail 
blackish,  the  anterior  claws  very  large.  Ears  very  short, 
quite  hicklen  in  tiie  fur. 

Skull  stout  and  heavily  built — compared  with  that  of 
M.  Sclateri  it  is  smaller,  shorter  in  the  muzzle,  but  propor- 
tionally broader,  the  interorbital  region  and  brain-case  as 
broad  as  in  the  larger  species. 

Teeth  rather  small  throughout,  the  anterior  incisors  particu- 
larly delicate  ;  relative  proportions  of  the  unicuspids  as  in 
M.  Sclateri,  the  minute  posterior  one  about  one  tenth  the  size 
of  the  second,  which  is  half  the  size  of  the  third,  the  latter 
being  about  three  fourths  the  size  of  the  first. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  74  mm. ;  tail  42;  hind  foot  14;  ear  7. 

Skull  :  condylo-basal  length  22'1  ;  basal  length  19*6  ; 
anterior  breadth  7;  interorbital  breadth  5'5;  greatest  breadth 
across  brain-case  12;  length  of  upper  tooth-series  10"8 ; 
height  of  i^  2. 

Altitude  10,000'. 

Ti/pe.  Male.  B.M.  no.  0.  7.  1.  35.  Original  number  252. 
Collected  27th  January,  IDOG,  by  Douglas  Carruthers.  One 
specimen  only. 

"  Caught  in  bog  and  rock  region." — D.  C. 

The  interest  of  this  animal  lies  in  the  immense  extension 
its  discovery  gives  to  the  range  of  the  genus  Myosorex,  which 
(since  the  species  without  the  extra  tooth  in  the  lower  jaw 
were  separated  as  Syhnsorex)  has  been  only  known  from 
South  Africa,  the  Zoutpansberg  distiict  of  the  Transvaal 
being  there  the  most  northern  recorded  locality.  That  the 
genus  should  turn  up  again  at  10,000'  on  Euwenzori  is  a  most 
interesting  fact. 

'The  velvety  mole-like  fur  of  J/,  hlarina  will  distinguish  it 
from  all  other  forms  except  the  decidedly  larger  M.  Sclateri 
talpimis  of  Zululand. 

5.  Sylvisorex  lunaris,  sp.  n. 

A  large  slaty-grey  species,  with  a  long  slender  muzzle. 
Size  much  larger  than  in  S.  morio,  about  equal  to  middle- 

110  ^Ir.  O.  Thomas  on  new 

sized  species  of  Crocidura.  Fur  rich  and  velvety  ;  hairs  of 
back  about  6  mm.  in  length.  General  colour  dark  slaty  grey, 
without  variegation,  but  with  a  sliglit  iridescence  on  the  tips 
of  the  hairs.  Under  surface  little  lighter,  the  tips  of  the  hairs 
pale  brown.  Upper  surface  of  hands  and  feet  brown,  but 
the  flesh  along  their  inner  halves  is  paler  than  the  outer  ; 
fore  and  hind  claws  about  equal  in  size.  Tail  much  shorter 
than  head  and  body,  very  finely  haired,  without  longer 
bristles  ;  brown  above,  rather  paler  below. 

Skull  markedly  different  from  that  of  S.  morlo  by  its  much 
larger  size,  slender  build,  and  long  muzzle. 

Teeth  delicate.  Unicuspids  narrow,  the  anterior  about 
twice  the  area  iti  cross-section  of  the  other  three,  which  are 
subequal.  Lower  incisors  uniform  in  thickness,  not  tapering, 
their  upper  edges  strongly  serrated,  with  three  well-marked 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  llesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  86  mm.;  tail  54:;  hind  foot  14:'0  ;  ear  10. 

Skull:  condylo-basal  length  22  \  basal  length  19'8  ;  ante- 
rior breadth  6*4;  greatest  breadth  across  brain-case  10; 
length  of  upper  tooth-series  10. 

Hdh.  Ruwenzori  East,  12,500'.  Other  specimens  from 
altitudes  of  7000'  upwards. 

Tijpe.  Male.  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  38.  Original  number  613. 
Collected  30fch  January,  1906,  by  R.  B.  Woosnara. 

This  distinct  species  may  be  readily  distinguished  from  its 
W. -African  allies  S.  inorio  and  S.  Preussi  by  its  larger  size. 

6.  Funisciurus  Camct/iersij  sp.  n. 

A  handsome  yellowish-green  species,  with  a  bluish-grey 
belly  ;  something  like  a  gigantic  F.  poensis. 

Size  about  as  in  F.  pyrrhopus.  Fur  soft  and  rich  ;  hairs 
of  back  about  13-15  mm.  in  length.  General  colour  above 
bright  yellowish  olivaceous  green,  the  hairs  blackish  with 
rich  yellow  subterminal  bands.  Along  the  sides  of  the  back 
a  suggestion  of  yellow  lateral  lines,  in  the  position  of  those  of 
the  pi/rrhopus  group,  can  be  made  out,  but  these  are  very 
faint  and  scarcely  to  be  distinguished  from  the  yellow  of  the 
flanks.  Under  surface  and  inner  sides  of  limbs  bluish  grey, 
the  hairs  dark  slaty  with  whitish  tips.  Head  like  back  ; 
eyes  rimmed  above  and  below  with  dull  whitish  or  orange- 
whitish  ;  ears  short,  rounded,  their  inner  surface  greenish 
yellow  like  the  flanks,  their  outer  surface  and  a  small  post- 
auricular  patch  dull  }ellowish  white.  Upper  surface  of  hands 
and  feet  grizzled  yellowish.     Tail  coloured  like  the  body,  the 

Mammals  from  Mount  Ruioenzon'.  1  1 1 

liairs  black  at  base  and  on  a  broad  subterminal  ring,  tlie 
middle  ring  and  tlu!  ends  greenish  yellow;  a  pencil  of  long 
hairs  at  tlie  tip  of  the  tail  wholly  black. 

Skull  of  about  the  size  and  general  shape  of  that  o£ 
F.  erjilhrogemjs  and  other  members  of  tlie  pyrrhopus  group. 
Nasals  square,  parallel-sided.  Postorbital  processes  further 
forward  on  the  skull  than  in  erytlirogenys.  Teeth  apparently 
of  the  same  general  type  as  in  F.  erythrogenys^  but  m^ 
considerably  larger. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  198  mm. ;  tail  192  ;  hind  foot  47-5  ;  ear  20. 

Skull:  greatest  length  49;  basilar  length  38;  greatest 
breadth  28;  nasals  lJ3x7'5;  interorbital  breadth  12-2; 
palatilar  length  20"2  ;  length  of  upper  tooth-series  exclusive 
oip'  8-8. 

Another  specimen  (a  male)  has  head  and  body  204  mm. ; 
tail  205. 

Hah.   Ruwenzori  East,  G500'. 

Type.  Female.  B.M.  no.  ().  7.  1.  53.  Original  number  262. 
Collected  7th  February,  1906,  by  Douglas  (Jarruthers. 

The  affinities  of  this  handsome  and  distinct  species  are  by 
no  means  clear.  Its  size  and  the  indistinct  lateral  dorsal 
lines  suggest  a  relationship  to  the  non-rufous  members  of  the 
pyrrhopus  group,  although  it  has  not  their  characteristically 
marked  tail,  and  the  bluish-grey  belly  is  unlike  anything 
found  among  them. 

7.   Otomys  Dartmouthi,  sp.  n. 

Lower  incisors  double-grooved,     il/^  with  only  six  laminae. 

Size  rather  larger  than  in  0.  Jachsoni.  Fur  very  fine, 
long  and  woolly  ;  ordinary  hairs  of  back  about  17  mm.  in 
length.  General  colour  above  finely  grizzled  "  mummy- 
brown/'  not  so  coarsely  marbled  as  in  0.  Jacksoni.  Under 
surface  drab-brown,  the  ends  of  the  hairs  pale  clay-colour. 
Head  and  ears  of  the  prevailing  body-colour.  Upper 
surface  of  hands  and  feet  pale  butfy.  Tail  black  along  its 
upper  surface,  dull  buffy  on  the  sides  and  below. 

Skull  larger  than  in  0.  Jacksoni,  its  profile  convex  above 
the  orbits. 

Upper  incisors  with  a  deep  median  and  a  tine  internal 
groove.  Lower  incisors  with  two  well-marked  subequal 
grooves,  as  in  0.  Jacksoni  and  typus.     Laminar   formula  of 

1       ,   3—2—6 

molars  ^_.-,_^. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  150  mm. ;  tail  93  ;  hind  foot  26*5;  ear  25. 

Ann.  (£■  Mag.  X.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  11 

142  Mr.  O.  Thomas  on  new 

Skull :  greatest  lengtli  37"5  ;  basilar  lengtli  30"3  ;  zygo- 
matic breadth  19*0;  nasals  IG'5  X  6'7;  interorbital  breadth  4'2; 
palatilar  length  17;  palatal  foramina  7;  length  of  upper 
molar  series  (grinding-surface)  7'3. 

Boh.  Iluwenzori  East,  12,500'  ("seen  up  to  13,000' '0- 

Type.  ^lale.  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  54.  Original  number  (353. 
Collected  18th  February,  190G,  by  R.  B.  Woosnam. 
Six  specimens  obtained. 

This  animal  is  related  to  the  corresponding  mountain-form 
of  Mt.  Elgon,  Otomys  Jacksoni^  from  13,200',  but  differs  by 
its  larger  size,  more  uniform  coloration,  and  the  possession  of 
only  six  laminaa  on  the  last  upper  molar. 

I  have  had  great  pleasure  in  naming  this  distinct  species 
in  honour  of  the  Earl  of  Dartmouth,  to  whose  generosity  this 
splendid  exploration  of  Mount  Kuwenzori  is  primarily  due. 

8.   Otomys  Denti,  sp.  n. 

Incisive  grooves  as  in  0.  irroratus,  but  m^  with  five  laminae 
only.     Colour  very  dark. 

Size  rather  smaller  than  in  0.  irroratus.  Fur  long  and 
fine;  ordinary  hairs  of  back  about  20  mm.  in  length.  General 
colour  dark  blackish  brown  (darker  than  "  bistre  ")  with  a 
coppery  tinge,  the  rump  almost  black,  the  light  rings  on  the 
hairs  dark  tawny.  Under  surface  and  inner  aspect  of  limbs 
slaty  black,  a  few  only  of  the  belly-hairs  tipped  with  dull 
buffy.  Upper  suiface  of  hands  and  feet  uniformly  brownish 
black.     Tail  black  throughout,  above  and  below. 

Skull  smaller  than  that  of  0.  irroratus,  more  flattened 
above,  its  profile  not  so  convex  above  the  orbits,  tiie  height 
from  tooth-row  to  supraorbital  ridges  markedly  less. 

Incisive  grooves  as  in  0.  irroratus.     Molar  laminae  4_^. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  Hesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  157  mm.;  tail  89  ;  hind  foot  27  ;  ear  21. 

Skull:  greatest  length  36'6;  basilar  length  30*3;  zygo- 
matic breadth  18*6;  nasals  14*7  X  ^''!i;  interorbital  breadth  4*5; 
lieight  from  alveolus  of  in^  to  supraorbital  ridge  10*8  ;  palatilar 
length  J7;  palatal  foramina  7'2  ;  upper  molar  series  (grinding- 
surface)  7. 

Hah.  Kuwenzori  East,  6000'. 

Type.  Female.  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  69.  Original  number  56. 
Collected  27th  January,  1906,  by  K.  E.  Dent.  Tiuee 

This  striking  swamp-rat  is  readily  distinguishable  by  its 
dark  coppery  colour,  flat  skull,  and  the  presence  of  only  five 
lamiuie  on  the  last  upper  molar. 

^fummal<^  from  Mount  Rinnenzori.  143 

9.  Dasymys  montaniis,  sp.  n. 

A  very  long-haired  species,  with  short  taih 
Size  meclium.  Fur  very  long  and  fine;  the  ordinary  liair-j 
of  the  back  about  15  nun.  in  length.  General  colour  abov(! 
uniformly  finely  speckled  mummy-brown,  tlio  light  rings  on 
the  hairs  near  clay-colour.  A  number  of  the  longer  liairs 
with  a  greenish  iii  lescence.  Sides  but  little  paler  than  back. 
Under  surface  bluish  grey,  the  slaty  bases  of  the  hairs  little 
hidden  by  the  dull  pale  drab  tips.  Ears  large,  black,  con- 
trasting with  the  general  brown  colour.  Upper  surface  of 
hands  and  feet  pale  brown,  the  digits  lighter.  Tail  practically 
naked,  the  scales  quite  unhidden,  blackish  throughout. 

Skull  shorter  and  broader  and  the  zygomata  more  squarely 
expanded  anteriorly  than  in  other  species. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 
Head  and  body  137  mm.;  tail  105;  hind  foot  27;  ear  19. 
Skull :  length  of  upper  molar  series  7*3. 
Another   skull    measures: — Greatest    length    35;    basilar 
length    30-6;    greatest     breadth    21-2;    nasals    12-3  X  43; 
palatilar  length  17'8  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  7-1. 
Ilab.  Ruwenzori  East,  12,500'. 

Type.  Female.  B.M.  no.  6.  7. 1.  79.  Original  number  255. 
Collected  30th  January,  1*J06,  by  Douglas  (Jarruthers. 

I  refer  four  specimens  to  this  species,  two  of  them  of  a 
normal  colour  and  two  apparently  melanoid,  rather  darker 
than  de  W  intones  D.  incomtus  fuscus.  Unfortunately  the 
skulls  of  the  normal-coloured  specimens  are  much  damaged, 
but  I  do  not  think  there  is  any  reason  to  suppose  the 
blackish  specimens  are  different  from  the  brown  ones. 

D.  montanus  is  readily  distinguishable  from  all  otiier 
species  by  its  long  fur  and  short  tail. 

10.  I^asymys  medlus,  sp.  n. 

A  grey  species  allied  to  D.  BentleycB. 

Size  medium,  rather  larger  than  in  D.  Bentleyce.  Fur 
comparatively  coarse  and  shaggy;  hairs  ofback  about  12-13  mm. 
in  length.  General  colour  above  greyish  "  hair-brown," 
greyer  on  the  head  and  fore-back,  warmer  and  browner  on 
the  rump ;  darkened  throughout  by  the  black  ends  to  the 
longer  hairs.  Sides  greyer,  passing  gradually  into  the  grev 
of  the  under  surface,  where  the  tips  of  the  hairs  are  dull 
greyish  white,  their  slaty  bases  showing  through.  Ears 
well-haired,  greyish  brown,  not  markedly  darker  than  the 
general  tone.     Upper  surface  of  hands  and  feet  pale  brown. 


14:4  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on  new 

Tail  rallier  long,  thinly  clotlied  with  fine  hairs,  not  hiding 
the  scales,  brown  above  and  below. 

Skull  larger  than  that  of  JJ.  JJentlet/re  and  markedly 
higher  in  the  brain-case.  Interorbital  region  parallel-sided, 
evenly  narrow  throughout,  not  broadening  posteriorly  as  in 
D.  BentJey(f.     Bull*  decidedly  larger  than  in  that  species. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  143  mm. ;  tail  128  ;  hind  foot  28-5 ;  ear  19. 

Skull:  greatest  length  34*3;  basilar  length  30;  greatest 
breadth  18*5;  length  of  nasals  12  ;  diastema  10'3;  palatihir 
length  17-5;  palatal  foramina  T'G;  length  of  upper  molar 
series  7. 

JIah.  Ruwenzori  East,  GOOO'. 

Type.  Female.  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  75.  Original  number  33. 
Collected  16th  January,  1906,  by  R.  E.  Dent. 

No  species  of  J)asijmijs  have  been  iiitherto  described  from 
this  part  of  Africa,  the  nearest  being  the  Lower  Congo 
D.  Benilei/ce,  from  which  the  present  animal  differs  by  the 
characters  above  mentioned.  From  the  D.  montanus  of  the 
higher  altitudes  of  Ruwenzori  it  is,  of  course,  at  once  distin- 
guishable by  its  shorter  coarser  fur  and  much  longer  tail. 

]  1.  Mas  Dennice,  sp.  n. 

A  small  long-tailed  species  allied  to  df.  AUeni.  Mamma? 
2—2  =  8. 

Size  about  as  in  M.  AUeni  and  M.  airilhis.  Fur  soft  and 
rather  woolly ;  hairs  of  back  about  9-10  mm.  in  length. 
General  colour  not  unlike  that  of  M.  carillus,  soft  buffy  fixwn, 
varying  a  good  deal  in  the  richness  of  the  tone.  Sides  clearer 
and  more  buffy.  Under  surface  well  defined  whitish,  sometimes 
tinged  with  bufty.  Head  greyer  than  back  ;  lower  part  of  sides 
of  muzzle  white  ;  area  round  eyes  black.  Ears  large,  naked, 
dark  brown  throughout.  Upjier  surface  of  hands  and  feet 
thinly  haired,  dull  whitish.  'J'ail  much  longer  than  head  and 
body,  fairly  well  haired  terminally,  greyish  brown  throughout. 

Skull  of  the  same  delicate  shape  as  in  }[.  AUeni  and  cariUiis, 
and  the  zygomatic  plate  similarly  little  projected  forward. 
Supraorbital  edges  sharply  square,  but  not  beaded.  Palatal 
foramina  much  longer  than  in  the  two  western  species. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  skin)  : — 

Head  and  body  96  mm. ;   tail  154;  hind  foot  21 ;  ear  21. 

Skull:  greatest  length  27;  basilar  length  '22d;  greatest 
breadth  13"5  ;  nasals  9"5;  interorbital  breadth  4'1;  breadth 
of  brain-case  12*2  ;  palatihir  length  12;  diastema  8  ;  palatal 
foramina  &i  X  2*3;  length  oi'  up[)er  molar  scries  4. 

MiDiinuihs from  Monnl  Ilawenzori.  145 

Ilah.  JiiiwcMizori  Kast.  Altitiido  of  type  700;/;  other 
spt'ciiiiciis  up  to  12,000'. 

Tiji)e.  ]\I;iIe.  Jj.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  112.  Origiiiul  nuniher  2IJ5. 
Collected  15tli  .January,  I'JOG,  by  Douglas  Cariutlicr.s.  Ten 

This  pretty  mouse  is  no  doubt  allied  to  Mus  Alleni,  witli 
which  it  shares  the  general  proj)ortions,  shaj)e  of  skull,  and 
number  of  niamniw;  but  it  differs  by  its  softer,  more  buffy 
iur  and  longer  jjalatiiie  foramina.  In  Mus cdrillus,  otherwise 
allied,  there  are  only  1 — 2  =  0  mammaj. 

I  have  been  in  some  doubt  as  to  whether  this  or  a  larger 
sj)ecies  obtained  by  the  Ruwonzori  Expedition  should  be 
referred  to  de  Winton*s  ^f.  Jacksoni,  founded  on  a  young 
specimen  from  Entebbe,  but  the  teelh  of  the  type  arc  more  as 
in  the  larger  form,  and  there  i.s  a  distinct  projection  forward 
of  the  zygomatic  plate,  ])ractically  absent  in  the  present  form. 

A  mouse  from  Mount  Kenya,  obtained  by  Prof.  Mackinder 
in  1899,  and  referred  by  me  to  J\l.  Jacksoni^  would  also  seem 
to  be  assignable  to  Mus  JJenm'ce. 


12.  Mus  univittatus  lunaris,  subsp.  n. 

General  characters  of  the  typical  western  M.  univittatus, 
but  size  smaller  and  colour  more  olivaceous,  not  turning 
rufous  on  the  rump,  which  is  blackish  olivaceous.  Belly- 
hairs  greyish  tipped  with  buffy;  a  line  down  outer  edge  of 
thighs  also  buii'y.  Dorsal  streak  not  sharply  defined  and 
not  extending  on  to  neck  and  head.  Upper  surface  of  hands 
blackish  brown,  of  feet  rufous  brown.  Tail  practically  naked, 
black  above,  rather  lighter  below. 

8kull  similar  to  that  of  true  univittatus,  but  smaller  and 
lighter  throughout.     Molars  decidedly  narrower. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  108  mm.  ;  tail  115;  hind  foot  25;  ear  17. 

iSkuU :  greatest  length  32 ;  basilar  length  21 ;  greatest 
breadth  15*3;  nasals  13;  interorbital  breadth  5'2 ;  breadth 
of  brain-case  14;  palatilar  length  13*2  ;  palatal  foramina  6  ; 
length  of  upper  molar  series  5*1. 

Uab.  Ruwenzori  East,  6000'. 

2"2/pe.  Old  female.  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  137.  Original 
number  217.  Collected  2nd  January,  1906,  by  Douglas 

13.  Leggada  hifo,  sp.  n. 

A  large  dark  species  with  a  rich  buify  belly. 

Size  rather  less   than  in   Mus   niusculus.     Eur  close  and 

116  On  new  Mam mah  from  Mount  Ruicenzori. 

crisp,  about  5"5  mm.  in  length  on  the  back,  profusely  mixe<l 
with  fine  spines.  General  colour  above  tlark  coppery  brown 
(nearest  to  *'  bistre"),  more  blackish  on  the  rump  ;  the  light 
rings  on  the  hairs  dark  buffy.  Under  surface  strongly  con- 
trasted rich  buffy  ochraceous,  the  bidden  bases  of  the  hairs 
slaty  grey.  Head  rather  darker  than  back.  Ears  naked, 
uniformly  blackish.  Outer  side  of  limbs  brown  like  sides, 
inner  sides  buffy  like  belly  ;  upper  surface  of  liands  and  feet 
brown,  with  a  tinge  of  buffy.  Tail  fin  ly  scaled  (20  rings  to 
the  centimetre),  practically  naked,  blackish  throughout,  or 
rather  lighter  below  proximally. 

Skull  stoutly  built,  with  broad,  squarely  edged  but  not 
ridged,  interorbital  region.  Palatal  foramina  long,  extending 
nearly  to  the  level  of  the  middle  of  m}.  First  upper  molar 
with  its  anterior  lobe  less  developed  than  in  the  smaller  forms. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  70  mm.;  tail  68;  hind  foot  16;  ear  13. 

Skull:  greatest  length  22;  basilar  length  17;  greatest 
breadth  11;  interorbital  breadth  4;  palatilar  length  9"6; 
palatal  foramina  5*1  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  3"J:. 

Hah.  Euwenzori  East,  6000'. 

Tijpe.  Old  female.  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  116.  Original  num- 
ber 215.  Collected  2nd  January,  1906,  by  Douglas 
Carruthers.     Six  specimens. 

This  species  is  related  to  L.  musciJoides,  Temm.,  but  may 
be  readily  recognized  by  its  rich  buffy  under  surface. 

14.  Lophuromys  Woosnami^  sp.  n. 

An  olive-grey  species  with  large  ears  and  long  tail. 

Size  about  as  in  L.  aquilus.  Fur  straight ;  hairs  of  back 
about  10-11  mm.  in  length.  General  colour  above  between 
"olive"  and  "bistre,"  without  the  warmer  rufous  tone 
generally  present  in  the  East-African  forms ;  the  bases  of 
the  hairs  are,  however,  of  a  rufous-brown  colour.  Mixed 
with  the  ordinary  hairs  of  the  back  there  are  a  vari:ible 
number  of  buffy-white  hairs,  which  produce  a  speckling 
somewhat  similar  to  that  of  the  grysbuck  {Xototragus  mela- 
notis),  but  are  almost  absent  in  some  spi'cimens.  Sides 
rather  paler  than  back.  Colour  of  under  surface  not  sharply 
defined  laterally,  very  variable,  ranging  from  near  wood- 
brown  to  tawny  claj^-colour ;  the  throat  rather  whiter.  Head 
like  back  ;  area  round  eyes  nearly  black.  Ears  very  large, 
finely  haired,  black,  with  whitish  edges.  Upper  surface  of 
hands  and  feet  pale  brownish  white.  Tail  long,  slender, 
almost  naked,  markedly  less  hairy  than  in  the  other  species  ; 
blackish  above,  whitish  flesh-colour  below. 

On  a  second  f^pecies  of  Modiocus.  \A  7 

Sl<ull  with  a  loiif(  slciuler  muzzle;  interorbital  region 
broad,  cd^cd  witli  well-defined  rid^os,  bnt  without  postorbital 
projections;  outer  wall  of  anteorbital  foramen  reduced  to  a 
narrow  bar  less  than  half  the  breadth  of  the  corresponding 
])ait  in  ]j.  aquilus  ixud  Jiavopundafus;  it  is,  however,  simi- 
larly narrow  in  the  W.- African  L.  sikapusi. 

Incisors  more  as  in  Mus  tlnin  in  other  Lophuromys,  their 
anterior  surface  not  curved  round  in  the  way  generally 
characteristic  of  the  present  genus.  JMolars  very  broad,  with 
well-defined  cusps;  their  pattern  as  usual. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  :  — 
Head    and    body    118   mm.;    tail    111;    hind    foot    22"5; 
ear  23. 

Skull  :  greatest  length  30"5  ;  basilar  length   2-4  ;  greatest 
breadth    l-i*3 ;    nasals    14  x  3*2  ;    interorbital    breadth    6*7  ; 
diastema  8;    palatilar   length   12*4;  palatine  foramina  ^'6; 
length  of  upper  molar  series  4"8. 
Alt.  6000'. 

Tijpe.  Adult  male.  B  M.  no.  6.  7.  1.  170.  Original 
number  608.  Collected  31st  December,  1905,  by  R.  B. 
Woosnam.     Nine  specimens. 

This  striking  species  is  widely  different  from  any  of  the 
Central-  and  East- African  forms  of  Lophuromi/s,  and  might 
almost  be  considered  generically  distinct  were  it  not  that  the 
West-African  L.  sikapusi  also  possesses  some  of  its  characters- 
Its  large  ears,  long  tail,  and  peculiar  oliv^e-colonred  white- 
speckled  fur  readily  distinguish  the  species  from  all  its  allies, 
and  I  have  much  pleasure  in  naming  it  after  Mr.  E,.  B. 
Woosnam,  to  whose  abilities  so  much  of  the  success  of  tlte 
Ruwenzori  expedition  is  due. 

XXI. —  On  a  second  Species  of  the  Silui'i'd  Genus  Mochocus. 
By  G.  A.  BOULENGER,  F.R.S. 

When  dealing  in  these  '  Annals,'  a  few  years  ago  *,  with  the 
little- known  genus  Mochocus,  J oanu'is  {Rhinoglanis,  Giinther), 
I  was  acquainted  wntli  one  species  only,  as  I  consider  Rhino- 
qlanis  typus,  Gthr.,  from  Gondokoro,  and  R.  VannateUiiy 
Vincig.,  from  Lake  Rudolf,  as  specifically  identical  with  the 
incorrectly  described  Mochocus  niloticus  of  de  Joannis,  of 
which  I  had  then  received  a  i&vf  specimens  from  Assuan, 
where  the  fish  had  been  rediscovered  by  Mr.  Loat.  The 
*  Vol.  vi.  1900,  p.  525. 

148  Mr.  O.  Thomas  on  a 

little  fish  has  since  been  found  by  the  same  collector  at  various 
localities  on  the  Kile,  between  Beni  Souef  and  Gondokoro, 
and  a  second  species  has  been  discovered  by  him  at  Fashodii 
and  at  Lake  No,  \^  hite  Nile.  For  this  new  species  I  propose 
the  name  of 

Mochocus  hrevis. 

Easily  distinguished  from  the  preceding  by  the  shorter 
caudal  part  of  the  body,  the  first  dorsal  fin  being  equally 
distant  from  the  end  of  the  snout  and  from  the  root  of  the 
caudal,  or  only  a  little  nearer  the  former.  Depth  of  body  3^ 
to  4.^  times  in  the  total  length,  length  of  head  8  to  31  times. 
Occiput  and  nuchal  shield  slightly  tectiform,  but  without  a 
keel.  J\l axillary  barbel  reaching  the  extremity  of  the  ventral 
fin  or  a  little  beyond.  First  dorsal  I  G,  the  spine  without 
any  serration  and  always  shorter  than  the  head ;  second 
dorsal  9-17;  anal  9-10.  Caudal  peduncle  only  a  little 
longer  than  broad.  Coloration  as  in  AI.  niloticus,  but 
pectoral,  ventral,  and  anal  fins  often  with  some  brown  spots. 

Total  length  31  mm. 

Forty-two  specimens  from  Fashoda  and  one  from  Lake  No. 

In  i)i.  niloticus  there  is  a  series  of  three  or  four  small  bony 
scutes,  ankylosed  to  the  interneural  bones,  on  each  side  of 
the  base  of  the  soft  rays  of  the  first  dorsal  tin  ;  these  little 
scutes,  which  have  hitherto  been  overlooked,  are  absent  in 
M.  hrevis. 

XXIL — On  a  neio  I'lgmy  Antelope  ohtained  by  Col.  J.  J. 
tiarrison  in  the  Semliki  Forest.     By  Oldfield  Thomas. 

The  British  IMuseum  owes  to  Col.  J.  J.  Harrison  the  skull 
of  a  pigniy  antelope  from  the  Semliki  Forest  allied  to  the 
Cameroon  species  described  by  de  AVinton  as  Neotragus 
Batesi  *.  1  have  also  had  the  opportunity  of  examining  the 
skin  of  the  specimen,  which  is  now  in  Col.  Harrison's 

JSeotragus  Batesi,  as  shown  by  de  Winton,  is  in  many 
res})ects  allied  to  both  Neotragus  and  JSesotragus,  and  in  the 
light  of  the  present  examination  of  the  new  material,  including 
an  additional  example  from  the  Cameroons,  1  am  disposed  to 
consider    it   as   representing  a   distinct    genus,  ^^  hose   range 

*  P.  Z.  S.  1903,  i.  p.  l\)± 

ncio  rijmij  Anlelope.  14.9 

^v()ulcl    be  coextensive  Avilli   the    great  Congo  Forest.     This 
genus  may  be  ealletl 

IIylarnus*,  gen.  iiov. 

Intermetliatc  between  Neotragus  and  Nesotragus.  Pre- 
niaxillo-inaxilhiry  vacuities  j)rcsent,  as  in  the  latter.  Nasals 
very  broadly  exj)anded  posteriorly.  Muzzle  in  front  of  orbit 
comparatively  short,  the  anterior  wall  of  the  orbit  vertically 
above  p^,  as  in  JSeotragus,  above  m^  or  in?  in  Nesotragiis. 
Palation  (back  of  bony  palate)  about  level  with  the  hinder 
corner  of  ?/t',  as  in  JSesotragus,  opposite  its  front  edge  in 

Horns  short,  laid  back  nearly  in  the  line  of  the  frontal 
profile,  almost  as  in  JSeotragus  ;  stout,  conical,  smooth  except 
just  at  their  base. 

Type.  JVeotrogus  Batesi,  de  Wint. 

The  Eastern  species  obtained  by  Col.  Harrison  seems  to  be 
specifically  separable  from  //.  JJatesi,  and  1  would  propose 
ior  it  the  name  of 

IIylarnus  Hamsoni,  sp.  n. 

External  characters  very  much  as  in  //.  Batesi,  but  the 
colour-contrasts  are  more  marked,  the  dark  colours  darker 
and  the  light  brighter. 

General  colour  nearer  to  "  cinnamon''^  of  Ridgway,  that  of 
Batesi  approaching  "  russet "  ;  central  dorsal  area  darkened 
by  the  black  tips  to  the  hairs.  Forehead  and  crown  dark 
brown,  a  fine  lightish  line  over  each  eye.  Hairs  of  outer 
surface  of  ears  black,  of  inner  white.  Chin  and  interramia 
nearly  pure  white.  Throat-band  brownish  cinnamon.  Belly 
sharply  defined  white.  Front  of  limbs  dark  brown,  inter- 
rupted over  the  metapodials  and  basal  phalanges  by  an  ill- 
delined  elongated  whitish  patch,  which  is  succeeded  again  by 
brown  on  the  penultimate  phalanges.  Tail  imperfect  in  the 
type,  its  basal  portion  coloured  like  the  body. 

iSkull  with  the  nasals  even  broader  posteriorly  than  in 
77.  Batesi,  running  out  on  each  side  to  a  well-marked  angle. 
Preniaxillo-maxillary  vacuity  larger  in  the  single  specimen. 
Horns  longer  and  set  at  a  slightly  greater  angle  upwards. 

Dimensions  of  the  typical  skull : — 

(jrreatest  length  110  mm.;  basal  length  96'5;  greatest 
breadth  52  ;  muzzle  to  orbit  51 ;  nasals  o7x23j  breadth  of 
brain-case  '66  ;  muzzle  to  front  of  ^^  36 ;  palate  length  ^d ; 
length  of  upper  tooth-series  o2. 

*  apvos,  a  lamb. 

150  Mr.  A.  0.  WalkiT  on 

Length  of  liorns  38,  of  horn-core  27. 

Hah.  Seniliki  Forest,  Eastern  Congo. 

Type.  Adult  male.  The  skull  is  B.^[.  no.  5.  10.  21.  3. 
Collected  and  presented  by  Col.  J.  J.  Harrison.  The 
mounted  skin  remains  in  the  latter's  collection. 

XXIII. — Preliminary  Descriptions  of  n'tw  Species  of  Amphi- 
poda  from  the  'Discovery''  Antarctic  Expedition,  l'J02- 
1901'.     l^y  Alfred  O.  Walker,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S. 

[Concluded  from  p.  18.] 

Iphimedia  echinata,  sp.  n. 

W.Q.  24/9/02,  Hut  Point,  one;  24/8/03,  Hole  12,  three 
large,  30  ram.,  and  about  twenty-five  young;  26/9/03,  Hole 
12,  one  45  mm.  long. 

Body :  first  segment  of  the  raesosome  longer  than  the  second ; 
posterior  angles  aloiost  rectangular ;  next  four  segments 
subequal,  with  acute  posterior  angles  ;  the  fifth  and  sixth 
segments  more  or  less  dentate  behind;  seventh  dorsally 
depressed  and  narrowed  below,  postero-dorsal  dentitiou 
coarser.  The  pleon-segments  have  a  strongly  dentate  dorsal 
carina,  with  smaller  teeth  on  each  side  of  it ;  posterior  angle 
of  the  second  and  third  acute  and  upturned,  the  latter  with  a 
longer  curved  tooth  above  it.  The  first  urus-segnient  is  as 
long  as  the,  two  next  united,  and  has  a  dorsal  depressioa 
followed  by  ^,  group  of  upright  teeth;  the  second  and  third 
are  smooth.  Side-plates:  the  first  three  pairs  narrow  down- 
wards to  a  point,  the  second  and  third  curved;  the  fourth, 
fifth,  and  sixth  have  a  strong  tooth  with  serrate  edge  directed 

Head:  rostrum  as  long  as  the  rest  of  the  head,  acute, 
decurved;  ocular  lobes  rounded;  eyes  prominent,  round, 

Upper  antennce :  first  joint  with  two  parallel  distal  teeth 
on  the  upper  margin ;  second  with  a  long  serrate  tooth  on 
the  U})per  and  a  short  one  on  the  lower  margin  ;  third  joint 
short,  simple.  First  joint  of  fiagellum  as  long  as  the  next 

Loioer  antennce  subequal  to  the  upper ;  a  prominent  curved 
tooth  on  the  upper  side  of  the  i>asal  joint. 

First  gnathopods  :  first  joint  widest  in  the  middle;  wrist 
rather  shorter  than  the  hand,  \Vhich  is  chelate,  with  short 
spines  on  the  end  of  the  produced  hind  margin. 

new  Sjiecies  of  Antarctic  yii/ijJiij'uJa.  151 

Second  f/natho])ods :  first  joint  as  long  ns  the  remainder ; 
wrist  and  liand  subequal,  the  latter  elielate,  with  long  plumose 
seta;  on  the  hind  margin. 

Third  penvopods :  first  joint  oblong,  with  a  median  ridge 
and  five  subequal  teeth  on  the  hind  margin.  In  young 
specimens  these  are  fewer  and  unequal. 

Fourth  percBopods :  first  joint  rather  wider  than  in  the  third 
pair,  with  fewer  and  more  unequal  teeth  ;  posterior  angle 
acute  and  upturned. 

Fijih  permopods  :  first  joint  wider  than  in  the  fi^urth  pair, 
with  four  unequal  teeth  on  the  hind  margin  and  the  posterior 
angle  still  more  acute  and  produced. 

Third  uropods :  rami  widely  lanceolate,  the  outer  slightly 
longer  and  wider  than  the  inner,  which  is  much  longer  than 
the  peduncle. 

Telson  emarginate,  the  outer  angles  rounded,  reaching  the 
end  of  the  peduncles  of  the  third  uropods. 

Iphimedia  longipes,  sp.  n. 

Coulman  Island,  100  fath.,  13/1/02 ;  one  specimen. 

Bod}/ :  mesosome  wide ;  pleon  and  urus  compressed. 
First  segment  longer  than  the  second,  third,  fourth,  and  fifth, 
and  subequal  to  the  sixth  ;  seventh  as  long  as  the  fifth  and 
sixth  united,  with  two  long  subdorsal  teeth  directed  back- 
wards. The  first  side-plates  rather  deeper  than  the  segment, 
wider  and  rounded  below;  second  and  third  bluntly  pointed; 
fourth  sharply  pointed  below,  with  the  hind  margin  produced 
backwards  in  a  spur;  fifth  and  sixth  with  a  short  trigonal 
spur  ;  seventh  small  and  subquadrate.  The  first  two  pleon- 
segments  have  each  two  long  subdorsal  teeth ;  the  lower 
margin  of  the  first  is  narrowed,  with  the  posterior  angle 
obtuse  ;  the  third  segment  is  smooth,  the  posterior  angle 
forming  a  short  blunt  tooth  with  a  longer  curved  tooth  above 
it.  First  segment  of  the  urus  dorsally  depressed,  much 
longer  than  the  remaining  two  united. 

Head  exclusive  of  the  rostrum  longer  than  the  first 
segment ;  rostrum  as  long  as  the  rest  of  the  head,  defiexed 
and  pointed ;  ocular  lobe  rounded  in  front  and  terminating 
below  in  a  strong  tooth  directed  downwards.  Eyes  round- 
oval,  dark,  widely  separated. 

Upper  anteiincB :  first  joint  with  a  strong  distal  tooth  on 
the  inner  side  reaching  almost  to  the  end  of  the  second  joint. 

First  gnathopods  with  a  chelate  hand. 

Last  three  pairs  of  perceopods  increasing  in  length  succes- 
sively, the  last  pair  extending  much  beyond  the  ends  of   the 

152  Mr.  A.  0.  Walker  on 

uropods  ;  liind  mar<^in  of  the  first  joints  smooth,  more  or 
less  concave,  and  endinj^  below  in  a  subacute  tootli. 

Telson  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  peduncles  of  the  third 
uro[)ods,  wider  at  the  base  tlian  long,  rather  deeply  notched. 

Length  30  mm. 

Iphimedia  Hodgsoni,  sp.  ii. 

Coulman  Island,  13/1/02,  100  fath.  ;  one. 

The  whole  body  is  clothed  with  tine  spine-like  teeth  directed 
backwards  and  arranged  in  zones  on  the  segments  of  the 
mesosome  and  plcon;  the  side-plates  are  also  densely  spinous 
and  appear  to  be  a  little  deeper  than  the  segments.  The 
body  is  but  little  compressed  laterally  and  is  widest  over  the 
first  and  second  segments.  The  antenna  are  rather  short, 
subequal,  and  directed  outwards  ;  the  basal  joints  of  the 
upper  are  thickly  covered  with  branching  spines.  The 
rostrum  is  almost  straight  and  about  as  long  as  the  rest  of 
the  head. 

Length  about  25  mm. 

Eusirus  microps,  sp.  n. 

W.Q.  10/5/03,  10  fath.,  one,  and  1/6/03,  one.  Penguin 
Rookery,  Mount  Erebus,  Feb.  1901 ;  one,  large. 

Body:  last  segment  of  mesosome  and  first  two  of  j)leon 
carinate,  with  a  postero-dorsal  tooth  ;  carina  of  the  tiiird 
pleon-segment  rounded  behind ;  hind  epimeral  margin  rather 
convex,  faintly  crenate,  posterior  angle  produced  and  acute; 
one  or  two  small  teeth  on  the  lower  margin  in  front  of  it. 
First  urus-segment  dorsally  depressed.  Side- plates  rather 
small,  the  first  subquadrate,  crenate  below. 

Head:  eyes  dark,  almost  round,  diameter  less  than  that  of 
the  first  joint  of  the  ujyper  antennce. 

Upper  antenna'  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  uropods  ;  first 
joint  shorter  than  the  second,  with  a  distal  prominence  on  the 
lower  margin  terminated  by  an  acute  tooth  ;  the  second  joint 
expands  distally  and  is  furnished  with  two  or  three  sharp 
teeth ;  the  third  is  rather  shorter  than  the  first  of  the 
fiagellum.  Ai)pendage  as  long  as  the  first  joint  of  the 

First  gnathopods :  first  joint  robust ;  hinder  angle  of  the 
third  joint  acute  and,  as  also  the  carpal  spur,  densely  setose  j 
hand  much  longer  than  wide. 

Second  gnathopods  rather  longer  than  tlie  first;  the  front 
margin  of  the  second  joint  produced  over  the  third. 

First  and  second  peraopods  very  slender,  the  first  joint 
about  six  times  as  long  as  wide  and  subequal  to  the  next  two. 

Last  three  pairs  of  peravpods  increasing  in   length  back- 

nev)  Species  of  A  nf arctic  AmpJiipoila.  loii 

waiils  ;  tlio  first  joint  in  tlic  last  two  pairs  with  tlic  liiml 
iiiar^in  piidiiif^  l)clow  in  a  sharp  tooth  ;  all  the  joints  spinous 
and  clothed  with  long  pfumose  setce ;  point  ot"  the  dactylus 
blunt,  with  a  curved  secondary  tooth. 

Telson  reaching  beyond  the  end  of  the  peduncles  ot"  the 
third  uroj)ods,  the  tip  notcheil,  divisions  acute. 

Length  of  large  specimen  -ii!)  mm. 

G ammaropsis  longicornis,  sp.  n. 

W.Q.  Jan.  to  Mar.  1902,  10  fatli. ;  several  specimens, 
male  and  female. 

Body  :  first  four  si<le-plates  not  so  deep  as  the  segments. 
Third  pleon-segment  dorsally  depressed  behind,  posterior 
angle  rectangular.  First  urus-segment  dorsally  depressed  in 

Head  almost  as  long  as  the  first  two  segments  ;  ocular 
lobe  not  much  produced,  angular.  Eyes  round,  red  in  the 

Upper  a7iten7ice  in  tlie  female  reaching  beyond,  in  the  male 
not  so  far  as,  the  end  of  the  peduncle  of  the  lower.  Ap- 
pendage 1-jointed,  about  one  third  of  the  length  of  the  first 
joint  of  the  fiagellum. 

Loicer  antenna'  in  female  barely  reaching  to  the  pleon,  in 
the  adult  male  almost  as  long  as  the  ichole  animal.  Flaoellum 
shorter  than  the  last  joint  of  the  peduncle. 

First  gnathopods :  side-plates  oblong,  rounded  below,  deeper 
than  wide.  \Vrist  subequal  in  length  and  width  to  the 
hand ;  the  hind  margin  of  the  latter  evenly  convex,  palm 
defined  by  two  spines,  spinulose. 

Second  gnathopods. — Female:  wrist  subfriangular,  half  as 
long  as  the  hand  ;  palm  of  the  liand  subequal  to  the  rest  of 
the  hind  margin,  crenulate,  the  proximal  half  concave,  the 
distal  convex ;  palmar  angle  rounded,  with  three  unequal 
spines.  Male :  wrist  very  short,  hind  margin  a  little  pro- 
duced, subangular,  and  setose;  hand  widening  distally,  hind 
margin  rather  longer  than  the  palm  and  terminating  in  a 
strong  tootli  ;  palm  almost  transverse,  with  a  strong  tooth 
separated  from  the  palmar  one  by  a  deep  sinus ;  an  irregu- 
larly dentate  and  setose  space  between  it  and  the  base  of  the 
dactylus  which  is  carried  over  the  side  of  the  hand. 

Perceopods :  last  three  pairs  increasing  in  length  succes- 
sively, the  last  pair  not  exceeding  the  uropods ;  posterior 
angles  of  the  first  joints  of  the  fourth  and  fifth  pairs  rectan- 
gular, the  joints  narrowing  suddenly  in  the  middle. 

Third  uropcds :  peduncles  twice  as  long  as  the  styliform 

154  On  a  new  C yprinodont  Fish. 

Length  6  mm. 

Very  near  G.  nana,  G.  0.  Sars,  from  wliicli  it  diflfers  in 
the  smaller  antennular  appendage  and  the  form  o£  the  first 
joint  of  the  last  two  pairs  of  perajopods,  and  especially  in  the 
much  greater  length  of  the  lower  antennae. 

Seba  antarcdca,  sp.  n. 

W.Q.  Oct.  to  jMarchj  1902  :  in  sponges.  Two  large  males, 
19/3/02  ;  10  fatli. 

The  females  and  young  males  (which  differ  from  the 
females  only  by  the  absence  of  the  incubatory  lamellfe) 
cannot  be  distinguished  from  S.  Saundersi,  Stebbing,  with 
which  this  species  may  be  identical*.  The  two  large  males 
mentioned  above,  however,  show  such  a  marked  difference  in 
the  great  development  of  the  meral  joints  of  the  last  three 
})airs  of  peraeopods,  that  at  first  sight  I  look  them  for  a 
distinct  species.  As,  however,  they  were  associated  with  the 
smaller  form,  with  which  they  agree  in  the  rest  of  their 
structure,  I  have  no  doubt  that  they  are  only  full-grown 
males.  It  may  be  remembered  that  in  the  adult  male  of  our 
own  Orchestia  littorea  (Mont.)  we  have  a  similar  enlargement 
of  the  meral  joint  in  the  last  pair  of  per^eopods. 

XXIV. — Description  of  a  new  Cyprinodoat  Fisli  of  the  Genus 
J enynsia  from  Aryentina.     By  C.  Tate  Regan,  B.A. 

Jenynsia  maculata. 

Depth  of  body  3|  to  4  in  the  length,  length  of  head  3? 
to  4.  Snout  as  long  as  or  shorter  than  eye,  the  diameter  of 
■which  is  3|  to  4  in  the  length  of  head,  interorbital  width  2 
to  2^.  Body  regularly  and  completely  scaled  ;  28  to  30 
scales  in  a  longitudinal  seiies.  Dors^al  8-9  ;  origin  equi- 
distant from  extremity  of  operculum  and  base  of  caudal  or 
fi'om  eye  atul  end  of  caudal.  Anal  8-9,  opposite  to  the 
dorsal  (?)  or  a  little  in  advance  of  it  [S)-  Caudal  rounded 
or  subtruncate.  Pectoral  about  |  the  length  of  head ; 
ventrals  extending  to  the  vent.  Sides  with  3  or  4  irregular 
scries  of  more  or  less  oblong  blackish  spots. 

Several  examples,  measuring  up  to  73  mm.  in  total  length, 
from  Cachi,  Salta,  Argentina,  at  an  elevation  of  2.")00  metres, 
collected  by  II err  J.  Steinbach. 

This  species  is  very  close  to  Jenynsia  lineata,  Jenyns, 
which  has  the  dorsal  fin  a  little  more  advanced  and  has  the 
spots  on  the  sides  smaller  and  more  nunu-rous,  forming 
regular  longitudinal  lines  along  the  series  of  scales. 

*  Ann.  &  .M;ig.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  7,  vol.  xvii.  (1900)  p.  r,G9. 

Bihliographical  Noticea.  ir)5 


The  Fauna  of  liritish  India,  includlnr/  Cei/lon  and  Burma.  Pub- 
lished under  tlie  authority  of  the  Secretary  of  State  for  India  in 
Council.  Edited  by  Lt.-Col.  C.  T.  Bingham.  —  lihi/nchoia. 
Vol.  III.  {//tteropferu  —  Jlomoptera^.  By  W.  L.  Distant. 
London  :  Taylor  &  Erancis.     Pp.  xiv,  503 ;  text-figs.  200. 

CoL.  Bingham  has  prefixed  a  preface  to  this  volume  (the  first 
published  under  his  editorship)  expressing  the  general  regret  felt 
at  the  death  of  Ur.  Blanford,  the  originator  of  the  scries  of  works 
on  the  Eauna  of  British  India,  and  noticing  the  arrangements  mado 
for  future  volumes,  comprising  works  on  Coleoptcra,  I^pidoptera, 
and  Mollusca. 

The  present  volume  contains  the  conclusion  (families  17  to  24)  of 
the  Heteroptcra,  chiefly  inchuiing  the  not  very  extensive  but  ex- 
tremely interesting  Water-Bugs,  and  the  first  two  families  of 
llomoptera — the  Cicadidix;  (three  su])farailies)  and  Eulgorida?  (twelve 
subfamilies).  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  largest,  and  in  the  case 
of  the  Honioptera  the  handsomest  and  most  conspicuous,  species  fall 
into  the  present  volume.  These  sections  are,  however,  verj'  poorly 
rej)resented  in  Britain.  Of  the  great  and  vociferous  family  Cicadidte 
we  have  only  a  single  rare  and  local  representative,  and  even  this  ono 
of  the  smaller  species,  measuring  under  2  inches  in  expanse,  though 
from  3  to  6  or  even  7  inches  is  no  uncommon  size  in  India  and  other 
warm  countries.  Even  so,  however,  our  own  species  is  the  largest 
British  species  of  its  order,  except  the  curious  aquatic  llanatra 
belonging  to  the  Heteroptera.  The  Water-Bugs  and  Fu'goridae  are 
somewhat  better  represented  in  Britain,  but  the  latter  only  by 
comparatively  small  and  insignificant  species,  whereas  the  Indian 
Fulgoridae  are  as  large  and  brightly  coloured  as  butterflies  and 
tiger-moths,  which,  indeed,  some  of  the  species  resemble,  while 
others  are  remarkable  for  the  largo  and  often  curiously  shaped 
protuberance  on  the  head,  which,  however,  finds  its  greatest  deve- 
lopment not  in  an  Indian  species,  but  in  the  large  South-American 
lantern-fly,  which  sometimes  measures  nearly  6  inches  across  the 
wings.  It  is  curious  that  both  the  South-American  lantern-flies 
and  the  East-Indian  candle-flies  should  be  reputed  luminous,  and 
yet  that  modern  entomologists  should  not  have  been  able  to  confirm 
the  statement  in  either  one  case  or  the  other. 

We  hope  that  the  high  standard  of  excellence  which  the  '  Fauna 
of  British  India '  has  exhibited  since  its  commencement  will  be 
maintained  permanently  by  the  combined  eflforts  of  editors,  authors, 
and  artists. 

A  Synonymic  Catalogue  of  Homopiera. — Part  I.  Cicadidce.  By 
W.  L.  Distant.  Loudon  :  Printed  by  Order  of  the  Trustees  of 
the  British  Museum,  1906.     8vo.     Pp.  207. 

This  is  one  of  the  familiar  brown-covered  Catalogues  that  have  been 
so  useful  to  entomologists  since  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum 
decided  to  adopt  that  form,  instead  of  the  long  series  of  publications 

156  Miscellaneous. 

in  a  smaller  size  with  blue  paper  covers  which  preceded  them. 
The  present  Catalogue  is  devoted  to  the  very  interesting  family  of 
the  Cicadidae,  which  includes  the  largest  species  of  the  suborder 
Homoptera,  but  which  is  entirely  unrepresented  in  the  British 
Islands,  except  by  a  single  rare  and  local  species,  found  chiefly  in 
the  New  Forest. 

The  loud  stridulation  of  many  of  the  foreign  species  is  a  great 
feature  of  forest  life  abroad ;  and  even  in  Greece  the  Cicada's 
"song"  has  been  famous  from  classical  times  onwards. 

Mr.  Distant  has  long  been  one  of  the  leading  authorities  on  this 
family,  having  published  a  '  Monograph  of  Oriental  Cicadida3  '  as 
long  ago  as  1889,  and  having  also  included  it  in  the  third  volume  on 
Ilhynchota  in  the  '  Pauna  of  British  India,'  published  during  the 
present  year. 

The  Catalogue  before  us  extends  to  188  pages,  exclu-ive  of  Index, 
which  fills  19  pages  in  triple  columns.  The  number  of  genera 
admitted  is  179,  and,  besides  the  full  synonymy,  useful  tables  are 
given  of  the  genera  in  each  division. 

The  enormous  increase  in  entomological  literature  renders  the 
frequeut  publication  of  monographs  and  catalogues  (which  are  as 
grammars  and  dictionaries)  indispensable  to  working  entomologists  ; 
and  we  cannot  have  too  many  of  them,  provided  they  are  written  bv 
men  well  up  in  their  subject  and  are  fairly  complete  and  up  to  date. 

Opinions  on  details  differ ;  but  there  are  three  particulars  in 
which  we  think  Mr.  Distant's  book  might  have  been  improved. 
First,  we  think  that  the  species  under  each  genus  should  have  been 
numbered  as  well  as  the  genera.  Secondly,  the  species  contained  in 
the  Xatural  History  Museum  should  have  been  marked,  and  all 
names  the  types  of  which  are  included  in  the  series  should  have 
been  specially  indicated.  Thirdly,  we  find  a  list  of  undetermined 
species  al  the  end  of  the  book  ;  but  we  should  have  preferred  to  see 
all  these,  except  those  absolutelj'  unrecognizably  described  without 
figures,  assigned  to  their  probable  places,  if  necessary  with  a  querv. 
In  the  case  of  Walker's  species  not  in  the  Museum,  the  tvpes 
perhaps  still  exist  in  other  British  collections. 

"We  do  not  make  these  remarks  as  ciiticisms,  but  as  suggestions, 
and  have  no  hesitation  in  recommending  Mr.  Distant's  work  as 
absolutely  indispensable  to  all  students  of  the  CicadidtTe. 

W.  F.  K. 


Locusts  in  Hungary. 

It  is  stated  in  a  morning  paper  to-day  that  locusts  are  committing 
ravages  in  some  parts  of  Hungary.  I  should  be  much  obliged  to 
some  Hungarian  entomologist  if  he  would  kindly  send  me  specimens 
for  identification.  W.  F.  Kirby. 

Natural  History  Museum, 

S.  Kensington,  London, 

July  -27,  liMJU. 




[seve:^th  series.] 

No.  105.  SEPTEMBER  1906. 

XX.Y.~Naf.Kral  Historn  Notes  from  III. M.S.  'Investigator.' 
— Series  III.,  No.  10.  On  Mollusca  from  the  Ban  of  Bengal 
and  the  Arabian  Sea.     By  Edsar  A.  Smith,  I.S.O. 

Tex  communications  to  these  '  Annals  *  upon  the  Mollusca 
obtained  by  the  '  luvestijrator  ^  have  already  appeared — two 
by  the  late  Professor  Wood-Mason  and  Professor  Alcock 
(1891,  vol.  vii.  pp.  15-19,  and  vol.  viii.  pp.  413-118),  and 
eight  by  the  present  writer  (1891,  vol.  xiv.  pp.  157-174; 
/.  c.  pp.  366-3G8  ;  1895,  vol.  xvi.  pp.  1-19  ;  /.  c.  pp.  262-265  ; 
1896,  vol.  xviii.  pp.  367-875 ;  1899,  vol.  iv.  pp.  237-.251  ; 
1904,  vol.  xiii.  pp.  453-473  ;  vol.  xiv.  pp.  1-14).  The  new 
and  more  interestinoj  species  have  been  figured  in  the  above 
papers  or  in  the  "  Illustrations  of  the  Zoology  or  the  Investi- 
gator,^" edited  by  Prof.  Alcock.  The  species  still  unfigured 
and  those  described  in  the  following  pages  will  eventually  be 
illustrated  in  the  latter  work. 

Of  the  numerous  species  now  described  the  most  inter- 
esting, perhaps,  is  the  Morio  Alcocki,  which  may  be  regarded 
as  an  Indian-Ocean  representative  of  the  Mediterranean  and 
North-Atlantic  M.  rxtgosa.  The  occurrence  of  Oocorys 
sulcata,  another  Atlantic  form,  off  Ceylon,  is  also  extremely 
interesting.  Other  fine  shells  are  Bathi/bembix  Nevil/i,  Gaza 
Frederici,  Dentalium  cornu-bovis,  and  Nucula  [Aci/a)  granu- 
lata.  What  is  especially  noticeable  in  all  these  collections 
is  the  absence  of  many  new  generic  types — indeed,  up  to  the 
Ann.  &  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  12 


Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  Moll usca  from  the 

present  only  two  have  been  fliscoverefl,  namely,  Pontio- 
thauma^,  described  in  1895,  and  Manaria,  in  the  present 

List  of  Stations. 






Longitude  , 








O    1        ,1 

7  17  30 

76  54  do 


2°6  22  m 

5*6  lb  m 


13  17  00 

93  7  00 


26  20  30 

54  16  00 


14  31  15 

73  10  00 


25  11  30 

57  15  00 


11  14  30 

74  57  15 


23  43  00 

58  51  30 


8  37  00 

75  37  30 


24  37  30 

62  2  30 


7  0  00 

76  36  15 


13  29  30 

95  29  00 


7  58  00 

79  23  00 


5  43  30 

80  05  30 


8  23  00 

76  28  00 


7  04  00 

79  32  00 


10  08  43 

75  33  30 


7  28  00 

79  19  30 


8  28  15 

76  07  00 


6  4  8| 

80  22  00 


8  10  00 

76  26  00 


11  26  30 

92  53  45 


8  56  00 

81  09  00 


16  25  00 

93  43i 


9  32  00 

80  59  30 


18  0  15 

93  30  45 


7  02  30 

79  36  00 


18  18  00 

93  25  00  1 


7  36  00 

78  05  00 


17  7  30 

94  5  30  i 


8  09  00 

76  30  00 


14  46  00 

95  52  00 


13  19  00 

74  26  00 


14  50  00 

96  0  00 


12  47  00 

73  44  45 


11  46  30 

93  16  00 


8  27  00 

75  35  00 


10  21  00 

92  64^ 


7  11  00 

76  35  30 


6  31  GO 

79  38J 


5  48  15 

80  56  00 


7  37^ 

76  41  00 


6  52  00 

81  11  00 


9  43  00 

75  35  00 


11  29  45 

80  02  30 


23  44  30 

58  52  15 


11  15  15 

80  07  00 


23  47  00 

58  30  30 


10  08  00 

80  49  30 


23  46  15 

68  31  50 


8  53  15 

81  20  30 


26  20  30 

64  52  30 


23  56  45 

68  34  00 


26  37  30 

53  03  30 

Conus  planiliratus,  Sowerby. 

Conus planiliratus,  Sowerby;  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1894, 
vol.  xiv.  p.  159,  pi.  iii.  fig.  2 ;  1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  4o4. 

Hah.  Persian  Gulf,  27  fath.  (' Investij^jator')  ;  Persian 
Gnlf,  Shaikh  Shuaib  Island,  7  fath.;  and  125  miles  W.S.W. 
of  Bombay,  45  fath. 

Conus  Siebofd'a,  Reeve. 

Cu7ius  SiehohUi,  Reeve  ;  Smith,  Ann.  ^t  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1904,  vol.  xiii. 
p.  456. 

*  The  anatomy  of  this  genus  has  been  described  by  S.  Pace,  Journ. 
Linn.  Soc,  Zool.  vol.  xxviii.  pp.  45o-4(i2,  pi.  xiii. 

Pxiij  of  Bengnl  and  the  Arahian  Sea.  IT)!) 

Hah.  Station  2f)0,  W.  of  Ca|)0  (.'omoriii,  487  tath.,  green 
mud  and  sand  ;   Slation  3.'}8,  (jiill"  oi"  Manar,  401  lath. 

The  specimens  i'rom  Station  260  are  Tnnch  larger  than  any 
examples  uhich  I  have  seen  from  Japan,  the  original  locality 
of  this  species.     The  largest  is  80  mm.  long  and  37  broad. 

Like  the  specimens  mentioned  at  the  above  rcFerence  all 
tliose  in  the  present  scries  have  the  top  of  the  spire  eroded. 
The  operculum  is  narrow,  17  mm.  in  length,  and  has  the 
right  margin  serrated. 

Pontiothauma?  ahyss'icola,  Smith. 

Pontiothaiima  ahi/ssicola,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Xat.  Hist.  189-^,  vol.  .\vi" 
p.  2,  pi.  i.  fifr.  ^ ;  Illiist.  Zool.  '  Investigator,'  MoUusca,  pi.  v 
tigs.  2,  2  a  (onlarged j  ;  Pace,  Journ.  Linn.  Soc,  Zool.  vol.  x.vviii* 
p.  459,  pi.  xlii.  figs.  10-14  (anatomy), 

Hab.  Station  268,  S.E.  of  Cape  Comorin,  556-595  fath., 
green  mud  and  sand. 

According  to  Mr,  Pace  this  species  should  be  removed 
from  Puntiothuuma.  although  in  many  respects  it  closely 
agrees  with  that  genus. 

Pontiothauma  minus,  sp.  n. 

Testa  ovato-fusiformis,  alba;  aufractus  8?,  superiores  detriti,  cseteri 
supra  coneavi,  infra  convexiustuli  et  costati,  costis  subangulatis, 
spiraliter  tenuiter  lirati  lineisque  incrementi  tenuibus  striati, 
ultimus  costis  infra  medium  evanidis,  antice  contractus  ;  apertura 
alba,  longit.  totius  j  jequans  ;  labrum  tenue,  supra  vix  sinuatum  ; 
columella  Igevis,  callo  albo  circumscripto  induta  ;  canalis  anterior 
latus,  brevis,  subrecurvus. 

Longit.  30  mm.,  diam.  14  ;  apertura  cum  canali  15  longa,  5  lata. 

Hab.  Station  318,  off  W.  of  Ceylon,  1085  fath. 

Another  specimen,  in  worn  condition,  is  rather  larger  than 
the  type,  being  39  mm.  in  length.  The  costse  in  this  species 
are  about  eighteen  in  number,  somewhat  acute,  and  do  not 
reach  to  the  suture  above,  but  terminate  at  the  depression  at 
the  upper  part  of  the  whorls.  The  transverse  lira  are  fine, 
contiguous,  and  continuous  over  and  between  the  costse. 
Animal  without  eyes  or  operculum,  and  the  foot  is  much 
flattened  behind. 

Pontiothauma  Pacei,  sp.  n. 

Testa  late  fusiformis,  alba  ;  anfractus  10  ?,  superiores  detriti,  caeteri 
supra  concave  declives,  in  medio  leviter  angulati,  oblique  cosfati, 
spiraliter  tenuiter  lirati  lineisque  incrementi  flexuosis  sculpti, 
ultimus  paulo  inflatus,  antice  angustatus ;  apertura  cum  canali 


IGO  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  Mollusca  from  the 

longit.  tolius  h  adaequans,  intus  I'usccsccns  ;  labrura  tenue,  supra 
late  scd  baud  profunde  sinuatum,  ad  medium  arouatim  prominens  ; 
columella  laivis,  eallo  tenui   pallide  corneo  circumscripto  induta  ; 
canalis  brevis,  latus,  obliquus,  subrecurvus. 
Longit.  GO  mm.,  diam.  27  ;  apertura  cum  canali  29  longa,  13  lata. 

Hab.  Station  249,  S.W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  1022  fath., 
green  mud  and  Globigerina  ooze;  also  Station  318,  off  W.  of 
Ceylon,  1085  fatli. 

This  species  differs  from  P.  mirahUe,  Smith,  in  having  the 
whorls  angulated  in  the  middle,  in  the  finer  spiral  lirae,  more 
slender  costse,  &c.  The  ribs  are  nineteen  in  number  upon 
the  body-whorl  and  only  slightly  developed  in  the  concavity 
or  upper  part  of  the  whorls. 

A  specimen  from  Staticm  318  has  only  sixteen  costse  and 
the  aperture  is  Avhite  within. 

Animal  apparently  without  eyes  or  operculum. 

Named  after  Mr.  S.  Pace,  mIio  kindly  reported  upon  the 
soft  parts  of  the  genus  Pont'iothainna  (Journ.  Linn.  Soc, 
Zool.  1903,  vol.  xxviii.  pp.  455-462,  pi.  xlii.). 

Clavatula  navarchus  (Melvill  and  Standeu). 

Pleiirotoyna  {Gemmula)  navarchus,  Melvill  and  Standen,  Ann.  &  Mag. 
Nat.  Hist.  1903,  vol.  xii.  p.  310,  pi.  xxi.  fig.  15. 

Hah.  Station  258,  West  of  Travancore,  102  fath.,  sand 
('Investigator')  ;  Per>ian  Gulf,  140  fath.  [M.  ^-  S.). 

Several  specimens  rather  smaller  than  the  type,  now  in 
the  British  Museum,  but  otherwise  the  same.  The  operculum 
is  rather  thick,  semioval,  having  one  side  straight  and  the 
outer  margin  curved.  The  nucleus  is  at  the  middle  of  the 
straight  edge,  the  outer  surface  being  finely  concentrically 
striated  and  the  underside  with  a  raised  edge,  with  some 
concentric  wrinkles  in  the  middle.  In  general  form  the 
shell  bears  a  resemblance  to  C.  bii)uirginata,  Lamarck,  and 
C.  diadema,  Kiener. 

Pleurotoma  carinata,  Gray. 

F'lcnirotoma  carinata,  Gray;  Smith,  Aim.  i^'  Mag.    Nat.    Hist.    1896, 
vol.  xviii.  p.  3(J8. 

Hab.  Stations  328,   329,  S.   of  Lower  Burmah,  Gl  and 
46  fath. 

Pleurotoma  congener,  Smith. 

^ler,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  I 
figs.  4,  5. 

Hab.  Station   258,   W.   of  Travancoi-e,    102   fath,   sand; 

rUiirotojna  co72(jener,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  xiv. 
•  p.  160,  pi.  iii.  figs.  4,  5. 

7>V/y  of  Bengal  and  the  Arabuin  Sea.  161 

Station  2u9,  W.  of  Malal)ar  coast,  295-300  fatli.,  green  nnid 
and  sand  ;  Station  341,  Gnlt'  of  Oman,  230  fatli. 

These  specimens  have  the  peculiar  nodule  or  swelling  on 
the  upper  i)art  of  the  columella  referred  to  in  tlic  case  of  the 
Ceylon  examples.     Operculum  nornuilj  unguiculate. 

Pleurotoma  vuyatu,  Smith. 

rieiirotmna  vagata,  Smith,  Ann.  &   Mag.  Nat.   Hist.   1895,  vol.  xvi, 
p.  3,  pi.  i.  fig.  3;  1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  450. 

Hub.  Station  259,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  295-3G0  fath., 
green  mud  and  sand;  also  Station  337,  oft"  Malabar  coast, 
271  fath. 

Pleurotoma  optata,  Smith. 

I'leuroioma  optata.  Smith,  Ami.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1899,  vol.  iv.  p.  238  ; 
1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  45(3 j  llliist.  Zool.  'Investigator,'  pi.  ix.  tigs.  1,  1  a. 

Hah.  Same  as  preceding  species,  and  Station  332,  off  S.  of 
Andaman  Islands,  279  fath. 

Pleurotoma  prcesiynis,  Smitli. 

Pleurotvma  prcesignis,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1895,  vol.  xvi. 
p.  4,  pi.  i.  tig.  4. 

Hab.   Station  281,  off  Coromandcl  coast,  300  fath. 
One  specimen  agreeing  exactly  with  the  type  from  deep 
water  off'  Ceylon, 

Pleurotoma  (Surcida)  Nereis,  sp,  n. 

Testa  fusiformis,  alba,  epidermide  tenui  grisea  induta  ;  anfractus  9  ?, 
superiores  detriti,  reliqui  supra  declives,  in  medio  angulati,  infra 
augulum  constricti,  rectiusculi,  leviter  plicati,  spiraliter  tenuiter 
lirati,  plicis  inferne  attenuatis,  vix  ad  suturara  producti,  ultimiis 
antice  augustatus,  uudique  transversim  liratus  ;  apertura  elongata, 
antice  aiigustata,  producta,  canaliculata  ;  labrum  tenue,  supra 
prope  suturam  miuime  profunde  siuuatum  ;  columella  rectiuscula, 
leviter  siuuosa. 

Longit.  35  mm.,  diam.  13| ;  apertura  cum  canali  18  longa,  6  lata, 

Hab.  -Station  331,  off  Andaman  Islands,  569  fath, 
A  single  speciuieu  only.  The  longitudinal  costce  are  very 
fine,  oblicpxely  arcuate  above  the  angle,  subnodose  at  the 
angulation,  and  atteuuated  below,  so  that  they  hp.rdly  reach 
to  the  suture.  The  labral  sinus  is  very  shallow  indeed  and 
the  shell  has  a  general  Belseform  aspect. 

162  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  Mollusca  from  the 

Pleurotoma  [Surcula)  sub  corpulent  a,  Smith. 

Pleurotoma  (Surcula)  suhcorpulcnta,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.   Nat.  Hist. 
1894,  vol.  xiv.  p.  161,  pi.  iii.  tig.  6. 

Hab.  Station  321,  off  S.  of  Ceyhin,  660  fath. 

Two  half-grown  specimens,  differing  from  the  type  in 
having  the  costte  more  unmerous  and  in  their  rather  more 
slender  form. 

Pleurotoma  (Surcula)  vepallida,  Martens. 

Leucosyrinx  vepallida,  Martens,  Deutsch.  Tiefsee-Exped.   '  Valdivia,' 
vol.  vii.  p.  80,  pi.  ii.  fig.  6. 

Huh.  Station  281,  off  Coromandel  coast,  300  fath. ;  Gulf 
of  Aden,  in  very  deep  water  [Martens). 

One  specimen,  agreeing  in  all  respects  with  the  type. 
Said  to  have  no  operculum. 

Pleurotoma  (Surcula)  Thisbe,  sp.  n. 

Testa  fusiformis,  turrita,  sordide  albida  ;  anfractus  10?,  superiores 
erosi,  cseteri  supra  concavi,  in  medio  convexiusculi,  oblique  tenuiter 
plicati,  plicis  vel  costis  inferne  atteauatis  ad  suturam  vix  pro- 
ductis,  lineis  iucreinenli  teuuissimis  sinuosis  sculpti,  infra  eon- 
cavitatem,  supra  et  infra  costas,  transversim  tenuiter  striati, 
ultimus  antice  valde  contractus,  transversim  striatus  ;  apertura 
elongata,  antice  canaliculata  ;  labrum  teuue,  ad  suturam  late  et 
subprofunde  sinuatum,  in  medio  arcuatim  prominens  ;  columella 
curvata,  callo  tenui  lajvi  circumscripto  induta. 

Lougit.  44  mm.,  diam.  14  ;  apertura  cum  canali  IS  longa,  in  medio 
6  lata. 

Hab.  Station  283,  off  E.  of  Ceylon,  1086  fath. 

The  chief  characteristics  of  this  species,  represented  by  a 
unique  specimen,  are  the  smooth  concavity  at  the  upper  part 
of  the  whorls,  exhibiting  only  very  delicate  lines  of  growth 
and  faint  traces  of  spiral  stride,  the  numerous  slender  oblique 
costse  upon  the  lower  two  thirds  of  each  whorl,  and  the 
distinct  close  wavy  stria;  on  and  between  the  ribs.  These 
are  nineteen  in  number  upon  the  penultimate  volution, 
thickest  at  their  upper  ends,  obliquely  curved,  attenuated 
below,  and  only  just  reach  to  the  suture.  The  body-whorl, 
excepting  in  the  concavity  above,  is  delicately  wavy  striated 

Pleurotoma  (Surcula)  ogalma,  sp.  n. 

Testa  parva,  fusiformis,  turrita.  alba,  epidermide  tenui  grisea  induta  : 
anfractus  11  ?,  superiores  erosi,  ca?teri  lonte  accrescentes,  supra  ad 

Bay  of  Bengal  and  the  Arabian  Sea.  163 

suturam  carina  tuberciilata  cincti,  in  medio  angulati,  serie  nodu- 
lorum  ornati,  Hris  tenuibus  spiralibus  paucis  lineisque  incrementi 
floxuusis  sculjjti,  liris  inl'ra  aiiguliiin  minute  nodulosis,  anCr. 
ultimus  infra  poriijlierium  liris  transversis  14—15,  partim  nodu- 
losis,  cinctus  ;  aportura  parva  ;  labrura  tenue,  supra  angulum 
baud  profuiide  sinuatum,  infra  arcuatira  prominens;  coluuiella 
subrt'cta,  caUo  tenui  induta  ;  canalis  brovis. 
Longit.  18  mm.,  diam.  6  ;  apertura  cum  canali  6  longa,  2|  lata. 

Hab.  Station  2G9,  W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  464  fath.,  green 
mnd  and  sand. 

Only  a  single  example  obtained.  Tlie  lines  of  growth  are 
rather  strong  and  very  Hexuous,  and  on  passing  the  dclieate 
spiral  lirae,  except  in  the  coneavity  above  the  angle  of  the 
whorls  and  at  the  base  of  the  body-whorl,  are  delicately 
nodulous.  The  last  volution  below  the  nodose  periphery  has 
about  fifteen  lirre,  of  which  about  six  of  the  upper  ones  are 
nodulous,  the  rest,  around  the  anterior  contracted  portion, 
being  simple  and  thread-like.  The  tubercles  on  the  angle 
are  about  eighteen  in  number,  and  the  lirae  above  it  three  or 

Pleurotoma  {Surculd)  exstructa,  Martens. 

Surcula  exstructa, 'Ma.Ttena,  Deutsch.  Tiefsee-Exped. '  Valdivia,'  vol.  vii. 
p.  81,  pi.  i.  fig.  4. 

Hab.  Station  280,  off  Cororaandel  coast,  446  fath. ;  also 
Station  331,  off  Andaman  Islands,  569  fath.;  off  the 
Nicobar  Islands  (Martens). 

Pleurotoma  [Surcula)  arcana,  Smith. 

Pleurotoma  {Sureula)  arcana,  Soiith,  Ann.  «&  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1899, 
vol.  iv.  p.  239 ;  1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  458  ;  Illust.  Zool.  '  Investigator,* 
pi.  ix.  tigs.  6,  6  a. 

Hab.  Station  276,  W.  of  Ceylon,  1006  fath. ;  also  Station 
310,  N.E.  of  Andaman  Islands,  960  fath. 

Only  two  specimens,  with  the  apical  whorls  eroded. 

Pleurotoma  [Ancistrosyrinx)  travancorica,  Smith. 

Pleurotoma  {Ancistrosyrinx)  travancorica,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat. 
Hist.  1896,  vol.  xvi'ii.  p.  368;  1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  459;  Illust.  Zool. 
'  Investigator,'  Mollnsea,  pi.  vii.  figs.  1,  1  a. 

Hab.  Station  259,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  295-360  fath., 
green  mud  and  sand. 

1G4  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  07i  Mollusca  from  the 

Pleurotoma  {Bathytoma)  Oldhami,  Smith. 

Pleurotoma  (Bathytoma)  Oldhami,  Smith,  Ann.  <fe  Ma<?.  Nat.  Hist. 
1899,  vol.  iv.  p  "238;  1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  459;  Illiist.  Zool.  'Investi- 
gator/ Moll.  pi.  ix.  fijs.  2,2  a. 

Hah.  Station  259,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  295-360  fath., 
green  mud  and  sand. 

One  dead  specimen.  Tliis  species  is  placed  by  Martens  in 
Doiidiotuma  as  a  subgenus  of  Genota. 

Pleurotoma  {Bathytoma)  urania^  sp.  n. 

Testa  ovato-f lis! formis,  alba;  anfractus  10?,  relitjui  septem  supra 
conciivi,  infra  ad  suturain  tuberculato-carinati,  transversim 
undique  tenuiter  lirati,  lineis  increment!  tenuibus  flexuosis  striati, 
ultirnus  infra  angulum  convexiusculus,  antice  contractus ;  aper- 
tura  elongata,  supra  acuminata,  antice  canaliculata,  alba,  laevis  ; 
columella  in  medio  arcuato,  callo  albo  Levi  tonui  induta  ;  canalis 
brevis,  subobliquus  et  levitcr  recurvus;  labrum  tenue,  supra 
ruinimo  profunde  siuuatum. 

Longit.  23  mm.,  diam.  11  ;  apertura  cum  canali  13  longa,  4  lata. 

Hab.  Station  280,  off  Coromandel  coast,  44-6  fath. ;  also 
Station  332,  ofiP  S.  of  Andaman  Islands,  279  fath. 

The  tubercles  just  above  the  suture  are  crossed  by  two  or 
three  sulci,  so  that  each  of  them  is  tripartite  or  quadripartite. 
In  some  of  the  upper  whorls  the  upper  margin  just  beneath 
the  suture  is  also  more  or  less  nodose. 

Drill/a  mindanensis ,  Smith. 

Drillia  mindanensis,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1877,  vol.  xix. 
p.  493. 

Hab.  Persian  Gulf,  35  fath. 

A  single  specimen,  agreeing  in  all  respects  with  the  type 
from  the  Philippine  Islands  excepting  that  the  spire  is  a 
little  shorter. 

Tritonidea  ugalma,  sp.  n. 

Testa  fusiforrai-ovata,  albida,  epidermide  fuscescente  pilosa  induta  ; 
anfractus  8,  convexi,  snperiores  longitudinaliter  costati  (costis  in 
anfr.  ponultimo  et  ultimo  scnsim  evanidis),  spiraliter  tenuiter 
lirati,  lineis  incrcmenti  conspicue  striati  ;  apertura  alba,  longit. 
totiiis  A  vix  a^quans ;  labrum  extra  varice  incrassatum,  intus 
tcnniter  liratum ;  columella  arcuata,  callo  teuui  iuduta,  antice 

Longit.  24  mm.,  diam.  11  :  apertura  12  longa,  5  lata. 

Hab.  Station  258,  AV.  of  Travancore,  102  fath.,  sand. 

Bay  of  Bengal  and  the  Arnhian  Sea.  1(15 

The  epidermis  is  thiek,  longitudinally  striated,  and  more 
or  less  liaiiy  n[)()n  the  spiral  line.  The  ribs  upon  the  upper 
whorls  are  ten  or  twelve  in  number,  thiek  and  rounded,  and 
crossed  i)y  the  spiral  threads. 

Metula  andamanica,  sp.  n. 

Testa  ang:usta,  elongata,  albida,  zonia  interruptis  fuscis  (in  anfr. 
penultiino  dua1)us,  ia  ultimo  quatuor)  picta,  costiilis  numerosis 
longitudinalibus  exilibus  et  liris  transversis  tenuibus  decussata, 
varicibus  paucis  hie  illic  instructa  ;  anfractus  9,  primus  lajvis, 
convexus,  secundus  in  medio  transversim  carinatus,  tertius  lievis, 
bicarinatus,  ca^teri  convcxiusculi,  infra  suturam  marginati, 
idtinuis  pone  desccndcns,  sod  ad  labrum  brcviter  ascendeiis ; 
apertura  elongata,  utriiujue  angustata  ;  labrum  extra  incrassatum, 
intus  ad  margincm  toiiuiter  crcnulatum ;  columella  levitcr 
arcuata,  callo  tenui  circuniscripto  induta. 

Longit.  26  mm.,  diam.  !J ;  apertura  13  longa,  3  lata. 

Hub.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath. 

In  some  respects  resemblinji;  Meiiila  ddphnelloldes,  Melvill 
and  Standen,  from  the  Gulf  of  Oman,  but  larger  and  more 
finely  sculptured.  That  species  also  exhibits  variciforra 
swellings  at  intervals,  although  they  are  not  referred  to  in 
the  description. 

Phos  roseutiis,  Hinds. 

Phos  roseatus,  Hiuds  ;  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1904,  vol.  xiii. 
p.  4G3. 

Hub.  Station  291,  Gulf  of  Oman,  49  fath. 

Two  specimens  having  the  spire  rather  produced  and  the 
spiral  lirse  finer  than  usnal.  Also  recorded  from  the  Gulf  of 
Oman  by  Melvill  and  Standen  (Proe,  Zool.  Soe.  1901, 
vol.  ii.  p.  417). 

Phos  [Strongijlocera)  textum,  Gmelin. 

Plios  textum,  Gmeliu  ;  Tryon,  Man.  Couch,  vol.  iii.  p.  217,  pi.  Ixxxiii. 
figs.  498,  o03,  504  (bad). 

Hab.  Andaman  Islands,  60  fath. ;  Andaman  Islands 
(Smith),  Proe.  Zool.  Soc.  1878,  p.  811. 

Nassa  subsimilis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  parva,  ovata,  supra  acuminata,  albo-fuscescens,  zonis  duabus 
indistinctis  dilute  rutis  supra  aut'ractum  idtimum  ornata,  cancel- 
lata;  anfractus  9,  superiores  la^ves,  in  medio  angulati  et  carinati, 
cseteri  convexiusculi,  turriti,  costis  longitudinalibus  numerosis  et 

ICO  Mr.  E.  A.  Sinitli  on  Mollusca  from  the 

liris  spiralibus  (in  aiifr.  penultimo  G,  in  ultimo  circiter  20)  can- 
ccllati,nodulis  subquadratis,  sutura  profunda  canaliculata  sejuncti; 
apertura  acuminate  ovata,  albo-fuscescens ;  labrum  ad  marginem 
denticulatum,  extra  incrassatum,  intus  liris  brevis  circiter  12 
instruotum ;  columella  valde  arcuata,  callo  tuberculato  circum- 
scripto  induta  ;  canalis  anticus  brevis,  obliquus. 
Longit.  174  mm.,  diam.  7|  ;  apertura  cum  labro  7g  longa,  4  lata. 

Hnb.  Station  244,  off  west  coa>t  of  India,  119-124  fath. 

Somewhat  recalling  N.  eucumista,  Melvill  and  Sykcs,  from 
the  Andaman  Islands  (Proc.  Malac.  Soc.  vol.  ii.  p.  169, 
pi.  xiii.  fig.  11),  but  with  a  longer  spire,  shorter  body-whorl, 
with  the  granules  closer  and  squarer,  and  the  margin  of  the 
labrum  more  denticulate.  N.  ravicla,  A.  Adams,  is  another 
allied  form,  but  much  more  globose.  As  in  many  other 
species  of  Nassa,  the  upper  row  of  nodules  below  the  suture 
are  slightly  larger  than  the  rest. 

Nassaria  lavior,  Smith. 

Nassaria  Imvior,  Smith,  Ana.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1899,  vol.  iv.  p.  242  ; 
1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  464  ;  Illust.  Zool.  '  Investigator,'  pi.  x.  tigs.  6,  6  a. 

Hah.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath. 

Nassaria  coromandelica,  Smith. 

Nassaria  coromandelica,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  xiv. 
p.  103,  pi.  iv.  tig.  3. 

Hab.  Station  276,  W.  of  Ceylon,  1006  fath. ;  Station  258, 
W.  of  Travaucore,  102  fath.,  sand;  N.W.  of  Calicut, 
100  fath. 

In  some  of  these  specimens  the  longitudinal  costfe  are 
less  numerous  than  in  the  type  figured,  and  a  few  of  them 
are  larger  than  the  rest  and  varicifoim. 

Nassaria  nodicostata  (A.  Adams). 

Nassaria  nodicostata  (A.  Adams),  Smith,  Ann.  .'t  Mag.  Nat.  IJist.  1904, 
vol.  xiii.  p.  4(J3. 

Hah.  Off  Port  Blair,  100  fath. ;  Andamaus,  60  fath. 

Fusus  rohroUaeatus,  Sowerby. 

Fusus  rubrohneatus,  Sowerby,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1870,  p.  252  ;  Thesaur. 
Conch,  vol.  iv.  p.  80,  pi.  ccccxi.  fig.  68. 

Hah.  Station  337,  off  Malabar  coast,  271  fath. ;  also 
'f  Indian  Seas,"  1055  fath.  ('Investigator');  Agulhas  liank 
(Soiverbi/  ^-  Marions). 

luiy  of  Bengal  and  the  Arahiaa  Sea.  1G7 

The  figure  of  this  species  in  tlie  '  Thesaurus '  is  very  bad, 
tlie  eostie  being  represented  too  broad  aud  too  few  in 
number.  I  luive  a  very  strong  impression  that  F.  rvjinotlis, 
JNlartens*,  is  only  a  variety  of  tiiis  speeies. 

Fusns  incertus,  sp.  n. 

Testa  fusiformis,  alba;  anfractus  8?,  superiores  detriti,  cajteri 
convexi,  costati,  costis  in  aiifractu  penidtimo  circiter  13,  liris 
tibformibus  confertis  unduiue  spiraHtor  cincti  Hueisque  incre- 
irienti  slriati,  ultimas  infra  medium  contractus,  costis  antice 
evanidis ;  apertura  inverse  piriformis,  cum  canali  longit.  totius 
■^  ajquans  ;  columella  tortuosa,  callo  loivi  induta;  canalis  angus- 
tus,  obliquus,  recurvus. 

Longit.  51  mm.,  diam.  22 ;  apertura  cum  canali  25  longa,  9  lata. 

Hab.  Station  317,  off  W.  of  Ceylon,  590  fath. 

A  single  specimen  in  dead  condition.  It  somewhat  recalls 
the  British  Trltonofusus  (Siphonorbis)  fusiformis  (Broderip), 
except  that  the  body-whorl  is  produced  into  a  longer  rostrum 

The  spiral  thread-like  lines  are  very  fine  and  close-set,  and 
occasionally  two  or  three  form  slightly  raised  ridges.  Three 
or  four  such  ridges  are  noticeable  on  the  upper  whorls  and 
almost  form  nodules  upon  the  costse.  The  lines  of  growth 
are  close  together,  and  on  crossing  the  transverse  lirae  give 
them  a  minutely  crispate  appearance. 

Manaria,  gen.  nov. 

Testa  fusiformis,  longitudinaliter  costata,  periostraco  induta  ;  colu- 
mella in  medio  plica  uuica  iutrante  instructa;  labrumad  marginem 
tenue,  intus  iucrassatum  et  liratum.  Operculum  unguiforme, 

This  genus  has  the  general  aspect  of  a  costate  Tritonofusus, 
but  is  distinguished  by  the  fold  on  the  columella  and  the 
lirate  aperture. 

Manaria  Thurstoni,  sp.  n. 

Testa  breviter  fusiformis,  alba,  periostraco  luteo  induta,  longitu- 
dinaliter costata  et  spiralitcr  striata  ;  anfractus  9  ?,  superiores 
abrupti,  reliqui  leviter  convexi,  sensim  accrescentes,  ultimus 
costis  16-17  iufra  medium  evanidis  instructus,  antice  breviter 
rostratus  ;  apertura  elongata,  alba ;  labrum  ad  marginem  acutum, 

*  Deutscb.  Tiefsoe-Esped.  '  Valdivia,'  vol.  vii.  p.  103,  pi.  ii.  fig.  10. 

1G8  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  Mulhisca  from  ihe 

intus  incrassatnm  et  denticulatum  ;  columella  supra  arcuata,  infra 
obliqua,  in  medio  plica  unica  iiitrante  raunita,  callo  albo  indnta. 

Loiij^-it.  oo  mm.,  diam.  12"o  ;  apertura  cum  canali  14  longa,  5  lata. 

Operculum  unguiforme,  fusco-corneum. 

Hub.  Station  33:?,  Gulf  of  Manar,  401  fath. 

The  longitudinal  costfje  aie  not  very  thick  and  do  not  vary 
much  iu  stoutness,  and  tliey  are  crossed  by  the  spiral  sulci 
or  striae,  which  are  about  eight  in  number  on  the  penultimate 
Avliorl.  The  periostracum  is  rather  thick  and  longitudinally 
striated  with  the  lines  of  growth.  The  denticles  within  the 
labrum  are  six  or  seven  in  number,  and  from  them  faint 
lirse  run  inwards.  The  fold  on  the  columella  is  peculiar  and 
forms  a  prominence  at  the  middle.  It  is  somewhat  oblique, 
but  how  far  it  is  continued  up  the  columella  I  cannot  say,  as 
only  a  single  specimen  is  at  hand,  and  that  is  too  precious  to 
break  up.  Named  in  honour  of  ]\Ir.  Edgar  Thurston,  of  the 
Madras  Museum. 

Troplion  [Boreutrophon)  planispina,  sp.  n. 

Testa  fusiformis,  alba;  spira  elongata,  turrita ;  anfractus  10?, 
superiores  abrupti,  ca;tcri  supra  dec-lives,  in  medio  aiigulati,  infra 
contracti,  longitudinaliter  lamellati,  lamellis  appressis,  ad  angulura 
spinas  plauas  sursum  inclinatas  t'ormantibus  ;  anfr.  ultimus  antice 
rostratus  ;  apertura  alba  irregulariter  triangularis,  cum  cauali 
longit.  totius  ^  subtequans  ;  labrum  tcnue,  ad  angulum  canalicu- 
latura ;  columella  contorta,  supra  arcuata,  callo  teiiui  induta; 
canalis  baud  rectus,  leviter  recurvus. 

Longit.  37  mm.,  diam.  25 ;  apertura  cum  canali  IS  longa,  G  lata. 

Hab.  Station  327,  W.  of  Burmah,  419  fath. 

Very  like  T.  carduelis,  Watson  *,  from  off  Sydney  in 
410  fath.,  but  with  a  longer  spire  and  compressed  or  flattened 
spines  at  the  angle  of  the  whorls.  The  lamellre  which  form 
the  spines  are  quite  closely  appressed  to  the  shell,  whereas 
in  carduelis  they  stand  away  quite  free  from  the  general 
surface  of  the  whorls.  A  very  similar  form,  T.  actinophorus, 
Dall,  occurs  in  the  West  Indies  in  140-248  fath. 

Murex  axicornis,  Lamarck,  var. 

Murex  axicornis,  Lam. ;  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  190-1,  vol.  \iii. 
p.  462. 

Hab.  Andaman  Is.,  53  fath. 

*  '  Clinllonger '  Gasteropoda,  p.  107,  pi.  x.  lig.  7. 

Day  of  Jiengul  and  tlie  Arctlnan  Sea.  101) 

Alurcx  rectirostris,  Sowerby,  var. 

Mnrc.i- )•('<■/ irosfr is,  Sowerb}',   Proc.  Zool.   Soc.    1840,  p.  138;   Reeve, 

Conch.  Icon.  vol.  iii.  iig.  91. 
Mure.v  I'ectirostnim,  Sowerby,  Conch.  lUust.  sp,  11,  fig.  111. 

Hah.  Station  328,  S.  of  Lower  IJurmah,  Gl  fatli. 

The  spccinieus  from  tliis  locality  (lilfcr  from  the  type  only 
in  having  tlic  transverse  lirte  red.  The  speeimens  in  tlie 
Cuming  collection  appear  to  have  been  over-cleaned  with 
acid,  and  consequently  this  red  lineation,  of  which,  however, 
I  can  still  find  traces,  may  have  been  destroyed.  The  locality 
given  by  llccve,  ''  West  Colonil)ia,''  I  regard  as  a  mistake, 
for  Mr.  (r.  H.  Sowcrljy  informs  me  that  he  knows  it  for 
a  certainty  as  a  Hong  Kong  species. 

Bursa  rana,  Linn. 
Rctnella  albivdricosa,  lieeve,  Conch.  Icon.  vol.  ii.  fig-.  2. 

Huh.    Otf   Port  Blair,   Andaman   Is.,   100  fath. ;    Ceylon 


Bursa  (Biifouaria)  lampas  (Linn.). 

Hah.  Andaman  Is.,  60  fath. 

A  young,  finely  granose  example  of  this  species,  so  remark- 
able on  account  of  such  great  variation  both  in  size  and 

Gyrineum  bihihercnlare  (Lamarck). 

JRanella  hitubercularis,  Lam. ;  Suuth,  Ann.  &  Mag-.  Nat.  Hist.   1904, 
vol.  xiii.  p.  470. 

Hab.  Andaman  Is.,  60  fath. 

Gyrineum  {Biplex)  perca  (Perry) . 

lianella  {Biplex)  perca  (Pevry),  Smith,  Ann.  &  j\[ag.  Nat.  Hist.  1895, 
vol.  xvi.  p.  6  ;  1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  470. 

Hah.  Off  Port  Blair,  100  fath. 

Distortrix  cancellinus  (Roissy),  var. 

Distortrix  cancellinn-^  (Roissy),  Smith,  Ann.  ifc  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1895, 
vol.  xvi.  p.  208 ;  1904,  vol.  xiii.  p.  470. 

Hab.  Station  246,  W.  of  Calicut,  68-148  f\ith.,  sand  and 
stones  ;  Station  341,  Gulf  of  Oman,  230  fath. 

The  speeimens  from  the  above  locality  are  nearest  the 
var.  decipiens  and  are  rather  shorter  and  more  stumpy  than 
Reeves's  type. 

170  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  MoUasca  from  the 

Pirula  ficoides,  Lamarck. 

Pirula  Jicoides,  Lam. ;  Smith,  Journ.  Malac.  vol.  iii.  p.  G7. 

Hab.   Station  218,  W.  of  Travancore,  2:24-28 1  fath.,  sand. 

Mario  Alcocki,  sp.  n. 

Testa  ovato-fusiformis,  ventricosa,  tenuis,  alba,  periostraco  tenui 
olivaceo  griseo  induta,  spiraliter  tenuiter  lirata,  lineis  incre- 
menti  tenuibus  arcuatis  striata  ;  anfractus  9,  sensim  accresceutes, 
convexi,  sutura  profunda  canaliculata  sejuncti,  ultiraus  ant  ice 
contractus,  ad  aperturam  ascendens  ;  apertura  obliqua,  all)a,  sub- 
auriformis ;  labrura  vix  incrassatum,  leviter  expansum  ;  colu- 
mella in  medio  arcuata,  callo  tenui  lato  labro  juncta;  canalis 
anterior  obliquus,  recurvus. 

Longit.  99  mm.,  diam.  max.  61 ;  apertura  cum  canali  61  longa, 
27  lata. 

Operculum  corneum,  dilute  fuscescens,  elongatum,  conccntrice 
striatum,  prope  nucleum  paucispirale  ;  nucleus  baud  centralis. 
Longit.  37  mm.,  diam.  18. 

Hab,  Station  280,  off  Coromandel  coast,  446  fath. 

In  form  rather  like  the  M.  rugosa,  Linn.,  of  the  JNIediter- 
ranean  and  N.  Atlantic,  but  with  a  rather  longer  spire,  a 
broader  aperture,  finer  liration,and  a  more  deeply  channelled 
suture.  It  is  also  imperforate,  the  columellar  callus  being 
appressed  to  the  shell  throughout  its  length,  and  not  free 
and  prominent  as  in  the  species  referred  to. 

Oocorys  sulcata,  Fischer,  var.  indica. 

Oocori/s  sulcata,  Fischer,  J.  de  Conch.  1888,  p.  392 ;  Dall,  Bull.  Mus. 
Comp.  Zool.  Hanard,  vol  xviii.  p.  228;  Watson,  'Challenger' 
Gasteropoda,  p.  412,  pi.  xvii.  tig.  11 ;  Locard,  Moll.  '  Travailleur ' 
and  '  Talisman,'  p.  288,  pi.  xv.  figs.  4-6. 

Hab.  Station  278,  off  S.  of  Ceylon,  1912  fath. 

A  single  specimen,  length  42'5  mm.,  diam.  28,  differs 
from  the  '  Challenger'  Atlantic  form  in  size  and  in  possessing 
an  unclosed  umbilical  opening.  The  latter,  however*,  might 
possibly  be  concealed  if  the  columellar  callus  were  not 
broken  at  tliat  part  or  had  the  specimen  lived  a  little  longer 
and  so  completed  the  reflection  of  the  callosity.  The  spiral 
lirse  appear  to  be  rather  more  remote  from  one  another,  but 
this  results  from  the  larger  size  of  the  specimen.  Tiie 
remarkable  lines  of  growth,  causing  the  lirre  to  be  crenulatcd, 
are  of  the  same  character  in  both  specimens,  and  the  oper- 
culum is  horny  and  spiral,  as  described  and  figured  by 
Verrill  *  of  his   genus    Benihodoliuin;   which    is    evidently 

*  Trans.  Connect.  Acad.  vol.  vi.  p.  177,  pi.  xxxi.  fig.  12  n. 

Day  of  Bengal  and  the  Arahiun  Sea.  171 

synonymous  with  Oorori/s  ;  indeed,  it  seems  almost  ccrtuiix 
that  ().  sulcata,  Fischer,  O.  Fischeri,  Locard,  and  ]i.  ahys- 
soruin,  W'lrill,  are  varieties  of  one  and  the  same  species. 
The  hist-nanicd  species  is  described  both  ])y  Dall  and  \\'rrill 
as  havinj;:  an  uml)ilical  chink,  a  feature  present  in  tlic  Iiuliau 
Ocean  sliell.  It  is  essentially  a  deep-water  genus,  having 
been  recorded  bv  Verrill  from  2221  fath.,  bv  Fischer  from 
1980  fath.,  by 'Watson  from  1850  fath., 'by  Dall  from 
9.')")  fath.,  and  the  present  specimen  is  from  1912  fatli. 
Dall,  however,  has  mentioned  the  occurrence  of  O.  ahys- 
sonnn  in  169  fath.  in  the  northern  part  of  the  Gulf  of 

In  connexion  with  similar  forms  in  the  Indian  Ocean  and 
the  Atlantic,  I  might  recall  the  fact  of  the  occurrence  of 
Lucina  spinifera  (Alontagu)  *  and  Poromya  tornata  (Jeffreys) 
in  both  oceans,  and  that  Turbo  indicus,  Smith,  from  off 
Ceylon  in  597  fath.,  is  scarcely  separable  from  T.  peluritanus, 

Rostellaria  Powisii,  Petit. 

Rostellaria  Poicisit,  Petit ;  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1904,  vol.  xiii. 
p.  469. 

Hab.  Station  237,  off  Andaman  Islands,  90  fath.,  stones  ; 
and  off  Port  Blair,  100  fath. 

Mitra  {Turricula)  melongena,  Lamarck. 

Mifra  turri'cula,  Lamk.  ;  Reeve,  Concb.  Icon.  vol.   ii.   figs.  47 «,  h; 
Sowerby,  Thes.  Concb.  vol.  iv.  pi.  cccliii.  figs.  18,  19. 

Hab.  Andaman  Islands,  60  fath. ;  Molucca  and  Philip- 
pine Islands. 

The  single  specimen  agrees  with  the  figures  given  by 

Columbella  suavis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  parva,  ovato-fusiformis,  sordide  albida,  lineis  longitudinalibus 
opaco-albis,  infra  medium  anfractus  ultimi  rufis,  obscure  picta, 
nitida,  subprismatica  ;  spira  couica  ;  anfractus  7,  superiores  tres 
convesi,  cfeteri  fere  plaiii,  ultimus  ad  medium  rotunde  subangu- 
latus ;  apertura  irregulariter  ovalis  ;  labrum  ad  marginem 
acutum,  extra  varice  iustructum,  iutus  Iteve ;  columella  fere 
recta,  baud  callosa. 

Longit.  5  mm.,  diam.  2-25  ;  apertura  To  louga,  1  lata. 

Operculum  minutum,  ovatum,  nucleo  lateraH. 

*  See  A.  Alcock's  'A  Naturalist  in  Indian  Seas,'  1902,  p.  280,  fig.  77. 

172  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  07i  MoUasca  from  the 

Hah.  Off  Sacramento  Slioal,  off  tlic  Delta  o£  the  Godavari 
River,  70  fatli. 

A  small  smootli  species  with  peculiar  markings  and  a 
prismatic  surface.  Possibly  the  latter  feature  may  have 
Ijeen  produced  by  the  medium  in  which  they  have  been 
preserved.  Two  indistinct  pale  brownish  blotches  can  be 
traced  upon  the  labral  varix^  one  at  the  middle,  the  other 

Columbella  {Meta)  philippinarum,  Reeve. 

Colnmhdla   2Mippinarum,    Reeve    (1842),     Conch.    Icon.    vol.    xi. 

fi}i-.s.  207  a-c. 
Columbella  cpanudla,  Diiclos,  Chenu's  lUust.  Conch,  pi.  v.  figs.  19-20 


Hah.  Andaman  Is.,  60  fath. 

Marginella  grisea  (Jousseaume). 

Mar(jmella  grisea  (Jousseaume),  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1904, 
vol.  xiii.  p.  468. 

Hah.  Station  328,  S.  of  LoAver  Burmah,  61  fath. 

Ancilla  Alcocki,  sp.  n. 

Testa  ovato-cylindracea,  fusca,  antice  saturate  fusco  balteata,  supra 
spiram  callo  albo  induta  ;  anfractus  4—5,  ultinius  supra  medium 
linea  im])rcssa  obliqua  bisectus,  transversira  tonuiter  striatus, 
lineisque  incrementi  exilissimis  sculptus  ;  spira  obtusa,  ad  apioem 
mucronata  ;  apertura  elougata,  aiigusta,  albida  ;  columella 
euperne  callo  crasso  supra  producto  amicta,  antice  alba,  oblique 
sulcata  ;  labrum  leviter  incrassatum,  ad  marginem  fuscum,  supra 
late  sed  baud  profuude  sinuatum. 

Longit.  38  mm.,  diam.  16. 

Operculum  magnum,  nigro-fuscum,  clongatum,  apice  terminali,  costa 
rotundata  marginem  versus^jexternum  instructum.  Longit. 
10  mm.,  diam.  5. 

Hab.  Station  322,  Andaman  Is.,  378  fath. 

This  species  is  well  distinguished  by  its  very  remarkable 
form,  no  other  species  having  such  a  peculiar  obtuse  spire. 
The  operculum  also  is  remarkable  on  account  of  its  narrow 
form  and  the  rounded  ridges  almost  parallel  with  the  outer 
margin,  which  is  also  thickened. 

Natica  dimidiata,  sp.  n. 

Testa  globosa,  aiiguste  umbilicata,  alba,  rufo-fusco  late  fasciata, 
infra  suturam  alba,  lineis  incrementi  oblique  striata  ;  anfractus  4, 
convcxi,  ult.imus  globosus  ;  apertura  semicircularis,  supra  rnfes- 
ccns,  inlVa  alba  ;  columella  callo  crassiusculo  instructa,  in  umbilico 

liciij  of  li>ii(jal  mill  tlir  Ariilniit   Si'a.  1  Til 

porcam  mcdiocrKer  promiiioiitem  forinans.    Operculum  testaoeum' 
planum,  margine  externo  curvato  liria  duabus  instructo. 
Longit.  19-5  mm.,  diam.  19. 

Hub.   Station  333,  Gulf  of  Manar,   101  fatli. 

The  umbilical  callosity  forms  a  not  much  raised  swelling 
at  the  lower  part  of  the  opening  ;  in  N.  riifu  it  is  higher  up. 
The  flat  operculum  is  not  thick,  and  the  two  ridges  upon  the 
curved  margin  are  raised  above  the  general  surface  and  are 
separated  by  a  narrow  deep  groove.  Within  the  inner  ridge 
and  parallel  with  it  the  flat  surface  exhibits  a  few  obscure 
shallow  sulci.  Viewed  from  the  front  the  upper  part  of  the 
shell  is  brown  and  the  lower  half  white. 

Nat'ica  simuluns,  sp.  n. 

Testa  globosa,  late  umbilicata,  alba,  epidermide  tenui  olivacea 
induta,  laevis,  lincia  incremeuti  obliquis  striata  ;  anfractus  5-G, 
couvexi,  celeritor  crescentes,  ultimus  supra  subliumerosus  ;  aper- 
tura  obliqua,  semicircularis,  alba ;  columella  callo  mediocritor 
tenui  labro  juncta.     Operculum  corneum. 

Longit.  29  mm.,  diam.  27  ;  apertura  20  longa,  11  lata. 

Hab.  Stations  324  and  327,  W.  of  Burmah,  448  and  419 
fath.  ;  Station  280,  off  Coromandel  coast,  44G  fatli. 

In  form  resembling  the  British  N.  catena,  but  thinner, 
without  markings,  and  rather  more  widely  umbilicated.  The 
lines  of  growth  are  slightly  plicate  beneath  the  suture  and 
upon  the  margin  of  the  umbilicus,  and  there  are  faint  traces 
of  very  fine  transverse  striation  upon  the  body-whorl. 

In  the  specimens  from  Station  280  the  plicEe  upon  the 
margin  of  the  umbilicus  are  conspicuously  strong,  but  in 
other  respects  agree  with  the  larger  shell  described  from 
Station  327.  They  are  only  21  mm.  in  diameter,  but  may 
not  be  full-grown. 

Natica  incerta,  sp.  n. 

Testa  obliqua,  subglobosa,  late  umbilicata,  alba,  fascia  latissima 
dilute  fuscescente  circa  anfractum  ujtimum  orr:ata,  hevis,  lineis 
incrementi  obliquis  striata  ;  anfractus  5,  celeriter  accrescentes, 
leviter  convexi,  ultimus  magnus,  antice  paulo  desceudens ; 
apertura  oblique  semicircularis,  intus  pallide  purpureo-fusco  thicta ; 
columella  obliqua,  fere  rectilinearis,  vel  in  medio  leviter 
prominens,  superue  callo  crasso  reflexo  labro  juncta. 

Longit.  26  mm.,  diam.  24  ;  apertura  19  longa,  10  lata. 

Hab.  Station  248,  W.  of  Travancore,  224-284  fath.,  sand. 
A    widely  umbilicated    form,    without  any    callous    ridge 
Ann.  d:  Mag.  X.  Hist.  Ser.  7.    Vol.  xviii.  13 

174  On  Mullusca  from  the  Bay  of  Bengal  d:c. 

within  the  opening.  Besides  the  obscure  broad  zone  above 
refencd  to,  the  suture  also  is  bo-dered  beneath  with  the  same 

Natica  apertissbna,  sp.  n. 

Testa  subglobosa,  latissime  umbilicata,  tenuis,  sordide  albida,  Isevifi, 
lineis  incrementi  striata  ;  anfractus  5,  perconvexi,  sutura  profunda 
sejiincti,  nltimus  circa  umbilicum  perviura  obtuse  angulatus ; 
apertura  alba,  oblique  semicircularis ;  columella  tenuis,  callo 
tenui  reflexo  labro  juncta.     Operculum  corneura. 

Longit.  15  mm.,  diam.  15  ;  apertura  10  longa,  6  lata. 

Hab.  Station  34.3,  Gulf  of  Oman,  G09  fath. 

This  species  is  remarkable  for  its  thinness  and  the  very 
open  pervious  umbilicus.  Upon  the  upper  whorls  the  lines 
of  growth  beneath  the  suture  are  rather  strong  or  subplicate. 

Natica  inutilis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  ovato-globosa,  mediocriter  late  umbilicata,  alba,  loevis,  lineis 
incrementi  oblique  striata ;  anfractus  5,  convexi,  ultimus  antice 
oblique  descendens ;  apertura  obliqua,  semicircularis,  alba  ; 
columella  rectilinearis,  obliqua,  supra  callo  reflexo  appresso  labro 

Longit.  19  mm.,  diam.  17;  apertura  12  louga,  6  lata. 

Hab.  Station  259,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  295-360  fath., 
green  mud  and  sand. 

A  smaller  thinner  shell  than  N.  incerta,  more  ovate  in 
form,  and  ajiparentiy  without  any  colour.  The  lines  of 
growth  are  more  conspicuous  below  the  suture  than  else- 
wdiere.  Under  a  lens  the  surface  is  seen  to  be  very  finely 
spirally  striated. 

Only  a  single  specimen  obtained. 

Natica  albospira,  Smith. 

Natica  albospira,  Smith,  Ann.  &  -Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ISOo,  vol.  xvi.  p.  (1. 
pi.  i.  fig.  8. 

Hab.  Station  209,  W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  464  fath.,  green 
mud  and  sand  ;  Station  259,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  295-360 
fath.,  green  mud  and  sand  ;  Station  337,  oft'  Malabar  coast, 
271  fath. 

This  species  somewhat  resembles  the  widely  distributed 
A^.  muroccana,  but  has  a  diflerent  operculum. 

Natica  rvfa,  var. 

Natica  rufa,  var..  Sniitli,  Ann.  ^^  ^lag.  Nat.  Ilist.  1804,  p.  105.  pi.  iv. 
tigs.  14,  14  <7. 

Nulea  on  the  Genus  'J'amanlia,   IfV.r.  17.") 

Hub.  Station  218,  W.  of  Travaiicorc,  221-281.  fath.,  .sand. 

Quite  similar  to  the  s[)ecinicn.s  previously  described,  but 
rather  larger  and  with  a  wider  umljilicus.  Diatu.  27  mm., 
alt.  27. 

Natica  apora,  Watson. 

Natica  (Amaiiropsis)  apora,  Watson,  '  Challenger'  Gasteropoda,  p.  454, 
pi.  xxvii.  fig.  11. 

Hab.  Station  318,  off  W.  of  Ceylon,  1085  fatli.  {'  Investi- 
gator') ;  off  Arrou  Is.,  800  fath.  ('Challenger'). 

One  specimen  only,  a  little  larger  and  more  globose  than 
the  type,  but  otherwise  similar. 

SiUquaria  muricata,  Born. 

Serpuhi  muricata,  Born,  Test.  Mus.  Cajsar.  Vindobon.  p.  440,  pi.  xviii. 
fig.  1(1 ;  Tryou,  Man.  Moll.  vol.  viii.  pi.  Iviii.  figs.  23-25  {S.  ayiguina). 

Hab.  Andaman  Islands,  60  fath. 

Radius  volva  (Linn.). 

Hab.  Station  328,  S.  of  Lower  Bnrraah,  61  fath. 
Also  quoted  from  China,  Philippine  Islands,  Japan. 

Trifora  corrugata,  Hinds. 

Trifot'is   cornigatus,    Hinds ;   Tryon,   Man.    Couch,    vol.    ix.    p.   189, 
pi.  xxxix.  fig.  59. 

Hab.  Station  291,  Gulf  o£  Oman,  48-49  fath. 

Originally  described  by  Hinds  from  New  Guinea.  The 
species  is  also  quoted  by  Messi-s.  Melvill  and  Standen 
(P.  Z.  S.  1901,  vol.  ii.  p.  376)  from  the  Persian  Gulf,  Alaska t, 
coast  of  India,  and  Karachi.  It  is  also  known  from  the 
Straits  of  Malacca,  Kingsraill  Is.,  and  New  Caledonia. 

[To  be  continued.] 

XXVI. — Notes  on  the  Genus  Tamarrha,  TFkr.  [Lep. — 
Tineixa].  Bv  the  Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Walsingham,  M.A., 
LL.D.,  Y.n.S. 

Mr.  Busck  (Pr.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  xxx.  728-30)  discusses 
the  genus  Tamarrha,  Wkr.,  and  quotes  a  paragraph  for 
which  I  am  responsible  (Proc.  Zool.  Soc  Lond.  1897,  p.  114). 


17<j  Lord  WaUingliam — Nuiea  on 

I  Avrote  of  T.  nivosella,  AVkr.  : — "  At  the  time  [when  T  had 
Avrorifjly  sunk  Tamarrha  as  a  synonym  of  Psccadia]  I  liad 
seen  only  the  type  of  Walker's  other  species  nivosella,  which 
is  a  ?  .•"  Had'  I  used  the  word  "examined'"  for  "seen" 
the  meaning  of  the  paragrapli  would  have  heen  more 

Mr.  Busck  is  now  able  to  say  that  T.  gelidella,  Wkr.,  is 
not  a  Paecacha  (as  I  had  supposed),  but  is  congeneric  with 
the  type  of  Tumarrlia,  a  conclusion  which  he  founds  on  his 
study  of  West-Indian  specimens  ;  and,  after  admitting  the 
synonymy  of  his  own  genus  Buhaiaxa,  which  consequently 
sinks,  he  writes  it  "  is  evidently  the  species  which  Zeller  sub- 
sequently described  as  Pstcadia  exomatella." 

Zeller   described    (Hor.  Soc.  Ent.  Ross.  xiii.  pp.  238-40) 

Psecadia  exornata  (not  exomatella)  from  two  males  taken  at 

Chanchamayo,  Peru,  witli  which  he  associated  under  a  separate 

description   two   smaller  males   from   Cuba,  all  in  Museum 

Staudinger.     I  have  a  single  male  from  the   same   Pcrunan 

collection,  purchased  from  Staudinger  in  1891,  which  agrees 

absolutely  with  Zeller's  figure  and  with  his  first  description, 

and  has  a  smooth  head.     It  seems  more  than  probable  that 

the  Cuban  specimens  are  not  identical  with  those  from  Peru. 

I  have  also  a  female  from  Jamaica  in  which  the  costal  shade 

reaches  the  base  instt  ad  of  beins:  broken  up  into  spots  ;  the 

central  band  is  distinctly  continuous  witii  the  costal   shade, 

not  separated  from  it,  the  white  patches  much  more  clearly 

defined  and  separated  from  each  other;  this  specimen  agrees 

absoliit'dy  with  the  type  of  T.  gelidella,  Wkr.,  and  is  certainly 

not  the  Peruvian  e.rornata,  Zell.      It   may    be  interesting  to 

observe  that  the  locality  "  Chanchamayo^'  is  not  to  be  found 

in  maps  ;  the  collector  Thaum  is  known  to  have  referred  to 

a  valley  on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Andes;  "  Dr.  Staudinger 

schreibt  mir  dariiber  :  Thamm  sammelte  in  den  Cordilleren 

in    einer    Hohe    von    2000-3000',   selten    nnch    holier,  am 

Chanchamayo,  einem  Ncbcntluss  des  sich  in  den  Amazonen- 

strom  ergiessenden  IJcayale,  unter  dem  12  Grad  siidlieher 

Breite"  [Z.,  Hor  Soc.  Ent.  Ross.  xiii.  4  (1877)].     "  Chancha- 

niayo"  is  said  tomean  "Humming-bird"  in  the  local  langua;.;e. 

Such  confusion  is  not  uufrequcnt  among  travellers,  as  when 

Captain   Cook   tried  to    ascertain    the  native    name    for   a 

well-knoMU   animal   and   received  the   answer  "  Kangaroo," 

signifying  "  I  don't  know  Mhat  you  mean." 

We  now  come  to  Tantarrha  nivosella,  Wkr.,  the  type  of 
the  genus,  or,  rather,  the  selected  exponent  when  Tamarrha 
was  revived.  Zeller,  in  describing  Ins  Psecadia  adustella, 
which    1   liavc  identified    as   a  synonym   of  nivosella,  Wkr., 

the  Genus  'I'um.'U  rii;i,    fF/'/-.  177 

regarded  liis  species  as  sexually  (liin()i"i)liic,  and  pointed  out 
the  difl'erciices  between  the  c?  '"-'''^  ^''^  ?  ;  especially  tlic 
greater  extent  of  the  grey  colouring  in  the  (^ ,  which  in  the 
?  was  cut  off  hy  tlie  white  costal  area  above  the  dorsal 
patch.  I  have  both  these  from  Jimiaica,  with  both  sexes  of 
each,  and  they  are  distinct  species.  Tlie  less  clouded  form, 
of  which  Zeller  had  only  the  ?  ,  is  not  the  same  as  the  9 
desciihed  by  Walker,  and  seems  unirormly  smaller  and  paler 
than  the  other ;  but  there  is  one  |)oint  which  now  enables 
me  to  identify  without  douljt  Zeller^s  r?  aduslella — he 
specially  mentions  "  Fiihler  beim  ^  mit  auffalleud  verlaug- 
erten  ....  Wurzelgliedc."  This  applies  to  the  darker  form 
only,  precisely  as  seen  by  Zeller,  and  is  most  remarkable. 
Walker's  two  ?  ?  are  undoubtedly  this  species,  oF  which  I 
have  now  a  J  with  the  long  basal  joint,  but  his  ^  differs  in 
the  short  basal  joint  of  the  auteuuifi  as  well  as  in  the  details 
of  the  markings. 

There  are  at  least  three  other  species,  differing  very  slightly, 
from  Cuba,  Jamaica,  and  Domingo.  Zeller's  Portorico 
females  may  probably  come  to  be  identified  with  one  of  these 
and  jiossibly  with  the  genus  Euurne,  ]Mschl.  +  Saalm. 

1  send  these  notes  at  once,  since  1  iiave  no  leisure  at  present 
to  study  in  further  detail  the  interesting  papers  on  Miero- 
lepidoptera  lately  published  and  kindly  sent  by  Mr.  Busck. 
No  one  can  more  highly  appreciate  the  excellent  work  he  is 
doing ;  but  it  seems  a  pity  that  facilities  are  not  afforded  to 
authors  of  seientilic  i)apers  pui)lishcd  by  the  American 
Government  for  correcting  proofs.  Had  the  proofs  passed 
through  the  author's  hands,  such  errors  as  "Zellar^^  for 
"Zeiler,"  "Flori\i"  for  "  Horte ,"  '' nievosella"  for  '' nivo- 
sella,"  "  Hyponementidai '^  for  "  Hyponomeutidaj,'^  &c  ,  &e., 
would  certainly  have  been  avoided  :  all  these  and  "  Ypono- 
meutidte,"  to  wdiich  /  am  said  to  have  referred  Tamurrha, 
are  ou  p.  729. 

If  I  were  wrong  in  placing  the  genus  Tamarrha  in  the 
Hyponomeuiidoe,  additional  uiaieiial  obliges  me  to  take 
exception  also  to  associating  it  with  the  Qilco[)horidifi.  Does 
Mr.  Busck  know  the  African  genus  Gyinnugrammasiwd  olh.ev% 
with  veins  7+8  of  the  fore  wings  sialked^  or  Trichosiibas, 
Zeller,  (  =  §  Penthetria,  li.  Edw.)  ?  and  would  these  affect  his 
opinion  as  to  the  extent  of  the  llyponomeutidse  ?  I  would 
now  rather  incline  to  placing  Tamarrha  with  the  Azinidae, 
founded  on  an  Asiatic  genus  and  characterized  by  the  con- 
tinuation of  the  discoidal  vein  direct  to  vein  8. 

1  cannot  conclude  without  drawing  attention  to  a  quotatiou 
ou  p.  733,  where   the  author  cites    Dr.  Dietz's  reference  to 

178  Lord  Walsingliam  on  a  new  Tineid  Moth. 

"■  the  apparently  heretofore  overlooked  "  character,  the  more 
or  less  furcation  of  "  vein  1  6  in  the  hind  wings,"  which  he 
finds  in  several  genera  of  the  Tineinte.  In  Tr.  Ent.  Soc. 
Lond.  1891,  102,  when  criticising  de  Peyerimho:ff's  reliance 
on  this  character  as  distinguishing  the  Tortricidffi  from  the 
Tineidee,  I  remarked  that  the  furcation  of  vein  1  b  occurred 
in  a  number  of  Tineid  genera,  and  even  in  "  Tinea  tapetzella, 
L.,  itself." 

May  I  suggest  that  the  application  of  the  word  ''overlooked" 
is  capable  of  extension,  but  not  in  the  direction  indicated 
{vide  I.  c.  pi.  vii.)  ? 

XXVI  r. — Description  of  a  new  Tineid  Moth  infesting  Cotton- 
pods  in  Egypt.  By  the  lit.  Hon.  Lord  Walsingham, 
M.A.,  LL.i).,  F.R.S. 

T  1  X  E  I  N  A. 


Stagmatophora,  H.-S. 

Staginatophora  gossypiella,  sp.  n..  Wlsm. 

Antennce  rather  more  than  |,  slightly  biserrate  ;  yellowish 
white,  with  two  rather  broad  brown  bands  on  the  outer 
fourth ;  the  basal  joint  rather  stout,  elongate,  with  a  dark 
brown  band  across  the  upperside  before  its  apex  and  bearing 
a  thin  and  fugitive  pecten.  Labial  Palpi  moderately  long, 
recurved,  median  joint  slightly  roughened  beneath,  terminal 
joint  longer  than  median,  slender,  acute ;  whitish  ochreous. 
MaxiUary  Palpi  short,  converging.  Head  and  face  smooth  ; 
whitish  ochreous.  Thorax  whitish  ochreous.  Forewings 
narrow,  elongate,  acute ;  whitish,  somewhat  smeared  with 
pale  brownish  ochreous,  of  which  a  sinuate  diffused  streak, 
commencing  beloAv  the  costa  at  two  fifths,  runs  to  the  apex  ; 
a  similar  more  slender  streak  indicated  below  it  parallel  with 
the  upper  edge  of  the  fold  ;  at  the  base  of  the  costa  is  a 
narrow  elongate  blackish  patch,  abruptly  and  obliquely 
terminated  at  its  outer  end ;  a  patch  of  l)lackish  scales  lies 
at  the  end  of  the  cell  upon  the  brownish  ochreous  scaling, 
which  is  somewhat  intensified  beyond  it  ;  other  black  scales, 
forming  an  inwardly  oblique  costal  streak  before  the  apex, 

Lor  1  Walsiii^ham  on  a  nnv  'riac/td  Muih.  ITiJ 

arc  cxtcMidcd  through  the  cilui  above  it,  a  few  more  black 
scales  tending  to  form  another  diverging  streak  running 
through  the  cilia  below  the  apex;  apical  cilia  brownish 
ochreous,  terminal  cilia  paler,  but  tipped  with  black,  dorsal 
cilia  smoky.  Exfj.  al.  11*5  mm.  hfindwia(js  at  the  l)ase  ^, 
tapering  outward  to  an  acute  apex  ;  of  a  slightly  paler  shade 
and  more  shining  than  their  long  smoky  grey  cilia,  which 
only  become  slightly  paler  at  the  apex.  Abdomen  smoky 
grey,      ^''//.v,  si)ottcd  with  black. 

Type  J .  ]Mus.  \Vl>ni. 

Hab.  E(}vrPT.     Larva  in  cotton-pods. 

When  the  forewiugs  are  denuded  transverse  striie  are 
observable,  between  the  veins,  giving  a  reticulated  appearance. 
These  are  due  to  lines  of  thickening  from  which  the  majority 
of  the  liighly-developed  scales  arise;  they  are  almost  per- 
pendicular and  extend  from  costa  to  dorsum.  This  structure 
occurs  also  in  Opuyona  uurisqiianiosa,  Btl.,  and  in  Siar/mato- 
phora  [Pyroderces)  argyroyrammos,  Z.  ;  if  not  overlooked  it 
is  apparently  unrecorded. 

The  specimens  are  broken  and  in  poor  condition.  The 
habits  of"  the  species  itre  particularly  interesting,  as  being 
apparently  similar  to  those  of  Batruchedra  Rileyi,  Wlsm., 
discovered  in  Georgia  among  rotten  cotton-bolls.  The 
similarity  in  colour  and  markings  between  the  two  insects 
is  so  close  as  to  suggest  the  idea  of  mimicry  (which,  in 
this  case,  can  of  course  be  only  synehromatism) ;  but  the 
form  of  the  palpi  and  the  breadth  of  the  hind  wings,  apart 
from  tlic  question  of  neuration,  are  at  once  sufficient  to 
distinguish  them  and  to  place  them  iu  different  genera. 

Note. — In  February  last  Mr.  Walter  Draper,  of  the 
Government  Gardens,  Delta  Barrage,  Egypt,  sent  to  the 
British  Museum  some  cotton-pods  infested  with  a  Hemipterous 
insect  {Oxycarenus  liyalinipennis,  Costa)  and  numerous 
small  caterpillars.  Lately  on  looking  at  the  bottle  I  found 
a  number  of  small  moths,  all  dead,  and  mostly  with  all 
their  scales  rubbed  off'.  As  Mr.  Di-aper,  who  discovered  this 
new  pest  in  the  cotton,  wished  to  h:ive  its  name,  I  sent 
specimens  to  Loi'd  Walsingham  for  determination,  and  these 
are  the  subjects  of  the  foregoing  description. — Chas.  O. 

180  'S]y.  G.  Lewi?  on 

XXVIII. —  On  neio  Speciesof  Histeridte  and  Xotices  of  others. 
By  G.  Lewis,  F.L.S. 

This  pa{)er,  the  tweiity-eiglitli,  follows  one  ])ublished  last 
April,  and  the  series  as  a  whole  will  in  a  measure  serve  as  a 
supplement  to  Mar^eul^s  Monograph  of  1853-1^64:.  Marseul 
established  very  few  genera,  less  than  forty  in  all,  and  appa- 
rently he  was  reluctatit  to  increase  their  number,  although, 
had  he  had  more  material  at  his  hand,  there  is  litile  doubt 
he  would  have  founded  others.  He  would  not,  for  instance, 
liave  associated  PhyUoma  hahiense  and  cordcale,  F.,  or 
Sternaul'ix  zdindica  and  Edionrdsi,  Mars.,  in  the  same 
genera  if  he  had  known  more  than  a  single  species  of  each 
kind.  To-day  our  knowledge  of  the  family  is  but  a  little 
more  advanced,  as  the  Histeridai  belong  to  a  class  of  insects 
which,  being  small  and  of  secretive  habits,  dj  not  come 
within  the  observation  of  general  collectors,  and  they  also 
require  special  methods  of  search,  as  some  attach  themselves 
to  other  insects,  such  as  ants,  termites,  wood-boring  Coleo- 
ptera,  &c.  It  is  a  matter  for  regret  that  collectors,  while  over- 
looking the  Histeridse,  miss  many  curious  species  of  Colydiidse 
and  others  which  are  commensal  with  them  ;  this  applies 
especially  to  collections  made  in  the  tropics. 

One  of  the  most  curious  discoveries  of  recent  years  is  the 
finding  of  one  of  the  Saprinini,  Chelyoxenus  xei-ohatis,  Hubb., 
which  has  asymmetrical  claws,  in  the  galleries  made  by  a 
tortoise,  Gopherus  polyphemus,  in  Florida,  and  another  of 
nine  or  ten  species  of  Monoplius  in  the  tenements  raised  by 
the  termite  llodotermes  HavHandi,  Sh.,  in  S.  Africa. 

In  my  recent  Catalogue  varietal  names  (Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat. 
Hist.  vol.  xvi.  p.  340,  1905)  appear  as  part  of  the  synony;ny, 
and    I    observe  with    satisfaction  that  the  Recorder  of  the 

'  Zoological   Record,^    1904,   remarks  that    "  the   naming  of 

•      •  •    1  I 

varieties  is  at  present  carried  to  a  great  extent,  and  we  liave 

not  space  to  record  them   all,   but  we  endeavour  to  point  out 

all    that    appear    to    be  of    real    importance.^'      Any    nafne 

reasonably  and  purposely  omitted   in  the  annual   register  of 

the  '  llecord'   is  practically  deleted,  and  a  recognized  method 

of  deletion  of  superfluous  names  is  annually  becoming  more 

and  more  desirable.     The  Recorder  also  says  :  '*  It  may  not  be 

superfluous  to  add  that  the  study  of  variation  is  by  no  means 

dependent  for  advancement  on  the  naming  of  varieties.'' 

nrw  /S/^^c/e5  o/' IIi.«;t"ri(ltC.  181 

List  (<f  Specits. 

Jjiodernia  patuluin.  Ulster  aeneus. 

Teretrius  ivcti.striiis.  imiltidens,  Sch. 

rUvsius  t'dfiitiilus.  Notolister  unistrius. 

Ajiobk'tcs  I'xcavatus.  cateuatus. 

niitis.  ovatus. 

riatylister  i)lacitu3.  Asolenus,  gen.  no  v. 
Idister  niendax.  Pachycijerus  laticeps, 
Conlipus  fractistrius.  Pelorurus  ruptistrius. 

Lioderma  patulum,  sp.  n. 

Lato-ovatum,  subdepressum,  nifi;rum,  nitidum  ;  fronte  plana  absque 
striolis,  mento  loiigitudiualiter  canaliculate  antice  utriiiquo 
minute  tubercnlato ;  pronoto  lateiibus  parce  punctato,  stria 
margiuali  basi  multum  abbreviata  et  ad  angulos  subfoveolata ; 
elytris  niargine  intlexo  lajvi,  striis  subhunaerali  lata  profunde 
excavata,  1  dorsali  brcvi,  2  integra  basi  iucurvata  ;  propygidio 
circuni  parce  punctulato ;  pygidio  leviter  punctulato ;  prosterno 
modice  lato  ;  tibiis  anticis  -i-dentatis. 

L.  9  mill,  (absque  mandibulis). 

This  species  is  very  similar  to  L.  latum,  Mars,,  but  it 
differs  by  being  more  oval,  by  the  canaliculatiou  o£  the 
mentuin,  ou  the  anterior  edge  of  which  are  two  small  tubercles, 
by  the  shorter  mandibles,  by  the  thoracic  stria  being  short- 
ened behind  tlie  middle  (not  at  the  base  only),  and  by  the 
stria  terminating  at  the  anterior  angle,  not  close  to  the  eyes, 
where  it  widens  out  into  a  small  and  shallow  fovea.  The 
punctuation  of  the  piopygidiuni  is  also  finer.  L.  patuluni 
particuUirly  agrees  with  P.  latum  in  the  second  dorsal  stria 
being  markedly  incurved  at  the  base,  by  the  prosternum  being 
broad,  and  in  having  the  mentuni  of  an  exceptional  structure. 
As  regards  the  width  of  tiie  prosternum,  both  species  agree 
with  those  of  Hololepta,  but  Marseul  placed  latum  in  Lioderma, 
and  it  is  known  that  these  genera  are  not  at  present  well 
defined.  The  pygidium  of  L.  latum  is  finely  punctulate,  not 
smooth,  as  stated  by  Marseul  in  his  Monograph,  p.  215. 

Hub.  Marcapata,  Peru. 

1  have  not  seen  the  female. 

Teretrius  rectistrius,  sp.  n. 

Cylindricus,  undique  punctatus,  rufo-brunneus,  nitidus ;  elytris 
fusco-marginatis  ;  prosterno  bistriato,  striis  rectis ;  tibiis  anticis 

L.  1 1  mill. 

Cylindrical,  uniformly  and  rather  densely  punctured  above, 

182  Mr.  G.  Lewis  on 

reddish  brown,  with  the  mai-f^ins  of  the  elytra,  sterna,  and 
base  of  the  first  segment  of  the  alxlomen  infuscate;  the 
forehead  is  convex  and  the  marginal  stria  of  the  thorax 
complete  ;  the  prosternum,  tlie  lobe  is  marginate  and  the 
striae  of  the  keel  are  parallel  to  each  other  thronghout  their 
length  ;  the  mesosternun),  the  marginal  stria  is  com|)li4e  and 
well  marked,  and  its  surface  rather  s[)arseiy  punctured,  and 
the  metasternuin  is  somewhat  similarly  punctured,  except 
tliat  the  punctures  are  larger  posteriorly  ;  the  anterior  tibiaj 
are  5-dentate. 

I/ah.  Madagascar.  Northern  Androy,  Imanombo  [Dr.  J. 
Decor  se,  1901). 

In  the  Paris  Museum  and  my  own  collection. 

PIcesius  edenluhiSj  sp.  n. 

Oblongus,  nigcr,  nitidus  ;  fronto  stria  obsoleta,  mandibulis  baud 
dentatis  ;  pronoto,  stria  marginali  antice  late,  stria  laterali  basi, 
interruptis  ;  elytris  striis  dorsalibus  punctiformis. 

L.  12|  miU. 

Oblong,  parallel  at  the  sides,  black  and  shining;  the  head, 
mandibles  not  dentate,  frontal  stria  short  and  scarcely  visible  ; 
the  thorax,  marginal  stria  widely  interrupted  behind  the 
head,  the  lateral  stria  is  not  deeply  impressed  (like  those  of 
the  other  species  of  the  genus)  and  it  is  broken  near  the  base  ; 
the  elytra,  stria;,  outer  humeral  very  short  and  near  the 
middle,  inner  humeral  commences  near  the  middle  and 
becomes  punctiform  near  the  apex,  1  dorsal  punctiform  and 
apical  and  scarcely  reaches  the  middle,  2-3  punctiform  and 
half  the  length  of  the  first,  4  is  represented  only  by  two  or 
three  pujictures,  and  the  marginal  stria  is  well  marked  and 
ceases  at  the  suture  ;  the  pygidia  are  coarsely  and  densely 
punctate  ;  the  prosternum  is  not  striate  and  the  anterior  lobe 
is  impunctate,  with  the  marginal  stria  widely  interrupted  in 
front ;  the  anterior  femora  are  smooth. 

In  its  general  outline  this  species  resembles  1\  javaniis, 
Er.,  except  that  it  is  rather  more  parallel  laterally  ;  it  is 
remarkable  for  its  simj)le  mandibles  and  interrupted  lateral 
thoracic  stria.  Tiie  anterior  femora  oi  javnnus  are  trans- 
versely rugose  and  the  anterior  prosternal  lobe  is  punctured 
and  the  marginal  stria  complete. 

Ilab.  Now  iiritaiu  {A.  Wilhy,  1SU5-97). 

Apohletcs  ed'cavaliis,  sp.  n. 

Ovalis,  dciilanatus,  nigcr,  nitidus;  fronto  punctulata,  anterius  exea- 
vata,  stria  transversa  tcnuiter  impressa  levilcr  recurva  :  pronoto 

new  Species  of  llititiiYidM.  183 

luteribiis  punctato,  pouo  angulos  paulo  rugoso,  stria  marginali 
antice  angiisto  iutcrrupta ;  olytris  stiiis  dorsalibus  1-2  intcgris, 
Ji  lute  interrupta  ;  proj)jgi(Iio  sparse  rainime  profunde,  pygidio 
grosso  hand  dense,  punctatis ;  mesoslcriio  bisinuato,  stria  mar- 
giiiali  ill  medio  interrui^ta;  tibiis  anticis  4-dentatis. 
L.  4-4},  mill. 

Tlierc  is  a  close  resciublaucc  bet\V(!cn  this  species  and 
A.  tener,  Mars.,  but  the  forehead  is  markedly  excavated,  the 
frontal  stria  is  not  straight,  the.  lateral  thoracic  band  of  points 
being-  large  and  more  dense  and  b^diind  the  anterior  angle  some 
are  confluent,  close  to  the  anterior  angle  is  a  small  red  mark  ; 
the  elytra,  the  fourth  stria  is  represented  by  only  a  single 
puncture  ;  the  ]iropygidium  is  chiefly  punctate  along  its  basal 
edge  and  the  punctures  are  large  and  very  shallow;  the 
pygidium,  the  punctures  are  larger  but  similarly  dense  to 
those  of  tener. 

Bah.  Nilgiri  Hills,  S.  India  {T.  R.  Bell). 

Apchletes  cavifrons,  Lew,,  first  described  from  specimens 
from  Assam,  has  been  found  by  IMr,  Bell  in  Kanara. 

Marseul  says  (Mon.  pp.  857-S58)  that  the  mesosterna  of 
A.  tener  and  Scliaumi  are  marginate;  but  they  are  not 
wholly  marginate,  the  strise  are  interrupted  like  those  of 
A.  excavdtus,  and  the  mesosternal  stria  in  excavatus  being 
deeper,  the  interruption  is  more  consj)icuous. 

Apobhtes  nut  is  J  sp.  n, 

Oblongo-ovatus,  depressus,  uigcr,  uitidus ;  fronte  puuctulata,  stria 
transversa  nulla  ;  pronoto  stria  marginali  late  interrupta  ;  elytris 
striis  1  postice  paulo  abbreviata,  2-3  integris,  4-6  apicalibus ; 
tibiis  anticis  4-dentatis. 

L.  5-5^  mill. 

Oval,  rather  oblong,  depressed,  black  and  shining;  head 
finely  and  minutely  punctulate,  feebly  impressed  anteriorly, 
and  not  striate  ;  the  thorax,  marginal  stria  very  fine  and  not 
continuing  behind  the  head ;  tlie  elytra,  humeral  strias 
wanting,  1  dorsal  shortened  apically,  2-3  complete,  4-6 
apical,  the  fourth  being  longest  and  nearly  dimidiate,  the  fifth 
is  shorter  at  both  ends,  the  sutural  is  soinewiiat  oblique  and 
also  shorter  than  the  filth  ;  the  propygidium  and  pygidium 
are  clearly  but  not  densely  punctate,  the  latter  has  a  feeble 
impression  on  each  side  of  its  base  and  the  outer  edge  is 
slightly  elevated ;  the  prosternum  is  bistriate,  the  strise 
diverge  slightly  anterior  and  do  not  quite  reach  the  base  ; 
the  mesosternum  is  bisinuous  anteriorly,  with  a  short  bent 
stria  on  citlicr  side. 

1S4  Mr.  G.  Lewis  on 

This  species  is  larger  than  A.  taciturnus,  Mars.,  and  it  has 
three  inner  apical  dorrfal  strias,  which  are  wanting  in  Marseul's 
.species.  The  firm  of  the  rnesosternum  is  like  those  of 
A.  taciturnus,  Mars.,  and  A.  latiusculus,  Sch.,  although 
Marseul  s.iys  (Mon.  p.  244)  that  the  rnesosternum  »{'  taciturnus 
is  without  a  marginal  stria,  meaning  that  the  stria  along  the 
border  is  incornj)lete. 

Ilah.  Madagascar.  Region  de  I'Androv,  Ainbovombe 
[Dr.  J.  Decorse). 

In  the  Palis  Museum  and  my  own  collection. 

Platylister  placitus,  sp.  n. 

Oblongo-ovalis,  subdepressus,  niger,  nitidus  ;  fronte  concava,  stria 
tenui  in  medio  sinuata ;  pronoto  stria  laterali  basi  contiriuata; 
elytris  striis  1-2  intcgris,  3  interrupta ;  pygidio  parum  dense 
punctate  ;  mesosterno  stria  marginali  interrupta. 

L.  6-6^  mill. 

Oblong-oval,  somewhat  depressed,  black  and  sliining  ;  the 
head  smooth  and  the  forehead  concave,  with  a  fine  transverse 
stria  which  is  sinuous  in  tiie  middle  ;  the  thorax,  the  marginal 
stria  is  very  fine,  the  lateral  is  also  somewhat  fine  but  well 
marked,  and  it  continues  along  the  base  to  a  point  opposite 
the  third  dorsal  stria,  anteriorly  it  is  inteirupted  behind  the 
middle  of  the  neck  ;  the  elytra,  there  are  two  fine  sinuous 
epij)leural  striae,  the  dorsal,  1-2  complete  and  Avell  marked, 
3  finer  and  interrupted  in  the  middle,  the  humeral  and  other 
striai  are  wanting  ;  the  propygidinm  is  transversely  punc- 
tured, but  smooth  along  its  edges;  the  |)ygidium  is  wholly 
punctured,  there  is  a  de^u'ession  on  either  side  at  the  base,  and 
the  outer  rim  is  smooth  but  not  much  raised;  the  prosti'inuni 
is  smooth  and  somewhat  truncate  anteriorly  and  the  lobe  is 
clearly  marginate ;  the  mesosternum,  the  marginal  stiia  is 
interrupted  at  the  emargination  ;  the  anterior  tibite  are 

The  lateral  thoracic  stria  continuing  along  the  greater 
])ortioii  of  the  base  constitutes  a  good  specific  cliaracter. 

JJab.   llerbeitshoh,  German  New  Guinea. 

CJne  example  in  the  Berlin  iMuseuui  and  one  in  my 

Idister  menda.r,  sp.  n. 

Ovalis,  subconvexus,  niger,  nitidus ;  froute  bistriata  ;  elytris  striis 
1  integris,  2  autice  abbroviata,  3  apicali  subdimidiata,  cum 
appcndicc  brovi  ;  tibiis  denticulatis. 

L.  61-  mill. 

new  S/iecic.t  of  Illsteriilaj.  185 

Oval,  a  little  convex,  black  and  shining;  the  head  is 
smooth,  with  two  bent  striaj  on  the  forehead,  clypeus  is 
sli<^htly  impressed;  the  thorax,  the  marginal  stria  is  very- 
fine  and  i'pparcntly  commences  beliind  the  anterior  angle  and 
is  continue(l  behind  the  head,  the  lateral  stria  is  clearly 
marked,  it  joins  the  marginal  stria  behind  the  eyes  and  is 
slightly  hamate  inwardly  at  the  base;  the  elytra,  stride,  1 
complete,  2  shortened  before  the  base,  3  basal  not  quite 
reaching  the  middle  and  it  has  a  short  apical  appendage;  the 
propygidium  has  a  few  jiunctures  arranged  transversely  ;  the 
pygidium,  the  outer  border  is  elevated  into  a  thickened  smooth 
rim  and  the  surface  within  is  densely  punctate  ;  the  ))ro- 
sternum  is  bislriate,  the  stride  joining  anteriorly;  the  meso- 
sternnm  is  sinuous  and  marginate;  the  anterior  tibiae  have 
6  or  7  small  teeth  and  the  intermediate  and  hind  tibijB  are 
spinose,  especially  near  the  tarsi. 

'IMiis  is  the  largest  species  of  the  genus  at  present  known. 

IJab.   ^lentawei  I.  (Modigliani,  1894). 

In  the  Genoa  Museum  and  my  own  collection. 

Contipus  fractistrius,  sp.  n. 

Contipus proximo  simillimus,  sed  ditFert  minus  convexus  et  pronoto 

stria  laterali  interna  post  oculos  iiiterrupta, 
L.  10  mill. 

Oval,  convex,  black  and  shining ;  the  frontal  stria  com- 
plete and  nearly  straight  anteriorly;  the  thorax,  marginal 
stria  complete,  outer  lateral  evanescent  at  the  anterior  angles, 
irmer  arched  behind  the  eye,  and  after  a  small  interruption 
is  continued  almost  in  a  straight  line  behind  the  neck  ;  the 
elytra,  tlie  dorsal  striae  are  didymous  and  are  like  those  of 
proximus,  except  that  the  first  stiia  is  not  incurved  at  the 
base  ;  the  propygidium  and  pygidium  are  very  finely  punctu- 
late,  the  former  is  without  foveas^  the  latter  has  a  raised 
margin  which  is  longer  than  that  of  proximus  ;  the  meso- 
sternum  is  slightly  sinuous,  with  a  well-marked  marginal 
stria;  the  anterior  tibise  are  3-dentate. 

This  species  is  more  oval  in  outline  and  less  convex  than 
proximus,  and  the  t'orm  of  the  iinier  thoracic  stripe  will  distin- 
guish it  from  the  other  three  similar  species.  Contipus 
sinuosus,  Lew.  (Ann.  Mas.  Genova,  1906),  is  the  largest  and 
most  convex  species  with  didymous  striae,  and  it  has  the  fifth 
dorsal  stria  conspicuously  sinuous  apically. 
■Bob.  Calabar. 

One  example  in  the  British  Museum  from  the  Murray 

180  y\v.  G.  Lewis  on 

Conti'pus  2)roximuSj  sp.  n. 

C.  dkhjmostrio  simillimus,  sed  differt  striis  lateribus  internis  integris 

ad  angulos  haud  evanescenti. 
L.  8  mill. 

Slioitlj  oval,  rather  convex,  black  and  sinning ;  the  head 
faintly  punctulate,  transverse  stria  complete  and  straiglit 
anteriorly  ;  the  thorax,  marginal  stria  very  fine  and  complete, 
outer  lateral  ceases  after  passing  the  anterior  angle,  inner 
lateral  is  complete,  continuing  unbroken  behind  the  head ; 
the  elytra,  outer  humeral  stria  fine  and  dimidiate,  inner  com- 
plete, dorsal  striae  didymous,  1-4  and  sutural  comj)lete,  first 
stria  is  incurved  at  its  base,  5  a  little  shortened  at  the  base, 
the  sutural  turns  outwards  anteriorly;  the  propygidiura  is 
bifoveolate  and  slightly  ])unctulate  along  its  base ;  the 
pygidium  is  smooth,  with  a  basal  raised  margin  along  half  of 
its  length  ;  the  mesosternum  is  marginate  and  feebly  sinuous; 
the  anterior  tibiae  are  3-dentate. 

There  are  now  four  species  of  Gontipus  known  witli 
didymous  dorsal  striae,  viz.  C.  didymostrius,  Mars.,  and 
C.  siuuosus,  proximuSy  and  fracdstrius,  Lew. 

Bab.   Warri,  Niger  River  {Dr.  Roth). 

Ulster  ceneus,  sp.  n. 

Ovatus,  convexus,  seneus,  nitidus ;  fronte  plana,  stria  integra  antice 
leviter  sinuata  ;  pronoto  striis  duabus  itone  oculos  coalesccntibus, 
lateribus  late  punctatis  ;  elytris  striis  1— f  integris,  5  basi  abbre- 
viata,  suturali  magis  longa,  humerali  interna  integra,  externa 
brevi ;  propygidio  leviter  bifovcolato,  pygidioque  dense  punctatis  ; 
mesostcrno  obtuso  et  marginato  ;  tibiis  antice  3-dentatis. 

L.  7|-8  mill. 

Oval,  convex,  brassy,  shining;  the  head,  the  frontal  stria 
is  feebly  sinuous  anteriorly  ;  the  thorax,  surface  very  finely 
punctulate,  with  a  rather  broad  lateral  band  of  punctures, 
which  are  largest,  and  some  are  confluent,  behind  the  anterior 
angle,  the  lateral  stride  are  complete  and  turn  towards  each 
other  at  the  base,  and  the  interstice  behind  the  anterior  angle 
is  punctate;  the  elytra,  the  outer  humeral  stria  is  short  but 
well  marked  and  is  about  one  third  of  the  elytral  length,  the 
inner  humeral  stria  is  complete  and  similar  to  the  first 
dorsal,  dor^^al  1—4  complete,  but  the  fourth  is  finer  before  the 
middle,  5  is  abbreviated  before  the  base,  the  sutural  is  bent 
and  does  not  reach  the  base;  the  pygidia  are  densely  and 
coarsely  punctate. 

The  above  belongs  to  a  section  of  the  u,onus  in  which  the 

neiv  Species  of  ll'istcndiv.  187 

inrun-  humeral  slria  is  similar  to  tlie  first  dorsal,  tlie  other 
species  being  «/<?r,  Payk.,  ajricanus  and  crenulatus,  Lew. ; 
and  ihrre  are  some  species  of  Contipus  which  also  have 
[similar  .stria\  From  IJisler  (i/ricamis  this  species  differs  by 
the  colour,  its  greater  convexity,  the  punctate  thorax,  and 
the  presence  of  an  outer  though  shortened  humeral  stria. 
According  to  I'aykull's  figure  of  a/er,  the  thorax  and  the 
pygiilia  are  similarly  and  not  coarsely  jjunclured. 
JIab.   BihCj  Angola. 

Hister  multidens,  Sch.  Ent.  Naclir.  xv.  p.  94  (1889). 

This  species  iriay  bo  added  to  the  faunistic  list  of  Japan; 
it  was  found  there  by  the  late  Mr.  J.  H.  Leech. 


Owing  to  the  discovery  of  more  species  of  this  genus,  the 
following  additional  characters  may  be  given  : — The  antennal 
fossettes  are  a  little  behind  the  anterior  angles,  the  forehead 
has  no  transverse  stria,  the  deep  lateral  tlioracic  sulcus  is  a 
very  important  character  and  always  terminates  abruptly  at 
both  ends,  the  apices  of  the  elytra  are  constantly  punctate, 
and  the  anterior  tibise  are  7-dentate. 

Notolister  unisirius,  sp.  n. 

Ovalis,  convexiuscuhis,  niger,  nitidus  ;  thorace  lateribus  profunde 
sulcato ;  elytris  striis  1-3  integris,  4-5  nuUis,  suturali  auticc 
multo  abbreviatu  ;  mesosterno  stria  trausversali  unica. 

L.  7i  miU. 

Oval,  rather  convex,  black  and  shining  ;  the  head,  there  is 
no  frontal  stria  and  the  vertex  is  uneven,  surface  finely 
punctulate ;  the  thorax,  marginal  stria  complete,  with  a 
widened  interstice  behind  the  head,  where  the  stria  is  feebly 
crenulate,  lateral  sulcus  rugose  and  wider  and  deeper  than 
that  of  N.  Edwardsi,  Mars.,  and  resembles  that  of  suIcicoUis, 
Lew.  ;  the  elytra,  epipleura  5-striate,  outer,  humeral  stria 
shortened  well  before  the  base,  inner  apical  and  almost  obso- 
lete, 1-3  dorsal  complete  and  punctate-striate  towards  the 
apex,  4-5  are  wanting,  sutural  punctate  apical  and  reaching 
just  beyond  the  middle,  apex  punctate,  the  punctures  do  not 
extend  along  the  interstices  of  any  of  the  striae ;  the  pro- 
pygidium  is  wholly  covered  with  large,  round,  evenly-set 
punctures ;  the  pygidium,  the  punctures  are  less  close  and 
less  coarse;  the  presternum  is   like   that  of   catenatus;    the 

188  Mr.  G.  Lewi-?  on 

niesosternum  is  sinuous,  with  a  short  bent  stria  at  either  angle 
and  a  single  line  of  punctures  (fig.  1)  broken  in  the  middle; 
the  anterior  tibiai  are  7-dentate. 

Fijr.  1.  Fi?.  2. 

Notolister  sulcicollis  (fig.  2)  has  one  simple  stria  only  on 
the  niesosternum. 

Hah.  Diego  Suarez,  N.  Madagascar. 

Notolister  catenatus,  sp.  n. 

Breviter  ovatus,  convexiusculus,  niger,  nitidus  ;  fronte  inaequali, 
baud  striata  ;  thorace  profunda  sulcato  ;  elytris  striis  1-3  integris, 
interstitiis  parte  punctatis,  4-5  uullis,  suturali  basi  abbreviata  ; 
mesosterno  bistriato  ;  tibiis  anticis  T-dentatis. 

L,  53  mill. 

Shortly  oval,  rather  convex,  black  and  shining  ;  tlie  head, 
vertex  uneven,  finely  punctulate  ;  the  thorax,  marginal  stria 
complete,  with  a  widened  interstice  behind  the  neck,  sulcus 
as  in  the  last  species  ;  the  elytra,  epipleura  5-3triate,  outer 
humeral  stria  shortened  just  before  the  base,  the  inner  humeral 
is  apical,  rough  on  its  edges  and  nearly  reaches  the  middle,  1-3 
dorsal  are  punctate-striate  and  are  obliterated  apical ly  by  the 
punctures,  the  apical  punctures  extend  along  the  interstices 
of  the  three  strife  nearly  to  the  middle  of  the  dorsum,  the 
punctures  also  extend  nearly  to  the  middle  of  the  elytra  in 
the  region  of  the  fourth  and  fifth  stria3,  which  apparently  is 
represented  by  some  of  the  points,  the  sufural  stria  is  longer 
than  that  of  unistrius,  being  shortened  only  just  before  the 
base  ;  the  pygidia  are  punctured  like  those  of  the  last  species  ; 
the  prosternum,  surface  of  the  kiel  is  sparingly  and  very 
finely  punctulate,  lateral  stripe  gradually  converge  and  join 
anteriorly  ;  the  niesosternum  is  feebly  sinuous  in  the  middle, 
with  a  short  stria  on  either  angle  and  a  deeply  impressed  line 
of  punctures  along  its  base  and  a  second  line  close  to  it 
(fig.    3),   very    similar,    but    broken    in    the   middle,    which 

neio  Species  of  IlisteriJre.  189 

probably  denotos  the  suture  between  it  and  the  metasternum. 
These  l;ist  f-'tiiio  are  very  similar  to  those  of  ovatus. 
IJah.  Taniatave,  ]\Iadagascar. 

Fisr.  3.  Fi-  4. 

Notolister  ovatus ^  sp.  n. 

Ovatus,  convexiusculus,  supra  tenuissime  punctulatus  ;  fronte  in- 
a-quali  baud  striata  ;  pronoto  parum  profunde  sulcato  ;  elj'tris 
striis  1-3  integris,  iuterstitiis  punctatis,  suturali  basi  abbreviata; 
mesosterno  bistriato;  tibiis  anticis  7-dcutatis. 

L.  6^-7  miU. 

Oval,  rather  convex,  black  and  shining  ;  the  head,  surface 
unequal  and  without  a  transverse  stria;  the  thorax,  marginal 
stria  complete,  widening  out  a  little  behind  the  head,  sulcus 
less  wide  than  that  of  the  last  species ;  the  elytra  with  five 
epipleural  striaj,  outer  humeral  shortened  before  the  base, 
inner  humeral  as  in  catenatus,  1-3  dorsal  entire  but  merging- 
apically  in  the  punctures,  the  apical  punctuation  extends 
beyond  the  middle  between  the  first  and  second  stria3  and 
scarcely  to  the  middle  between  the  second  and  third,  the  4-5 
stria3  are  either  absent  or  represented  by  apical  punctures,  the 
sutural  is  punctate-striate  and  is  shortened  just  before  the 
base ;  the  pygidia  are  punctate  like  those  of  the  last  species ; 
the  prosternum  is  similar  to  that  of  catenatus;  the  meso- 
sternum  is  feebly  sinuous  and  has  two  transverse  lines  of 
points  (fig.  4),  the  second  stria  probably  indicates  the  suture 
between  the  meso-  and  metasterna. 

In  outline  this  species  is  oval  and  resembles  N.  Edwardsi, 
Mars.,  but  the  dorsal  sculpture  of  the  two  species  is  different, 
and  Edwardsi  has  probably  but  one  sternal  stria,  as  Marseul 
merely  says  "  mesosternum  entirely  margined,"  which  would 
not  apply  to  two  rows  of  punctures. 

Uab.  Madagascar  (Sikora). 

AsOLENUS,  gen.  nov. 
The  genus  is  established  to  receive  Notolister  sanguinosus^ 
Ann  &  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  14 

190  On  new  Species  of  Ilisteridie. 

Fairm.,  as  the  type,  and  JY.  5-striatus,  nodlcornis^  dux,  and 
imitans,  Lew.  Some  of  the  generic  characters  correspond  to 
those  in  Notolister,  especially  in  the  form  of  the  sterna,  but 
the  antennal  fossettes  are  in  the  anterior  thoracic  angles,  not 
just  behind  them  ;  the  antennae  have  a  nodule  on  the  scape  j 
the  body  is  more  convex  and  sometimes  gibbous  ;  there  is  no 
transverse  frontal  stria  and  the  thoracic  lateral  sulcus,  so 
conspicuous  in  Notoliater,  is  wanting  ;  the  raesosternum  is 
sometimes  sinuous  and  sometimes  not  ;  the  anterior  tibia?  are 

Pachycrcerus  lat'iceps,  sp.  n. 

Subcylindricus,  niger,  nitidus,  pedibus  piceis  ;  capita  lato,  fronte 
punctata,  stria  Integra,  clypeo  impresso  ;  thorace  stria  marginali 
antice  interrupta ;  elytris  striis  1-3  integris,  5  dimidiata,  4  et 
suturaU  ante  basi  abbreviatis  ;  prosterno  bistriato,  striis  rectis; 
mesosterno  margiuato  ;  tibiis  anticis  o-deutatis. 

L.  4-4^  mill. 

Somewhat  cylindrical,  black  and  shining ;  the  head  is  hirge 
and  clearly  but  not  densely  punctate,  frontal  stria  complete  ; 
the  thorax  is  rather  irregularly  punctured,  the  punctures  on 
the  scutellar  region  being  very  fine  and  few,  marginal  stria  is 
interrupted  behind  the  middle  of  the  head  ;  the  elytra,  strise, 
outer  humeral  apical  and  dimidiate,  inner  wanting,  1-3  dorsal 
complete,  4  and  sutural  are  shortened  before  the  base,  5 
dimidiate  or  a  little  longer,  the  interstice  between  the  second 
and  third  striiB  widens  out  at  the  base;  the  propygidiura  and 
pygidium  are  clearly  but  not  densely  punctate ;  the  pro- 
sternum,  anterior  lobe  coarsely  punctured,  keel  rather  wide 
and  bistriate,  striae  are  feebly  carinate  and  parallel  to  each 
other  in  front  of  the  coxee  ;  the  raesosternum,  its  projection  is 
somewhat  robust  and  prominent  and  the  marginal  stria 

The  form  and  colour  of  the  species  resemble  those  of 
P.facetus,  Mars.,  but  its  head  is  much  more  robust  and  more 
coarsely  punctured,  the  fourth  dorsal  stria  is  not  complete, 
and  the  prosternal  keel  is  much  wider  and  the  marginal  striaj 
are  parallel,  not  joined  anteriorly,  and  the  raesosternal  jiro- 
jection  is  more  robust  and  prominent. 

Ilah.  Kilima  Njaro,  East  Africa  {A.  Grandidier,  1897). 

In  the  Paris  Museum  and  my  own  collection. 

Pelorurus  ruptistrius,  sp.  n. 

Breviter  oralis,  nigro-cuprcus,  nitidus  ;  elytris  viridi-cxruleis,  fronte 
tenuiter  impressa  vix  dense  punctulata  ;  prouoto  stria  inlt'gra, 

Mr.  W.  L.  Di-staiit  on  Homoptera.  191 

lateribus  punctato  ;  elytris  striis  1-2  geminatis  integris,  3  parto 
internipta,  4-5  apicalibus,  suturali  ititegra ;    propygidio  parum 
dense  punctato  ;  prosterno  bistriato  ;  mesosteruo  bisiuuato,  mar- 
ginato  ;  tibiis  anticis  dcnticulatis. 
L.  4  mill. 

This  species  closely  resembles  P.  formosua,  Sch.,  but 
differs  by  the  head  being  more  closely  punctured,  the  thorax 
is  more  deeply  and  closely  punctate  laterally,  anl  there  are 
two  arched  clusters  of  points  in  the  scutellar  re/Tiou^  the  third 
dorsal  stria  is  not  completely  double,  being  broken  in  the 
middle  of  its  inner  line,  and  the  propygidium  is  much  more 
distinctly  and  closely  punctured. 

Hah.  Abyssinia  {Kafray). 

By  \V.  L.  Distant. 

In  the  preparation  of  these  notes  I  have  been  much  indebted 
for  the  loan  of  specimens  or  drawings  of  unique  types  to 
Dr.  Anrivillias  of  Stockholm,  Dr.  Handlirsch  of  Vienna, 
Herr  Kuhlgatz  of  Berlin,  and  Mons.  Schouteden  of  Brussels. 
The  latter  has  shown  me  the  types  of  the  species  of  Fulgorinae 
in  his  collection  whicli  have  been  lately  described  by 
Herr  Schmidt,  so  that  I  have  with  advantage  been  able  to 
compare  much  hitherto  somewhat  inaccessible  material  with 
the  collection  contained  in  the  British  Museum. 

Fam.  Fiilgoridse  (continued  from  p.  30). 
Subfam.  Fulgoein^. 

Pyrops  tntricatus. 

Pyrops  intricatus,  "Walk.  List  Horn.,  Siippl.  p.  43  (18-58). 
Pyrops  hasilacteus,  Schmidt,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  Ixvii.  p.  184  (1906). 

Zepasa,  gen.  no  v. 

Head  broadly,  roundly,  and  prominently  produced  in  front 
of  eyes,  centrally  about  or  almost  as  long  as  pronotum ; 
vertex  with  its  base  to  a  short  distance  before  eyes  straightly 
truncate,  somewhat  conically  produced  anteriorly,  centrally 
longitudinally  carinate ;  face  a  little  broader  than  long, 
obscurely  centrally  carinate,  the  lateral  margins  strongly 
sinuate  behind  eyes ;  clypeus  about  as  long   as  face,  with  a 


192  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Homoptera. 

central  ovate  elevation  wliicli  is  inwardly  depressed  ;  pro- 
notum  with  its  anterior  niar<;nn  strai<^litly  truncate  before 
base  of  head,  its  posterior  margin  a  little  angularly  sinuate  at 
middle,  centrally  longitudinally  carinate  ;  scutellum  about  as 
long  as  pronotum,  with  two  arcuate  and  a  central  carination ; 
abdomen  broad  and  robust;  teginina  about  three  times  longer 
than  broad,  the  venation  more  or  less  reticulate,  the  apical 
area  thickly  and  finely  reticulate;  wings  much  broader  than 
tegmina;  posterior  tibiae  with  four  spines. 
Type,  Z.  Aurivilliana,  Dist. 

Zepasa  Aurivilliana,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  sternum,  and  legs  brownish  olivaceous 
or  testaceous  ;  vertex  with  four  minute  black  spots  in  trans- 
verse series,  pronotum  with  two  small  discal  black  spots  ; 
mesonotum  with  two  small  black  spots  on  anterior  margin, 
two  before  apex,  two  (a  little  larger)  on  each  apical  area,  and 
a  minute  spot  near  each  anterior  angle  ;  abdomen  above 
ochraceous,  the  basal  area  and  a  double  central  series  of  spots 
black ;  abdomen  beneath  black,  the  segmental  margins 
ochraceous  ;  tegmina  pale  testaceous,  the  apical  area  paler, 
inwardly  bounded  by  a  waved  pale  transverse  fascia  and 
containing  some  small  pale  spots,  the  costal  membrane 
greyish,  with  elongate  black  s])ots ;  wings  ochraceous,  the 
apical  area  and  posterior  margin  fuscous,  the  first  containing 
a  large  hyaline  spot ;  tibiae  very  pale  olivaceous,  with 
fuscous  annulations  or  suffusions. 

Long.,  excl.  tcgm.,  13^  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  33  mm. 

Ilah.  Brazil;  St.  Catherine  (Brit.  Mus.)  ;  Brazil  (jBoMcarc?, 
Stockholm  Mus.). 

Genus  Anecphora. 
Anccphora,  Karsch,  Berl.  ent.  Zeitschr.  xxxv.  p.  G3  (1890). 
Type,  A.  aurantiaca,  Karsch. 

AnccpJiora  torrida. 

Aphana  torrida,  Walk.  List  Iloni.  ii.  p.  281  (18ol). 

Anccpho7-a  olivacea,  Schmidt,  Stett.  eut.  Zeit.  Ixvi.  p.  370  (1905). 

Genus  J\Ialfeytia. 

Malfeytia,  Sdimidt,  Stett.  cut.  Zeit.  l.vvi.  p.  3G6  (1905). 
Type,  M.  Jlavopunctaia,  Schmidt. 

Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Horaoptcia.  11'3 

MaJfeytia  Monteir'i  sp.  n. 

Head  ami  thorax  above,  face  and  body  beneath,  and  legs 
brownish  ochraceous  ;  abdomen  above  sanf^uineous,  with  a 
broad,  central,  longitudinal,  bhxck  fascia,  and  the  apical  area 
thickly  covered  with  white  waxy  secretion;  anterior  and 
intermediate  legs  and  posterior  femora  castaneous  brown  ; 
tegmina  with  rather  more  than  anterior  half  ochraceous,  with 
black  fasciate  macular  markings  which  contain  inner  green 
occllate  spots  with  testaceous  centres  ;  this  area  is  followed 
by  a  transverse  very  pale  ochraceous  fascia,  the  apical  area 
being  purplish  red,  with  internal  areas  of  the  reticulate  veins 
piceous  ;  wings  very  pale  bluish  green  for  about  basal  two 
thirds,  the  venation  virescent  and  with  some  short  fuscous 
streaks  at  base,  apical  area  broadly  fuscous  brown  ;  vertex  of 
liead  somewhat  deeply  excavate ;  face  obscurely  tricarinatc, 
division  between  face  and  clypeus  profound,  the  latter  arched  ; 
rostrum  reaching  the  posterior  coxje  ;  posterior  femora  with 
five  s})ines,  the  basal  spine  very  minute. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  18  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  44  mm. 

llah.  Angola  [Monteiro,  Ooll.  Dist.). 

Genus  Echetra. 

Echetm,  Walk.  lus.  Saund.,  Honi.  p.  36  (1858). 

Rhonicia,  StSl,  Stett.  eut.  Zeit.  xxiv.  p.  28S  (1803). 

Amilavaca,  Disc.  Biol.  Ceutr.-Aiu.,  lihyiicli.  Horn.  i.  p.  29  (18S7). 

Type,  E.  semilutea,  Walk. 

I  did  not  examine  AValker's  genus  when  working  out  the 
Central-American  specimens,  as  that  writer  gave  the  locality 
for  his  typical  species  as  "  Hindostan,"  whereas  I  tind  it  is 
distinctly  localized  as  "  Para."  Dr.  Handlirsch  having  kindly 
allowed  rae  to  examine  the  type  of  StaPs  genus  Rhonicia,  I 
find  it  congeneric  with  Walker's  Echetra,  and  Stal  was 
probably  similarly  misled  by  Walker's  erroneous  habitat. 

Echetra  fuscata. 

Amilavaca  fu^catn,  Uist.  Biol.  Ceutr.-Am.,  Ekvnch.  Iloui.  i.  p.  30 

t.  V.  tig.  18  a  (1887). 

Genus  Alphina. 
Alphina,  StSl,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  xxiv.  p.  243  (1863). 
Type,  A.  nigrosignata,  Stal. 

194  ]\Jr.  W.  L.  Diotant  on  Ilomoptera. 

AlpJiina  Fryij  sp.  n. 

Head  with  the  vertex  olivaceous,  two  small  spots  at  apex, 
a  small  marginal  spot  on  each  margin  in  front  of  eyes,  and  a 
fascia  behind  the  eyes,  black  ;  pronotum  olivaceous  ante- 
riorly, testaceous  posteriorly,  two  small  spots  on  anterior 
margin,  and  a  central  di.scal  curved  fascia,  black  ;  metanotum 
Llack ;  abdomen  above  ochraceous,  its  apex  black  ;  face 
pici'ous,  with  some  olivaceous  spots,  of  which  the  most 
prominent  are  three  on  basal  margin — one  central  and  one 
at  each  lateral  angle;  clypeus  olivaceous,  the  central  carina- 
tion,  two  spots  at  base  and  two  near  apex,  piceous  ;  body 
beneath  olivaceous,  lateral  margins  of  sternum  and  abdomen 
and  apex  of  the  latter  black  ;  legs  olivaceous,  more  or  less 
annulated  with  black  ;  tegmina  purplish  red,  with  fuscous 
mottlings;  extreme  apical  area  hyaline,  with  the  veins 
fuscous ;  claval  area  paler,  more  ochraceous,  and  spotted  with 
fuscous;  costal  membrane  paler,  with  four  or  five  piceous 
spots,  some  of  which  contain  smaller  ochraceous  spots  ;  wings 
pale  fuliginous,  the  venation  darker  and  with  a  large  apical 
hyaline  spot;  tegmina  only  slightly  longer  than  wings; 
mesonotum  distinctly  tricarinate ;  rostrum  slightly  passing 
the  posterior  coxse ;  clypeus  distinctly  centrally  carinate, 
})Osterior  tibiae  with  five  spines  and  their  bases  distinctly 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  10  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  25  mm. 

Ilab.  J3razil  (Fry  Coll.,  Brit.  Mus.). 

A  smaller  species  than  A.  nigrosignata,  Stal,  the  tegmina 
in  particular  shorter  and  little  longer  than  the  wings,  the 
posterior  tibiae  dilated  at  base,  (tc. 

K.ADAMANA,  gen.  nov. 

Head  much  narrower  than  pronotum,  vertex  excavate,  its 
margins  and  a  central  line  carinate  ;  face  shorter  than  clypeus 
and  almost  equally  broad  throughout,  the  lateral  margins  a 
little  sinuate  or  undulate,  with  a  strong  longitudinal  carina- 
tion  on  each  lateral  area  ;  rostrum  long,  almost  reaching  the 
abdominal  apex ;  pronotum  longer  and  broader  than  head, 
with  a  very  fine  and  obscure  central  carinate  line  ;  meso- 
notum fine,  centrally  carinate,  its  greatest  length  equal  to 
that  of  head  and  pronotum  combined;  abdomen  broad  and 
short ;  posterior  tibia3  with  five  spines  ;  tegmina  three  times 
as  long  as  broad,  costal  margin  moderately  sinuate  at  about 
two  thirds  from  base,  claval  veins  uniting  before  claval  apex, 
near  which  they  terminate  in  a  single  vein  ;  wings  broader 
than  tegmina. 

Type,  R.  variculor^  Dist. 

M\\  W.  L.  Distant  on  llomoiitcia.  11)5 

Radamana  varicolor^  sp.  n. 

Body  oclnaceous  ;  anterior  niaririiis  of  vertex,  pronotum, 
nicsonotuin,  and  nietanotutn,  a  central  longitudinal  fascia  to 
mesonotum,  base,  central  fascia  and  lateral  spots  to  abdooien 
above,  basal  margin  of  face,  two  broad  fascia3  to  face  and 
cljjieus  (almost  fused  on  the  former  and  posteriorly  united 
on  the  laltei),  lateral  areas  of  prostornum,  rostrum,  coxae, 
le<;s,  and  a  marginal  fascia  on  eacli  side  of  abdmnen  beneath, 
black  ;  posterior  coxai  and  bases  of  posterior  femora  and 
tibiai  ochraceous  ;  tegmina  testaceous  for  about  two  thirds 
from  base,  apical  third  pale  ochraceous ;  an  elongate  spot  at 
base  of  costal  membrane  and  a  curved  elongate  spot  beneath 
it,  a  spot  near  centre  of  claval  margin,  a  round  discal  spot, 
two  irregular  spots  which  almost  form  a  transverse  fascia 
before  the  paler  apical  third,  and  three  submarginal  apical 
spots,  black;  wings  sanguineous,  anal,  outer,  and  apical 
margins  piceous. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  12  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  38  mm. 

IJab.  Madagascar;  Ankafina  Forest,  N.E.  of  Fianarantsoa 
(C.  Shaw,  Brit.  .\Jus.). 

Genus  Kalidasa. 

KaUdasa  lanata. 

Cicada  Janata,  Drury,  111.  Ex.  Ent.  ii.  Index,  t.  xxxvii.  fig.  3  (1773) 

(excl.  habitat j. 
Aph(sna  albiflos,  Walk.  List  Horn.  ii.  p.  280  (18ol). 

Although  Drury  gave  the  habitat  "  Jamaica "  for  this 
species,  tliere  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  is  the  Indian  insect 
described  by  Walker  and  recorded  from  Malabar  and  Bombay. 

Genus  Calyptoproctus. 
Cahjptoproctus,  Spin.  Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.  viii.  p.  266  (1839). 
Type,  C.  stigma,  Fabr. 

Calyptoproctus  confusus,  sp.  n. 

Calyptoproctus  quttipes,  Dist.  (nee  Walk.)  Biol.  Centr.-Ani.,  Rhynoh. 
Horn.  i.  p.  36,  t.  v.  fig.  9  a  (1887). 

Head,  thorax,  body  beneath,  and  legs  brownish  ochraceous  ; 
legs  spotted  with  fuscous ;  front  of  head  with  a  central 
longitudinal  black  fascia ;  pronotum  with  two  central  ante- 
riorly converging  black  fascise  not  extending  much  beyond 
middle ;  abdomen  above  black,  the  segments  with  broad 
transverse  greenish-ochraceous  fasciae  on  each  lateral  area, 
the  anal  segment  with  a  spot  of  the  same  colour  on  each  side; 

19G  ]\Ir.  AV.  L.  Distant  on  Horaoptera. 

togmina  uniformly  pale  brownish  ocliraceous,  spotted  with 
pale  iuscous,  the  spots  on  costal  margin  piceous ;  wings 
hyaline,  with  the  venation  piceous ;  head  (including  eyes)  as 
wide  as  pronotum  ;  front  moderately  concave,  with  the 
marginal  ridges  prominent ;  face  rugose,  the  most  prominent 
ridges  being  two  central  whicli  anteriorly  diverge  ;  rostrum 
reaching  the  posterior  coxa?. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  12  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  38  mm. 

Ilab.  Guatemala,  San  Isidro,  Pantaleon  (Godman  ColL, 
Brit.  Mus.). 

When  I  identified  this  species  as  C.  guttipcK,  "Walker's  type 
specimen  was  in  an  unset  condition  ;  since  tlien  it  has  been 
set  out,  with  the  result  that  the  Guatemalan  specimens  are 
found  to  constitute  a  distinct  species.  C.  guttipes,  by  the 
colour  of  the  tegraina,  is  somewliat  closely  allied  to  C.  stigma, 
Fabr.,  but  the  colour  of  the  dorsal  surface  of  the  abdomen  (in 
a  gomewhat  mutilated  condition)  appears  to  be  ocliraceous 
and  unicolorous. 

Calyptoproctiis  coloratus,  sp.  n. 

Head,  thorax,  body  beneath,  and  legs  dull  ocliraceous,  more 
or  less  spotted  with  fuscous  ;  front  of  head  with  a  central 
longitudinal  black  fascia  ;  pronotum  witli  two  converging 
black  central  fasciai  on  its  anterior  half,  between  which  is  a 
stramineous  spot  ;  mesonotum  with  four  stramineous  spots  on 
the  anterior  margin,  the  two  central  ones  piceous  at  base,  the 
lateral  margins  (narrowly)  and  apex  (broadly)  stramineous  ; 
abdomen  above  black,  the  segments  with  a  broad  transverse 
green  fascia  on  each  lateral  area  and  the  anal  segment  with  a 
spot  of  the  same  colour  on  each  side;  abdominal  aj)pendage 
beneath  bluish  black;  tegniina  with  about  basal  half  testa- 
ceous, remaining  apical  area  more  ochraceous,  with  the  vena- 
tion fuscous,  costal  membiane  stramineous  spotted  with 
piceous,  the  testaceous  area  more  or  less  suffused  with 
piceous,  the  most  prominent  suffusion  being  in  the  form  of 
an  irregular  broad  transverse  fascia  near  middle  of  tegmen, 
apical  area  with  ])iceous  suffusions  princij)ally  near  apex, 
outer  posterior  angle,  and  as  an  oblique  costal  patch  just  beyond 
the  testaceous  area  ;  wings  hyaline,  green  at  extreme  base, 
the  venation  black;  eyes  slightly  projecting  beyond  the 
anterior  margin  of  the  pronotum;  rostrum  reaching  the 
posterior  coxte ;  abdomen  above  with  a  tine  but  distinct 
central  longitudinal  ridge  ;  posterior  tibiaj  with  four  spines, 
the  basal  s[)ine  shortest. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  15  mm.  ;  exp.  tegm.  42  ram. 

Hah.  N.W.Ecuador;  Kio  Durango  {Rosenberg^  Brit.  Mus.). 

Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  07i  Ilomopteia.  197 

Calyptoproctus  fascipennis,  sp.  n. 

Body  and  legs  pale  ocliraceous ;  front  of  head  witli  a 
contra!  linear  black  spot ;  abdomen  above  with  the  sef^rnental 
margins  and  anal  appendage  black  ;  legs  spotted  with 
fuscous  ;  tegmina  pale  pnri)lish  red  for  nearly  basal  half,  the 
remaining  a})ical  area,  costal  membrane,  and  claval  margin 
pale  dull  ocliraceous,  more  or  less  spotted  with  fuscous,  more 
])rominently  so  on  costal  margin ;  wings  subhyaline,  very 
pale  fuliginous,  darker  towards  apex,  the  venation  black, 
extreme  base  virescent ;  basal  segment  of  abdomen  above 
with  central  small  rounded  callosities;  rostrum  reaching  the 
posterior  cosfe,  its  apex  black;  posterior  tibiro  with  four 
spines,  three  beyond  middle,  one  near  base. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  12  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  31  mm. 

llah.  N.W.  Ecuador;  Kio  Durango  {Roseiiberrjj  Brit. 

Genus  Pelidnopepla. 

Pelidnopepla,  StSl,  Hem.  Fabr.  ii.  pp.  88  &  89  note  (1869). 
Type,  P.  obscia-a,  Fabr. 

Ptlidnopepla  ohscura. 

Lijiitra  obscura,  Fabr.  Syst.  Rhyn.Qr.  p.  59.  9  (180-3). 
VeUdnopei)la  obscura,  Stfil,  Hem.  Fabr.  ii.  p.  89  (1869). 
Poiocera  ni(jrifro7is,  Walk.  liis.  Saiind.,  Hem.  p.  34  (1858). 

Genus  Scaralis. 

Scaralis,  Stal,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  xxiv.  p.  241  (1863). 
Type,  S.  picta,  Germ. 

Scaralis  versicolor,  sp.  n. 

Head,  thorax,  and  legs  olivaceous  brown ;  pronotum  with 
two  large  central  spots  and  tw^o  smaller  spots  on  each  lateral 
area  ;  mesonotum  with  two  large,  central,  contiguous,  curved 
and  angulated  spots,  a  small  spot  near  each  side  of  them 
near  base,  and  two  spots  on  each  lateral  area,  margins 
of  metanotum,  about  posterior  half  of  face,  two  central  fasciate 
spots  to  clypeus,  tibiae,  tarsi,  and  apex  of  rostrum,  piceous  or 
black ;  abdomen  testaceous  red,  above  with  a  broad  central 
black  fascia  and  the  whole  of  apical  segment  (excluding 
posterior  margin)  black,  beneath  with  black  lateral  spots  and 
apical  segment  olivaceous  brown  ;  tegmina  with  about  basal 
two  thirds  black,   opaque,  with  the  venation  ocliraceous,  a 

198  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  llomoptera. 

broad  transverse  fascia  a  little  beyond  base,  and  a  spot  near 
apex  of  costal  membrane,  stramineous,  apical  third  hyaline, 
the  venation  fuscous  towards  apex  and  with  a  fuscous  costal 
suffusion  before  apex  which  readies  middle  of  tegmen  ;  wings 
with  basal  two  thirds  black,  with  two  oblong  upper  basal 
violaceous  streaks  and  the  reticulate  veins  on  basal  area  of 
the  same  colour,  apical  third  hyaline,  the  venation  fuscous  ; 
rostrum  considerably  passing  posterior  coxaj ;  posterior  tibite 
witii  four  spines  ;  face  with  two  curved  central  carinations  oa 
posterior  half. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  22  ram.;  exp.  tegm.  G3  mm. 

JJab.  Bolivia  {J.  Steinhach,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Matacosa,  gen.  no  v. 

Head  (including  eyes)  only  a  little  narrower  than  anterior 
margin  of  pronotum,  vertex  excavated,  its  anterior  margin 
broadly  rounded,  the  marginal  ridges  very  prominent  j  face 
much  as  in  Scarah's,  but  clypeus  with  a  percurreut  central 
carination  as  in  Domitia ;  anterior  tibiae  longer  than  the 
femora,  posterior  tibisB  with  four  spines ;  abdomen  short, 
about  as  long  as  space  between  apex  of  head  and  base  of 
cruciform  elevation,  with  a  distinct  central  longitudinal  ridge, 
the  apical  segment  broadly  truncate  ;  pronotum  with  a  central 
longitudinal  ridge,  its  anterior  margin  broadly  subtruncately 
produced  between  the  eyes,  its  posterior  margin  centrally 
sinuate  and  with  a  central  basal  transverse  ridge  ;  mesonotum 
tricarinate,  the  lateral  carinations  anteriorly  forked ;  tegmina 
more  than  twice  but  not  three  times  as  long  as  broad,  with 
reticulate  veins  over  the  whole  surface;  wings  reticulately 
veined  except  on  basal  area. 

Type,  Al.  miscella,  Dist.  {Domitia^). 
This  genus  is  somewhat  interm 

genus  is  somewhat  intermediate  between  Scaralis  and 
Domitia  ;  to  the  first  it  is  allied  by  the  length  of  the  anterior 
tibige,  but  differs  by  the  narrower  pronotum,  the  shorter  and 
broader  tegmina,  and  by  the  percurrent  carination  to  the 

Matacosa  miscella. 

Dotnitiii?  jniscelld,  Dist.   Biol.   Ceiitr.-Aui.,  Eliyuch.  Horn,  i    p.  33, 
t.  V.  tig.  7  «  (^1887). 

Genus  Jamaicastks. 

Afr.  iv.  p.  138  (1806),  uoi 
ntomologist,  xxxiii.  p.  'Jii 

Type,  J.  consfillata,  Guer.  {Li/stra,  Poiocera). 

Dotnitia,  Still,  Horn.  Afr.  iv.  p.  138  (1806),  uom.  pra?occ. 
Jamnicades,  Kirk.  Entomologist,  xxxiii.  p.  l'43  (1900),  n.  noni. 

I\Ir.  W.  L.  Di.slaiit  on  llumoplcra.  llt'J 

Jamaicastes  Jiaroni^  a  p.  n. 

Head,  pvoiiofum,  mesonotum,  and  body  bencatli  dark 
ochraccous ;  abdomen  al)Ovc  bright  ocliraceous  ;  eyes,  meta- 
notum,  and  base  of  abdomen  above  piceous;  legs  pale  san- 
guineous ;  tegmiiia  testaceous  for  more  than  basal  half, 
stramineous  on  apical  area,  all  tiie  veins  virescent,  on  tiie 
basal  area  are  three  transverse  series  of  large  spots  which 
almost  form  fascia?,  the  two  innermost  series  beine;  dark 
testaceous,  the  outer  series  virescent ;  wings  with  about 
basal  third  sanguineous,  linearly  streaked  with  fuscous,  the 
remaining  area  pale  bronzy  brown,  apex  of  anal  area  tawny 
brown ;  face  finely  granulose,  finely  transversely  ridged 
between  anterior  margins  of  eyes,  on  each  side  obliquely 
ridged  to  about  centre  of  posterior  margin,  and  with  a  central 
longitudinal  ridge;  clypeuswith  a  central  longitudinal  ridge; 
posterior  tibiae  with  three  spines;  pronotum  witli  a  central 
longitudinal  carination  not  reaching  anterior  margin ;  meso- 
notum tricarinate. 

Long,,  excl.  tegm,,  12  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  35  mm. 

llab.  Ecuador  [Baron^  Brit.  Mus.). 

Jamaicastes  Steinhachi,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  and  mesonotum  dark  ocliraceous ;  meta- 
notura  and  abdomen  above  black,  its  apex  narrowly  bluish 
green,  anal  appendages  covered  with  white  waxy  secretion  ; 
face,  clypeus,  and  sternum  dark  ocliraceous  ;  abdomen  beneath 
pale  ocliraceous  ;  lateral  and  posterior  margins  of  the  abdo- 
minal segments  and  the  legs  pale  virescent ;  anterior  and 
intermediate  tarsi  fuscous ;  tegmina  for  about  basal  two  thirds 
dark  ocliraceous,  with  large  macular,  dark,  testaceous  suffu- 
sions, the  venation  virescent,  apical  area  pale  bronzy,  and 
separated  from  the  darker  basal  area  by  a  pale  virescent 
transverse  fascia  ;  wings  with  about  basal  two  thirds  black, 
the  apical  area  bronzy,  apical  half  of  anal  area  tawny  brown  ; 
face  somewhat  reticulately  granulose,  the  anterior  transverse 
and  central  carinations  distinct,  the  oblique  lateral  carinations 
indistinct;  clypeus  centrally  carinate;  posterior  tibiae  with 
three  spines  ;  pronotum  centrally  carinate  ;  mesonotum 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  15-16  mm.  ;  exp.  tegm.  40  mm. 

Ilab.  Bolivia  {J.  Steinbac/i,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  Alaruasa,  gen.  nov. 
Head   broad,  including  eyes   almost  as   broad   as  anterior 
margin  of  pronotum,    vertex    short,     broad,    excavate,    the 

200  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  ITomoptera. 

mavgins  carinate ;  face  broad,  its  lateral  margins  sinuate, 
with  ibree  central  cariiiations,  tlie  lateral  ones  oblique  and 
continuous,  the  central  one  straight,  only  extending  through 
half"  the  length  o£  face;  clypeus  with  two  very  coarse  longi- 
tudinal ridges  united  into  one  from  middle  to  apex  ;  rostrum 
reaching  posterior  coxffi ;  anterior  tibiai  longer  than  femora, 
posterior  femora  with  four  spines ;  abdomen  short,  about  as 
long  as  space  between  apex  of  head  and  base  of  cruciform 
elevation;  tegmina  long,  three  times  as  long  as  broad; 
tegraina  and  wings  reticulately  veined. 
Type,  A.  lepida^  Spin.  (Poiocera). 

Genus  HyPuEPA. 
irtjj}(ppa,  StSl,  Berl.  ent.  Zeitschr.  vi.  p.  306  (1862). 
Type,  //.  costata,  Fabr.  {Lystra). 

Genus  Florichisme. 

rcecilodola,  Stal,  Stett.  ent.  Zeit.  xxxi.  p.  291  (187(5),  nom.  prajocc. 

Florichisine,  Kirk.  Entomologist,  xxxvii.  p.  279  (1904),  n.  nom. 

Type,  F.  venosa.  Germ.  {Lystra). 

Some  confusion  appertaining  to  these  genera,  as  Stal  had 
not  given  the  type  of  his  genus  Poecilostola,  I  sought  the 
assistance  of  Dr.  Aurivillius,  who  kindly  examined  the 
specimens  in  the  Stockholm  Museum,  and  informed  me: — 
"  The  genus  PcecUostola,  Stal,  is  not  in  onr  collection.  Under 
the  heading  of  llypcepa  there  are,  however,  three  species — 
costata,  Fabr.,  semivitrea,  Stal  *,  and  venosa,  Germ.  Only 
the  first  two  of  these  species  agrees  with  SiaPs  description  of 
Uypcepa-,  the  third,  venosa,  agrees,  as  it  seems  to  me,  well 
with  the  description  of  Poscilostola,  and  was  probably  tlie 
species  on  which  Stal  founded  that  genus."  There  s.-ems 
scarcely  a  doubt  that  Dr.  Aurivillius  has  solved  the  problem. 

Zeunasa,  gen.  nov. 

Head  (including  eyes)  much  narrow'er  than  pronotum, 
vertex  excavate,  its  marginal  ridges  very  prominent ;  face 
broader  tiian  long,  its  posterior  margin  concave  before  clypeus, 
transversely  ridged  before  base,  from  the  lateral  angh>s  of 
tliis  ridge  are  two  oblique  carinations  ^Yhicll  are  bent  and 
obliquely  carried  to  near  middle  of  apical   margin,   between 

*  Sank  by  Stfil  as  a  svnonvm  of  //.  cvi>(al(i,  I'abr.  (Berl.  ent.  Zcirschr. 
vi.  p.  300,  1862). 

Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  ITomoptera.  201 

tlie  upper  part  of  fliese  a  short  lonfritarllnal  carination  ;  other 
characters  fjenerally  as  in  Acra'/Jiia,  S(al,  from  which  it  is 
differentiated  by  tlic  structure  of  the  head  ;  rostrum  variable 
in  hMigth,  often  rcacliiiit^  tlie  j)eiiultimate  abdominal  segment. 
Type,  Z.  irrorata^  Bhmch.  {Pccocera). 

Zeunasa  irrorata. 

Popocera  irrornta,  Blancli.  ia  d'Orbigny,  Voy.  vi.  (2)  p.  221,  t.  xxxi. 

fig.  1  (1846). 
roiocera  arrosa,  Walk.  List  Horn.  ii.  p.  294  (1851). 

Genus  Acmonia. 
Acmonia,  Stul,  Hem.  Afr.  iv.  p.  137  (1866). 
Type,  A.  dicliroa^  Germ.  {Lystra). 

Acmonia  Fiehrigl^  sp.  n. 

Vertex  of  head,  face,  and  clypeus  ochraceous  ;  pronotum 
and  mesonotum  dark  olivaceous,  very  finely  and  minutely 
speckled  with  grey;  abdomen  above  sanguineous  j  metanotum, 
broad  central  basal  fascia  and  apical  margin  to  abdomen 
black  ;  body  beneath  and  legs  ochraceous  ;  apex  of  clypeus, 
coxffi,  spots  and  suffusions  to  legs,  and  lateral  and  posterior 
margins  to  abdominal  segments,  black ;  tegmina  with 
about  basal  two  thirds  piceous,  the  venation  and  base  of 
costal  membrane  ochraceous  and  with  a  few  ochraceous  spots 
near  its  termination  at  inner  angle,  apical  area  subiiyaline, 
with  the  venation  ochraceous  ;  wings  with  about  basal  third 
reddish  ochraceous  outwardly  margined  with  black,  the  apical 
half  of  anal  area  piceous,  apical  two  tliirds  hyaline  witii  the 
venation  black  ;  marginal  ridges  of  vertex  undulate  ;  face 
granulose,  very  obsoletely  tricarinate ;  clypeus  centrally 
broadly  subfoveate;  rostrum  just  passing  posterior  coxae; 
pronotum  transversely  wrinkled,  strongly  centrally  longitu- 
dinally ridged ;  mesonotum  distinctly  tricarinate,  the  lateral 
carinations  strongly  sinuate. 

Long.,  excl.  tegra.,  11  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  28  mm. 

Hah.  Paraguay;  San  Bernardino  (A".  i^<e^?-/^,  Brit.  Mus.), 

Acmonia  Crowleyi,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  mesonotum,  face,  and  clypeus  olivaceous 
brown ;  abdomen  above,  apex  of  clypeus,  and  legs  black  ; 
abdomen  beneath,  lateral  margins  of  abdomen  above,  and 
spots  and  streaks  to  legs  ochraceous,  posterior  abdominal 
segmental   margins   above  sanguineous ;  tegmina   olivaceous 

202  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Horaoptera. 

brown  to  near  apex,  wliicli  is  liyaline,  before  the  pale  apex  is 
a  transverse,  narrow,  dull  ocliraceous  fascia,  costal  membrane 
and  costal  area  very  finely  and  minutely  speckled  with 
greyish ;  wings  witli  about  basal  half  piceous,  sanguineous  at 
base,  apical  half  hyaline,  with  the  venation  piceous  ;  pro- 
notum  transversely  wrinkled  and  centrally  longitudinally 
ridged,  the  ridge  not  reaching  the  anterior  margin  ;  raeso- 
notum  tricarinate,  tlie  lateral  carinations  curved  and  meeting 
anteriorly;  face  finely  rugulose ;  clypeus  broadly  centrally 
subfoveate  ;  rostrum  reaching  the  posterior  coxae. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  9  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  30  mm. 

JJab.  Brazil;  St.  Catherine  (Crowley  Bequest,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Tabocasa,  gen.  nov. 

Closely  allied  to  Learcha^  Stal*,  but  diflfering  in  the 
following  particulars  : — Face  without  the  subapical  transverse 
undulated  ridge;  clypeus  distinctly  centrally  carinate;  meso- 
notum  of  moderate  length,  longer,  but  not  nearly  twice  as 
long  as  pronotum. 

Type,  T.  lineata,  Walk.  (^Poiocera). 

Tabocasa  saiiguinolenta,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  mesonotum,  body  beneath,  and  legs 
olivaceous  or  oclnaceous;  abdomen  above  ocliraceous,  with 
the  segmental  margins  and  apical  segment  carmine-red ; 
tegmina  with  more  than  basal  half  testaceous,  its  venation, 
the  costal  membrane,  aj)ical  area,  and  apical  half  of  claval 
margin  pale  virescent ;  wings  sanguineous,  their  apices  very 
pale  virescent,  some  of  the  longitudinal  veins  in  the  san- 
guineous area  piceous  ;  pronotum  and  mesonotum  obsoletely 
tricavinatc,  the  central  carinatiou  in  each  case  distinct ;  face 
rugulose,  about  as  long  as  broad,  the  lateral  margins  strongly 
concavely  sinuate  ;  clypeus  centrally  longitudinally  carinate ; 
rostrum  scarcely  passing  the  intermediate  coxpq  ;  posterior 
femora  with  four  spines. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  13  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  37  mm. 

llah.  ISI.W.  Ecuador;  Rio  Durango  (Biit.  Mus.). 

Tabocasa  lineata. 
Poiocera  lineata,  Walk.  List  Horn.,  Suppl.  p.  51  (1858). 

*  By  the  kindness  of  Dr.  Ilaudlirsch  I  have  been  allowed  to  examine 
the  type  of  this  genus,  Learcha  sponsa,  Stal,  which  is  contained  iu  the 
llof-Museum,  Vienna. 

Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Ilomoptera.  203 


Genus  Messena. 
Messena,  StSl,  Rio  Jau.  Ilein.  ii.  p.  G7  (1858). 
Type,  M.  pulverosa,  Hope. 

Messena  2Iouhoti,  sp.  n. 

Boily  ochraceous;  metanotum,  base  of  abdomen,  sternum, 
and  legs  violaceous  ;  apex  of  abdomen  with  a  long  wlute 
waxy  secretion  ;  tegmina  pale  ochraceous,  pale  purplisli  on 
basal  area,  with  two  very  large  oblique  piceous  spots  beneath 
middle,  before  apex  there  is  a  very  largo  fuscous  suffusion 
crossing  the  tegmen  and  a  submarginal  apical  series  of  small 
black  spots,  the  largest  near  outer  angle ;  wings  lacteous 
white,  with  an  apical  submarginal  series  of  five  black  spots 
and  an  obscure  fuscous  transverse  fascia  beyond  middle  ; 
posterior  tibite  with  six  spines  ;  face  smooth,  paler  than 
vertex  ;  wings  a  little  narrower  than  tegmina,  narrowly  pale 
violaceous  at  extreme  basal  angle. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  13  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  -40  ram. 

Hab.  Cambodia  [Mouhot,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Most  nearly  allied  to  J/,  sinuata,  Atkins. 

Genus  Pqrusiia. 

Purusha,  Dist.  Faun.  B.  I.,  Rhjnch.  iii.  p.  236  (1900). 

Type,  P.  reversa,  Hope  (^Euryhrachis) . 

I  was  unable  [supra]  to  properly  describe  this  genus,  as  I 
only  knew  it  then  by  Hope^s  figure. 

Head  broad,  but  including  eyes  not  reaching  the  anterior 
angles  of  the  pronotum,  vertex  with  the  margins  prominently 
ridged,  eyes  distinctly  spined;  face  with  the  lateral  margins 
obliquely  directed  outwardly  to  about  middle  and  then  more 
acutely  directed  obliquely  inwardly  to  base  of  clypeus,  which 
is  as  long  as  face ;  rostrum  about  reaching  the  posterior 
coxae ;  pronotum  a  little  longer  than  vertex,  its  lateral 
margins  subacutely  produced  ;  mesonotum  longer  than  pro- 
notum, with  a  distinct  central  ridge  not  quite  reachino-  either 
anterior  margin  or  apex  ;  femora  moderately  flattened  and 
dilated,  anterior  and  intermediate  tibise  outwardly  laminately 
dilated,  the  former  more  strongly  so,  posterior  tibiae  with  five 
spines;  tegmina  of  moderate  length,  widened  from  base  to 
apex,  apical  margin  obliquely  rounded,  venation  reticulate 
throughout;  wings  long,  about  as  long  as  tegmina,  but 
obliquely  lobately  posteriorly  produced,  apical  margin 
rounded,  posterior  margin  sinuate. 

204  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Horaoptera. 

Purusha  reversa. 

Euryhrachis  reversa,  Hope,  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  xix.  p.  134,  t.  xii.  fig.  8 

Purusha  reversa,  Dist.  Faun.  B.  I.,  lihjnch.  iii.  p.  2.36,  fig.  102  (1006). 

Purusha  paradoxa. 
Messena  (?)  2^(iradoxa,  Gerst.  Mitt.  Ver.  Vorporam.  xxvii.  p.  33  (1896). 

Purusha  ruhroviaculata,  sp.  n. 

Body  ocliraceous  brown,  abJomen  much  covered  with 
wliite  waxy  secretion  ;  legs  piceou.s,  posterior  femora 
brownish  ochraceous  ;  apex  of  clypeus  piceous  ;  tegmina  dark 
castaneous,  tiie  apical  margin  broadly  tinged  with  ochraceous, 
a  white  costal  spot  a  little  beyond  middle  of  costal  membrane, 
and  three  prominent  testaceous-red  spots  in  transverse  series 
a  little  beyond  middle;  wings  cretaceous  white,  the  outer 
margin  narrowly  brownish  ochraceous,  and  witli  a  broad 
submarginal  dark  castaneous  fascia,  above  this  on  apical  half 
some  small  sj)ots  of  the  same  colour;  vertex  of  head  with  a 
faint  central  longitudinal  ridge;  pronotum  with  a  cluster  of 
small  tubercles  on  each  lateral  area;  face  with  an  arcuated 
series  of  minute  tubercles;  eyes  with  a  prominent  lateral 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  15  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  54  mm. 

Hah.  Siam ;  Chantabun  (Alouhot,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Genus  Paropioxys. 

Paropioxys,  Karsch,  Berl.  ent.  Zeitschr,  xxxv.  p.  57  (1S90). 
Type,  P.  opulentuSj  Karsch. 

Paropioxys  negus,  sp.  n. 

Head  and  thorax  above  ochraceous,  vertex  with  the 
anterior  margin  and  two  spots  near  base  black;  pronotum 
M'ith  a  transverse  series  of  four  black  spots  ;  mcsonotum 
with  two  small  transverse  linear  spots  on  anterior  margin, 
four  discal  subtransvcrse  spots,  and  a  spot  near  apex,  black; 
abdomen  above  pale  sanguineous,  slightly  greyish ly  tomentose 
and  tinged  with  ochraceous  on  basal  half;  face  stramineous 
with  the  basal  margin  black;  clypeus  ochraceous,  black  at 
base  and  with  a  central  longitudinal  sanguineous  line; 
anterior  and  intermediate  legs  pale  ochraceous,  coxte,  tro- 
chanters, the  whole  of  posterior  legs,  and  abdomen  beneath, 

Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Homoptera.  205 

sanp^uincons ;  tarsi  black,  the  base  of  apical  joint  san- 
guineous ;  tcgmina  tawny  brown,  more  palely  finely  maculate 
and  paler  on  costal  and  apical  areas,  four  large  spots  on  costal 
area,  two  on  inner  area,  and  a  double  series  (some  15  in 
number)  of  apical  spots  black  ;  wings  bronzy  brown,  fuscous 
on  apical  area,  where  there  are  nine  or  ten  marginal  black 
spots,  and  subviolaceous  on  posterior  and  anal  margins; 
anterior  tibiaj  dilated,  much  spotted  with  black,  and  with  a 
sanguineous  apical  spot. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  11  mm. ;  exp.  tegm.  31  mm. 

J/ab.  Abyssinia  ;   Atbara  (Brit.  Mus.) 

Genus  Aspidonitys. 
Aspidonitys,  Karsch,  Ent.  Nsichricht.  xxi.  pp.  210  &  21o  (1895). 

Type,  A.  casta,  Karsch. 

Aspidonitys  admirabilisj  sp.  n. 

Head,  pro-  and  mesonota,  sternum,  and  legs  castaneous  ; 
abdomen  brownish  testaceous  ;  tegmina  castaneous  to  beyond 
middle,  with  a  whitish  transverse  fascia  a  little  beyond  base, 
apical  area  stramineous,  greyishly  tomentose,  suffused  with 
indigo-blue  and  with  an  outer  transverse  series  of  three  spots 
of  the  same  colour,  beyond  these  spots  the  colour  is  bright 
stramineous  and  non-tomentose,  the  apical  margin  fuscous 
brown;  wings  piceous  ;  vertex  of  head  thickly  longitudinally 
striate;  pronotuui  transversely  striate  near  anterior  margin  ; 
face  very  finely  rugulose ;  clypeus  smooth,  with  a  distinct 
central  carination  ;  posterior  tibiae  with  four  spines. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  13  mm.;   exp.  tegm.  32  mm. 

Hah.  British  East  Africa  (Coll.  Dist.). 

Genus  Metoponitys. 
Metoponitys,  Karsch,  Berl.  ent.  Zeitschr.  xxxv.  p.  o9  (1890). 
Type,  M.  Morgeni,  Karsch. 

Metoponitys  pennatus,  sp.  n. 

Body  above  brownish  ochraceous  ;  body  beneath  and  legs 
pale  castaneous;  tegmina  brownish  ochraceous,  cost;il  area 
beyond  middle  castaneous  and  containing  four  or  five  oblique 
piceous  spots,  the  apex  piceous  and  cojitaining  three  small 
ochraceous  spots  on  apical  margin,  disk  with  scattered 
obscure  piceous  spots ;  wings  dark  fuliginous  with  two  paler 

Ann.  <Sc  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  15 

206  ^Ir.  W.  L.  Distant  on  Homoptera. 

lont^itudinal  streaks ;  tegmina  with  tlieir  apices  narrowed 
Lut  broadly  truncate;  pronotuni  with  a  distinct  foveate  spot 
on  each  side  of  the  central  carination  ;  mesonotura  distinctly 
tricarinate,  a  foveate  spot  inside  each  lateral  carination ; 
posterior  tibiae  with  three  spines ;  face  with  an  arcuated 
macular  line  near  each  lateral  margin ;  clypeus  obliquely 
transversely  darkly  striate  on  each  lateral  area. 

Long.,  excl.  tegin.,  6  mm.;  exp,  tegm.  IS  mm. 

JIah.   Sierra  L"one  ;  Sherboro  Island  (.S'l/nio/i,  Brit.  Mns.). 

The  specific  cljaracteristic  of  this  species  is  the  broad 
truncate  apices  to  the  tegmina. 

Clenus  Platybrachys. 
Platybrachys,  StSl,  Eugenies  Resa,  p.  280  (1860). 
Type,  P.  decemmacuJa,  Walk.  [Euryhrachjs). 

PlatyhrachyH  harhatn. 

Cicada  barbata,  Fabr.  Svst.  Ent.  p.  684.  11  (1775"). 
Ewyhrachys  rubigmea,  Walk.  List  Horn.  ii.  p.  386  (ISol). 

Genus  Olonia. 
Ohnia,  Stal,  Ofv.  Vet.-Ak.  Forh.  1862,  p.  488. 
Type,  0.  riilncunda,  Walk.  [Earyhrachys). 

Olonia  maryinata,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  mesonotum^  face,  rostrum,  and  legs  black  ; 
abdomen  and  sternum  sanguineous;  lateral  areas  of  sternum 
and  lateral  and  apical  segmental  margins  of  abdomen  beneath 
black  ;  apical  area  of  abdomen  cretaceously  tomento?e  ; 
tegmina  castaneous,  with  scattered  small  paler  spots,  the 
costal  and  apical  margins  broadly  and  the  claval  margin 
narrowly  black;  wings  piceous,  the  venation  black;  head 
(including  eyes)  reaching  the  anterior  lateral  angles  of  tlie 
pronotum ;  face  broad,  tinely  granulose,  its  lateral  angle 
broadly  obtusely  prominent ;  clypeus  smooth,  not  carinate  ; 
vertex  of  head  almost  as  long  as  pronotum ;  mesonotum 
distinctly  tricarinate. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  0  mm.  ;   exp.  tegm.  18  mm. 

Hah.  Queensland  {F.  P.  DodJ,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Yaerana,  gen.  nov. 

Head  (including  eyes)  as  wide  as  pronotum  ;  vertex  trans- 
verse, slightly    excavate,  the  margins  distinctly  ridged,  eyes 

^fr.  ^V.  L.  Distfint  on  Ilomoptera.  207 

uiiarnipd  ;  .Tiitoiiiia^  cylindrical,  extcndiiif^  heyond  the  eyes  ; 
face  with  its  base  slightly  sinuate,  lateral  margins  outwardly 
oblique  to  beyond  eyes  and  then  inwardly  oblique  to  base  of 
clypeus,  where  it  is  angularly  sinuate,  with  a  curved  carinate 
line  between  the  region  of  the  eyes;  pronotum  and  mcso- 
Dotum  combined  very  slightly  slinrter  than  broad;  pronotum 
shorter  than  mesonotum,  the  latter  tricarinate;  posterior 
tibia;  with  three  s[)inps  ;  tegmina  three  times  longer  than 
broad,  with  the  costal  margin  sometimes  strongly  sinuate 
before  apex,  and  with  the  apical  margin  either  obliquely 
rounded  or  strongly  sinuate  ;  wings  about  as  broad  but  much 
shorter  than  tegmina. 

Allied  to  Oloniiiy  Stal,  but  diffc'ring  principally  by  the 
antennse  projecting  beyond  the  eyes. 

Type,  Y.  sinuata,  Dist. 

Yarrana  sinuafa,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pro-  and  mesonota,  face,  clypeus,  sternum,  and  legs 
fuscous  brown  with  paler  macular  mottlings;  abdomen 
sanguineous,  its  apex  with  a  white  waxy  secretion  ;  bases  of 
posterior  tibiae  ochraceous ;  tegmina  with  the  basal  half 
greenish  ochraceous,  at  extreme  base  there  are  two  large 
costal  spots,  a  central  spot,  and  the  claval  area  black, 
apical  half  fuscous,  with  a  large  triangular  costal  spot  near 
apex  and  a  large  subapical  marginal  spot  pale  hyaline, 
extreme  apical  margin  piceous ;  wings  piceous  ;  tegmina  with 
the  costal  margin  strongly  sinuate  before  apex,  the  apical 
margin  very  strongly  concavely  sinuate ;  face  coarsely 
reticulately  granulose  and  slightly  greyishly  pubescent;  pro- 
notum with  some  scattered  granules,  its  posterior  margin 
sinuate;  mesonotum  with  the  central  carination  almost 
obsolete,  the  space  between  the  carinations  ])iceou3. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  5^  mm.;  exp.  tegm.  18^  mm. 

Bab.  Queensland  {F.  P.  Dodd,  Brit.  Mus.)  ;  Karanda, 
Cairns  {W.  S.  Day,  Brit.  Mus.). 

Yarrana  continuata,  sp.  n. 

Head,  pronotum,  mesonotum,  face,  clypeus,  sternum,  and 
legs  piceous ;  basal  margin  and  two  discal  linear  spots  to 
vertex,  anterior  margin  to  pronotum,  and  posterior  margin  to 
mesonotum  brownish  ochraceous  ;  abdomen  sanguineous,  its 
apex  with  a  white  waxy  secretion ;  tegmina  pale  brow^nish 
with  small  fuscous  spots,  base  of  costal  margin,  base  of  claval 
margin,  a  broken  fascia  before  apex,  and  the  apical  margin 
piceous,  a  pale  stramineous   transverse  fascia  a  little   beyond 


208  :\rr.  Pt.  I.  Pocock  on  a 

base,  a  large  costal  spot  near  apex,  and  a  transverse  apical 
fascia  pale  hyaline  ;  wings  piceous,  with  two  slender  oblique 
paler  lines;  tegniina  with  the  costal  margin  not  or  very 
obscurely  sinuate,  the  apical  margin  obliquely  rounded  ;  face 
coarsely  reticulately  granulose ;  mesonotum  distinctly  tri- 

Var.  Tegmina  without  the  basal  transverse  pale  fascia. 

Long.,  excl.  tegm.,  5  to  5^  mm.  ;  exp.  tegm.  17  mm. 

Ilab.  Queensland  {F.  P.  Dodd,  Brit.  Mus.). 

XXX. — Description  of  a  new  Species  of  Mangahey  (Cercocebus 
Hainlyni).  By  R.  I.  PococK,  F.L.8.,  F.Z.S.,  Super- 
int.nilent  of  the  Zoological  Society's  Gardens. 

[riate  YII.] 

Cercocehus  Hamli/ni,  sp.  n.     (PI.  VI T.) 

Face  pale  flesh-coloured,  with  darker  and  lighter,  larger 
and  smaller  spots  of  brown  pigment,  most  plentiful  round 
and  below  the  eyes  and  on  the  bare  part  of  the  cheek,  but 
absent  on  tlie  upper  and  lower  lips  and  on  the  nose.  Upper 
lids  whiter  than  surrounding  skin,  with  white  eyelasiies. 
Iris  of  eyes  olive-brown  ;  ball  of  the  eye,  where  visible,  white, 
with  brown  pigment-spots.  Brow-ridge  white,  with  a  few 
pigment-spots.  Ears  flesh-coloured,  with  a  few  pigment- 
spots.  Summit  of  head  thickly  hairy,  the  hairs  longest  along 
the  middle  and  forming  po.steriorly  a  parieto-occipital  crest, 
for  the  most  part  blackish  to  the  roots,  with  greyish  tips.  In 
front  and  at  the  sides  this  black  crown  is  sharply  defined  by 
the  greyish-white  hair  forming  a  narrow  brow-band  and  by 
the  hair  of  the  same  colour  clothing  the  cheeks  and  the  area 
behind  the  ear.  The  hairs  on  the  cheek  forming  a  long 
backwardly  directed  tuft  concealing  and  projecting  beyond 
the  lower  half  of  the  ear.  A  similar  white  tuft  formed  by 
the  hairs  behind  the  ear.  Extending  backwards  from  the 
head  over  the  nape  of  the  neck  and  between  the  shoulders 
there  is  a  broad  pale  brown  band,  which  becomes  broader  and 
at  the  same  time  fainter,  less  well  defined,  and  more  diffused 
over  the  thoracic  area  of  the  back,  and  finally  dies  away  on 
the  lumbar  region,  leaving  the  sacral  region  and  the  sides  of 
the  body  greyish  white.  Throat,  fore  part  of  chest,  and  belly 
whitish  j  a  large  ashy  grey  patch  on   the  area  of   the  chest 

7iew  Species  of  Manyabey.  209 

beliii)il  the  inaininto,  Tail  entirely  greyish  white.  Outside 
of  upper  arm  greyish  white  tinted  with  brown,  of  forearm 
bh\ekisli  iron-grey  between  the  elbow  and  wrist  ;  inner  side  of 
forearm  infiiscate.  Hands  yellowish  grey  above,  the  j)alm3 
and  nails  pinky  flesh-coloured.  Outer  and  inner  side  of  legs 
and  upper  side  of  feet  greyish  white.  ISoles  of  feet  and  Jiails 
pinky  tlesh-colourod.  Coat  thick,  almost  woolly,  the  long 
hairs  glistening. 

Head  and  body  about  16  English  inches  (  =  400  mm.)  ; 
tail  about  20  inches  (  =  500  mm.). 

Locaiity.  Upper  Congo,  exact  area  unknown. 

The  above-given  diagnosis  is  taken  from  a  living  female 
specimen,  still  with  milk-dentition,  brought  to  London  with 
an  example  of  Wolf's  guenon  [Gtrcopithecus  Wulfi)  and  of 
Brazza^s  guenon  (C.  ne(jlectu!<).  1  am  indebted  to  J\Ir.  J.  D. 
Hamlyn,  the  well-known  importer  of  wild  animals,  for  the 
opportunity  to  describe  it,  and  I  have  great  pleasure  in 
associating  the  new  species  of  which  it  is  the  type  with  his 

With  its  {)()intrd  iiead-erest  and  long  whisk(n's  this  species 
falls  into  the  category  typified  by  Cercocebus  albigena^  ^jrray, 
subsp.  Rothschildi ,  Lydd.,  and  C.  comjicus,  8clater.  From 
the  former  it  may  be  distinguished  by  its  yellowish  or 
greyish-while  coloration.  To  the  latter  it  has  many  points  of 
resemblance,  notably  the  pink  fleshy  hue  of  the  face,  hands, 
and  feet,  the  white  throat,  cheeks,  and  tail.  But  whereas  in 
C.  congicus  the  arms,  the  legs  down  to  the  knees,  and  the 
entire  body  with  exception  of  the  chest  are  black,  in 
C  JJamlyni  the  hind-quarters  are  entirely  whitish  grey,  the 
arms  are  merely  ashy  grey  (especially  between  the  elbow  and 
wrist),  and  the  entire  body  is  whitish  gi'ey  except  for  tlie 
ashy  tint  of  the  back  and  chest. 

It  is  regrettable  that  only  one  specimen  of  each  of  these 
two  species,  namely  C.  congicus  aud  6'.  Hamlgni^  has  been 
seen,  and  also  that  no  exact  locality  is  known  for  either. 
That  the  difference  between  the  two  specimens  is  not  sexual 
is  proved  by  the  feminine  gender  of  both  ;  that  it  is  not 
assignable  to  age  is  rendered  probable  by  the  approximate 
similarity  in  coloration  betwei^n  young  and  adult  examples  of 
other  species  of  Cercvctbus,  namely  of  C.  fuliginosus,  luau- 
latuSf  a-thiopiciis,chrijsogaster,  tiageahecki,  and  albigena. 

It  must  be  freely  conceded  that  tiie  pinkiness  of  tiie  face, 
of  the  soles  of  the  feet,  palms  of  the  hands,  and  especially, 
perhaps,  of  the  nails,  suggests  partial  albinistic  variation  both 
in  congicus  and  Hamlyni.  If  this  were  so,  the  two  might  be 
dismissed  as  piebald  sports  of  the  form  of  6\  albigena  described 

210  071  a  neio  Species  of  Mangahey. 

as  Rotlischildi,  wliicli  these  resemble  in  lengtli  of  whisker, 
absence  of  frontal  fringe,  and,  at  least  in  the  case  of  Ilnmlyni, 
in  the  shape  of  the  crest  on  the  crown  of  the  head.  I  do  not, 
liow^ever,  think  tliat  such  a  conclusion  is  warranted  by  tlie 
evidence;  for,  in  the  first  place,  the  normal  colour  of  the 
eyes  and  the  bilateral  symmetry  of  tiie  pattern  formed  by  the 
white  patches  in  congicus  and  the  black  patches  in  JIamlyni 
are  not  suggestive  of  albinism.  Moreover,  the  absence  of 
black  pigment  under  the  skin  of  the  face,  hands,  and  feet  in 
some  races  of  man  and  of  chimpanzee  and  in  some  species 
of  macaques  is  opposed  to  the  view  that  this  defect  is 
necessarily  or  even  probably  indicative  of  albinos  in  the 
higher  Primates.  Finally,  although  black  is  the  prevalent 
colour  of  the  face  in  the  genus  Cercocehus,  the  face  of 
C.fuliginosus  is  often  to  a  great  extent  flesh-coloured.  As 
for  the  yellowish-grey  hue  of  the  hairs  in  C.  Ilamlyni,  this 
colour  occurs  too  commonly  in  quadrumanous  Primates,  e.  g. 
in  some  species  of  langurs  {iSemnoptthecus),  the  young  of 
some  species  of  Colobus,  and  in  some  gibbons  {Hylobates),  to 
be  regarded  as  of  pathological  import. 

Another  possible  explanation  of  the  coloration  of  these  two 
mangabeys  is  that  C.  albigena  Rothschildi,  or  an  allied  form, 
is  an  extremely  variable  animal,  and  that  the  types  of 
C.  covgicus  and  C.  Ilamlyni  merely  represent  two  of  its 
phases.  The  ascertained  constancy  in  the  coloration  of  other 
species  of  this  genus  is,  however,  entirely  opposed  to  such  an 

For  the  above-given  reasons  I  think  it  desirable  to  describe 
the  monkey  in  question  as  the  type  of  a  new  species.  If  the 
opinion  that  its  peculiarities  are  of  specific  value  prove  well 
fonnded,  its  departure  from  the  ordinary  dusky  style  of 
coloration  prevalent  in  the  genus  is  probably  connected  with 
a  difltrence  of  habitat  demanding  ditfereut  procryptic  attri- 
butes. In  looking  for  an  explanation  of  this,  one  is  reminded 
of  Dr.  Gregory^s  assertion  that  the  white-mantled  guerezas 
[CoJvhus)  of  East  Africa  are  concealed  when  sitting  in  the 
trees  by  the  harmonizing  of  their  white  plumes  with  masses 
of  white  epiphytic  lichens  which  clothe  the  branches.  It  is 
possible  that  this  new  mangabey  tinds  concealment  in  the 
same  way. 


Cercocebus  Hamlyni,  sp.  n.     (Drawn  from  a  photograph  of  the 
living  auimal.) 

On  a  new  Sjiecies  of  Coral-infestintj  Cruh.  211 

XX XT. — On  a  now  Sjircies  of  ('oral-infesti)i;j  Cruh  taken  by 
the  li.I.M.S.  '  Invest i//fitor '  at  the  Andninan  hiands.  J5y 
J.  H.  IIkndkksox,  .M.H.,  F.L.S.,  Professor  of  Biology, 
Madras  Christian  College. 

[Piute  VIII.] 

The  spceies  described  below  is  an  interesting  addition  to 
a  small  family  of  crabs  which  take  up  their  abode  ou 
living  corals,  thereby  causing  abnormal  growth  in  the  latter, 
^\ith  the  production  of  a  partially  closed  chamber  or  cavity 
in  which  tiie  crab  is  finally  imprisoned.  For  its  discovery 
we  are  indebted  to  ^Nlajor  A.  R,  Anderson,  I.]\[.S.,  formerly 
Surgeon-Naturalist  of  11. M.  Indian  ^Marine  Survey  Steamer 
*  Investigator,'  who  as  far  back  as  1899  forwarded  specimens 
to  the  present  writer. 

The  new  species  exhibits  very  striking  sexual  dimorphism  ; 
the  dwarfed  male,  which  is  less  than  one  fourth  the  size  of 
the  female,  reaching  a  total  length  of  r25  mm.,  a  length 
which  probably  constitutes  a  record  for  diminutive  size 
among  adult  Decapod  Crustacea.  Another  uni(jue  peculiarity 
of  the  male  is  his  habit  of  attaching  himself  to  the  ventral 
surface  of  the  female,  thus  suggestin.g  a  comparison  with  the 
condition  existing  in  so  many  of  the  parasitic  Crustacea 
belonging  to  lower  groups,  though  the  more  or  less  tempo- 
rary nature  of  this  attachment  has  not  led  to  any  degeneration 
in  the  ca.-c  of  the  male  crab.  In  some  at  any  rate  of  the 
parasitic  Crustacea,  e.  g.  Bopyrus,  the  great  reduction  of  the 
male  has  perhaps  arisen  as  a  result  of  the  female  taking  up 
her  abode  in  a  confined  space,  and  here,  as  in  so  many  other 
anim;d  groups,  similar  habits  have  produced  similar  structural 
peculiarities  in  genera  not  connected  by  near  relationship. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  tliat  the  coral-infesting  crabs  are 
more  common  than  the  published  records  of  their  occurrence 
would  lead  one  to  suppose,  and  both  their  small  size  and 
peculiar  habitat  have  led  to  their  being  overlooked  by 
collectors.  They  have  hitherto  only  been  recor.led  from  the 
Hawaiian  Is.  [Sthnpson,  VerriU),  Red  Sea  (^Heller),  Eeunion 
{A.  Milne- Eduards),  Philippine  Is.,  and  an  uudescribed  form 
Irom  the  West  Indies  [Semper),  and  Torres  Straits  [Caiman). 
Ou  the  other  hand,  deformities  on  coral  attributed  to  these 
crabs,  which  were  first  aptly  compared  to  plant-galls  by 
Eiirenberg*,  have  been  described  by  numerous  writers  from 

*  Elirenberg.  in  his  work  on  the  Corals  of  the  Ked  Sea,  refers  to  a 
small   "Ptigiuus"   which   forms   "galls"   ou    Seriatopora.      The   only 

212  Prof.  J.  11.  Henderson  on  a 

widely  separated  localities  in  the  Indo-Pacific  region.  The 
previonsly  known  species  are  two  in  number,  viz.  Hapalo- 
carcinus  marsvpialis,  Stimpson,  and  Cryptochirus  coralliodytes, 
Heller;  and  Semper,  who  has  studied  both  alive,  has 
given,  in  '  The  Natural  Conditions  of  Existence  as  they 
affect  Animal  Life  '  (1881),  an  account  of  the  malformations 
which  they  produce  on  living  coral. 

Hapalocurcinus  was  originally  described,  somewhat  im- 
perfectly, by  Stimpson  (Proc.  Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  vi. 
1856-59)  from  specimens  ''found  clinging  to  the  branches 
of  living  Madrepores,  at  the  depth  of  one  fathom  in  the 
harbour  of  Hilo,  Hawaii,  March  1856."  It  is  roughly 
figured  by  Semper,  who  describes  the  "galls"  which  it 
produces  on  branching  corals  belonging  to  the  genera 
Sideropora,  Seriatopora,  and  Pocillopora.  An  upward 
growth  of  coral  is  formed  on  either  side  of  tlie  crab,  and  in 
time  the  latter  becomes  surrounded  and  enclosed  so  that  it 
cannot  escape.  Two  fissures  or  slits  at  opposite  ends  of  the 
"  gall "  serve  for  the  entrance  and  exit  of  water,  and  remain 
open  so  long  as  the  crab  is  alive.  INIore  recently  Hupalo- 
carcinus  has  been  fully  described  and  figured  by  Caiman 
(Trans.  Linn.  Soc,  ser.  2,  Zocd.  vol.  viii.  1900),  who  gives  a 
valuable  resume  ot  previous  work  on  the  coral-crabs. 

Cryptochirus  was  first  described  by  Heller  from  the  Red 
Sea  ("  13eitr.  z.  Crust.  Fauna  d.  roth.  Meeres,"  SB.  Akad. 
AVien,xliii.  (1)  1861),  where  it  was  found  inhabiting  holes  iu 
coral.  According  to  Semper  it  lives  only  in  massive  corals, 
such  as  Goniastnea,  Astnea,  and  Truchyphyllia,  on  which  it 
does  not  form  "galls,"  but  lives  simply  iu  funnel-shaped 
cavities  or  cylindrical  pits  due  to  arrested  upward  growth  iu 
the  coral.  With  regard  to  the  habits  of  the  crab.  Semper 
makes  the  interesting  statement  that  the  cavities  or  pits 
"  are  never  closed  during  tlie  lifetime  of  the  crab,  so  that  it 
certainly  would  be  able  to  quit  its  position.  Nevertheless  it 
as  cei  tainly  does  not  do  so  ;  but  the  species  T  have  observed 
living  thrust  the  fore  part  of  their  bodies  very  far  out  of  their 
peculiar  cave-dwellings,  so  that  only  their  pouches,  i.  e.  the 
hind  part  of  the  body,  remained  within."  The  species 
described  by  A.  Milne-Edwards  under  the  name  of  Litho- 
scaptus  paradoxus  (iu  ]Maillard's  'Notes  sur  Tlsle  de  la 
Reunion,'  2"  ed.  186.'^,  ii.  Annexe  V,  p.  10)  is  apparently,  as 
has  been  pointed  out  by  both  raulst)n  and  Caiman,  identical 

Pagurid  which,  so  far  as  I  know,  iiiliabits  coral  is  Troylopayunis  manaar- 
ensis  of  the  present  writer  (Tnuis.  Liuu.  Sue,  ser.  2,  Zooi.  vol.  v.  pt.  10, 
1803)  ;  but  1  am  unable  to  state  if  it  causes  abnormal  growth. 

neio  Species  of  CoraJ-infestiiig  Crab.  213 

V  itli  or  closely  allied  to  Crijploifurus  coraUiudytcs.  Culinau 
bas  shown  that  Hajxilocaiciuus  and  Crijptuchirus  must  be 
placed  in  the  same  I'amily,  nnd  for  this  has  proposed  the 
name  lIai)alocarciiiida',  in  pla(.'e  of  A.  Milnc-Edwards's  term 
"  Lithoscaptcs,"  as  the  latter  is  based  on  a  synonym  of 
Cri/pfoc/iii  us,  the  later  described  of  the  two  genera. 

The  females  of  Ilopa/ocarciiius  and  Cri/ptochints  agree  in 
their  elongated  form,  and  in  the  possession  of  a  more  or  less 
extended  semi-membranous  abdomen,  which  forms  a  brood- 
pouch  for  the  eggs;  in  the  former  genus  the  abdomen  is 
loosely  bent  under  the  ccphalothorax,  while  in  the  latter, 
owing  to  its  greater  extension,  the  eggs  are  freely  exposed 
below.  In  both  genera  tliere  are  striking  peculiarities  in  the 
external  (third)  maxillipedes,  which  are  widely  separate,  and 
thus  leave  a  considerable  portion  of  the  enlarged  buccal 
cavity  exposed.  The  ischial  joint  is  wide  and  has  a  large 
rounded  internal  lobe,  while  the  merus  is  greatly  reduced 
and  resembles  the  three  terminal  joints ;  the  exopod  is 
reduced  to  a  rudiment.  In  spite  of  superficial  resemblances 
to  certain  of  the  Anomura,  the  position  of  the  female  sexual 
openings  on  the  sternum  shows  that  the  family  must  be 
relegated  to  the  Brachyura.  The  general  elongation  of  the 
body  is  evidently  an  adaptation  to  the  narrow  space  in  which 
the  crab  is  confined,  and  the  greater  exposure  of  the  eggs 
than  is  usual  in  the  Brachyura,  is  perhaps  due  to  the  increased 
difficulties  which  would  be  experienced  in  their  aeration,  and 
diminished  need  for  protection  in  such  an  unusual  dwelling- 
place.  The  general  softness  of  the  integument,  more  [)articu- 
larly  of  the  abdomen,  in  both  genera,  is  a  feature  which  tin  v 
share  Avith  many  of  the  burrowing  or  specially  protected 

^^hile  the  male  of  Hapalocarcinus  is  still  unknown,  that  of 
Cryptochirus  is  noteworthy  for  the  great  reduction  in  size 
vhicli  it  has  undergone,  and  this  is  particularly  the  case  in 
the  new  species  about  to  be  described,  a  reduction  wliieh  is 
probably  an  adaptation  to  the  peculiar  habitat,  ^ylth  the 
female  ensconced  in  a  tunnel-like  cavity  closed  at  one  end, 
from  whicli  she  is  unable  to  escape,  reduction  in  the  size  of 
the  male  would  obviously  be  of  great  advantage  to  the 
species  ;  but  so  little  is  known  as  to  the  relation  of  the 
female  crab  to  the  dwelling,  that  her  inability  to  exhibit  free 
movement  in  the  tunnel  can  only  be  conjectured.  Further 
observation  is  necessary  to  dcterjuiue  whether  or  not  each 
female  is  generall.  accompanied  by  a  male,  but  it  seems 
highly  probable  that  the  male,  on  account  of  his.  small  size, 
is  able  to  pass  freely  from  one  tunnel  to  another.     While 

214:  Prof.  J.  R.  Henderson  on  a 

the  two  sexes  have  thus  simultaneously  undergone  modifica- 
tion in  different  directions,  the  general  appearance  ot'  the 
male  suggests  that  he  is  less  nio  litied  thau  the  female,  and 
consequently  any  attempt  to  determine  the  relationships  of 
the  anomalous  family  HapalocareiuidiE  will  probably  have  to 
be  based  largely  on  the  characters  of  the  male. 

]n  more  than  one  account  these  crabs  have  somewhat 
loosely  been  referred  to  as  parasites  on  the  living  corals, 
■whereas  there  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  the  condition  is 
one  other  than  that  of  eoramensalism.  There  is  nothing  to 
indicate  that  they  obtain  any  part  of  their  nutriment  at  the 
expense  of  the  coral  colony,  though  doubtless  the  crab 
deprives  the  polyps  of  many  food-particles  which  would 
otherwise  have  fallen  to  their  portion.  Stimpson's  sugges- 
tion that  Hapalocarcinus  feeds  upon  the  coral  polyps  is 
negatived  by  the  observation  of  Semper  that  colourless 
})olyps  exist  on  the  inner  surface  of  the  "  gall." 

Family  Hapalocarcinidas. 

Cryptochirus  dimorphus,  sp.  n.      (PI.  YIII.) 

Characters  of  the  female. — The  carapace  is  elongated  and 
])ractically  four-sided,  with  the  length  less  than  twice  the 
breadth  ;  the  surface  is  everywhere  roughened  by  short 
acute  spinules  with  rather  broad  bases,  which  are  more 
crowded  together  posteriorly,  but  somewhat  reduced  in  size 
near  the  hind  margin  ;  in  some  cases  on  the  posterior  fourth 
or  so  of  the  carapace  the  spinules  are  represented  by  small 
crowded  granules.  The  regions  of  the  carapace  are  not  de- 
fined, and  the  surface  is  practically  level,  with  the  exception 
that  the  gastric  region  is  sometimes  slightly  circumscribed, 
and  a  slight  hollow  on  either  side,  in  which  the  spinules  are 
comparatively  few,  separates  it  from  the  hepatic  regions. 
The  carapace  is  sliglitly  convex  from  side  to  side  and 
distinctly  convex  from  end  to  end  ;  when  the  crab  is  viewed 
from  the  lateral  aspect,  the  greatest  height  is  seen  about  the 
middle  of  the  branchial  regions  or  a  little  behind  the  middle 
of  the  carapace.  The  anterior  or  frontal  margin  has  four 
subequal,  equidistant,  rounded,  spinule-capped  lobes  ;  the 
two  submedian  or,  properly  speaking,  frontal  lobes  project 
forw^ards  to  a  slightly  greater  extent  than  the  other  pair 
situated  at  the  antero-latcral  angles  of  the  carapace.  The 
amount  of  projection  of  the  four  lobes,  or,  to  state  the  same 
fact  in  another  way,  the  extent  of  the  three  intervening 
indentations,  vanes  ni  ditl'erent  individuals;   in  most  cases 

tvio  Specii'X  of  Co)-aI-tJifestin(/  Crab.  IX') 

the  indentations  which  hxlj^e  the  eyes  extend  furtlicr  into 
the  carapace  than  the  median  indentation.  All  f'onr  lobes, 
bnt  eNpeciaily  tiie  frontal  ones,  carry  moderately  large 
spinnlcs  on  thcii-  npptjr  surfiice.  The  gap  between  the  frontal 
and  antero-latcral  lobe  on  either  side  is  oeeujjicd  by  the  eye, 
which  carries  several  spinnlcs  on  the  inner  snrfaee  of  the 
stalk,  near  the  corneal  margin.  Immediately  in  front  of  the 
frontal  lobes  are  seen  the  prominent  and  spinulose  basal 
joints  of  the  antennules,  with  their  folded  terminal  joints 
nearer  the  middle  line.  In  the  comparatively  narrow  interval, 
seen  from  above,  between  the  basal  antennnlar  joint  and  the 
eye  on  each  side  is  found  the  small  antenna  with  its  rudi- 
mentary Ihigellnm.  The  lateral  margins  of  the  carapace, 
"which  form  a  continuous  line  on  either  side,  are  subparallel 
for  the  first  third  or  so  of  their  length,  but  have  an  outward 
eonvt  xity  in  the  branchial  regions  ;  the  posterior  margin  is 
about  the  same  ^idth  as  the  frontal  margin,  and  has  a  slight 
forwai'd  curve.  The  lateral  margins  of  the  carapace  are 
everjMvhere  spinulose,  but  sj)inules  are  scarcely  represented 
on  the  posterior  margin.  The  pterygostomial  regions  are 
without  spinules  and  terminate  below  each  eye-stalk  in  a 
pointed  angle. 

Viewed  from  below  the  large  basal  antennnlar  joints  lie 
parallel  to  one  another,  separated  by  an  interval  in  which 
the  two  terminal  joints  of  each  anteunule  are  perpendicularly 
folded ;  s|)inules  are  present  on  the  basal  joints  and  reach  a 
comparatively  large  size  towards  their  apices.  The  antenna 
occupies  a  narrow  interval  between  the  basal  autenuular 
joint  and  the  eye  on  each  side  ;  the  peduncle  is  composed 
of  three  free  joints,  of  which  the  first,  articulated  to  the 
edge  of  the  epistome,  is  longer  and  stouter  than  the  other 
two,  and  carries  two  or  three  small  spinules  at  its  lower 
distal  end ;  the  fiagellum  is  represented  only  by  the 
merest  rudiment  and  terminates  in  a  few  minute  setse. 
The  eyes  are  placed  immediately  external  to  and  practically 
parallel  to  the  antennae ;  the  inner  surfaces  of  the  stalks  are 
spinulose,  and  the  spinules  extend  as  far  as  the  corneal 
margin.  The  edge  of  the  pterygostomial  region,  contiguous 
to  the  insertion  of  the  eye-stalk,  shows  a  distinct  indentation, 
but  otherwise  the  orbit  is  deficient  below.  The  epistome  is 
somewhat  hollowed  out,  owing  to  the  projection  of  the 
pterygostomial  angle  on  each  side;  the  renal  tubercle  is 
distinctly  visible  below  the  first  free  joint  (second  true  joint) 
of  the  anteuual  peduuele. 

^Vhen  the  eyes,  antennae,  and  antennules  are  completely 
removed,    a    comparatively    deep    and    continuous    cavity 

216  Prof.  J.  Ji.  Uenlersoii  on  a 

extends  from  side  to  side,  the  median  portion  of  which 
lodges  the  antennules,  which  are  incompletely  separated  hy 
a  ])r()jecting  median  spine  springing  from  the  epistome, 
"while  the  outer  portions  represent  the  orbits.  The  orbit, 
as  now  seen,  is  a  cavity  with  somewhat  rounded  outline, 
continuous  internally  with  the  space  or  fossette  in  w^hich 
the  antennule  is  lodged  ;  the  upper  orbital  margin  is  the 
rounded  indentation  between  the  submedian  and  outer 
lobe  on  the  frontal  margin  of  the  carapace ;  the  posterior 
and  lower  margin  is  formed  by  the  notch  in  the  pterygo- 
stomial  edge  already  referred  to,  and  terminates  in  the 
pointed  pterygostomial  angle  or  spine  which  lies  immediately 
external  to  the  basal  antennal  joint.  The  eyes,  as  already 
indicated,  are  not  completely  retractile  into  these  orbits,  for 
when  viewed  from  below  a  large  portion  of  their  stalks  is 
always  visible.  The  antennular  fossettes  are  continuous, 
and  a  separation  is  only  faintly  indicated  by  the  median 
epistomial  spine. 

The  epistome,  which  is  not  sharply  demarcated  from  the 
palate,  appears  somewhat  deeply  excavated,  owing  to  the 
prominence  of  the  pterygostomial  angles.  The  external  or 
third  maxillipedes  are  separated  by  a  considerable  median 
space,  in  the  upper  part  of  which  the  mandibles  are  partly 
exposed  ;  the  ischium  is  broad  and  suboperculiform,  pro- 
duced internally  into  a  rounded  lobe  which  extends  well 
beyond  the  insertion  of  the  merus  ;  the  merus  is  greatly 
reduced  in  size,  being  even  slightly  shorter  though  a  little 
broader  than  the  carpus,  and  it  springs  from  a  notch  at  the 
antero-external  angle  of  the  ischium.  The  exopod  of  the 
external  maxillipedes  is  not  visible  in  its  usual  position  at 
the  outer  side  of  the  appendage,  and  in  more  than  one 
specimen  no  trace  of  it  could  be  found  ;  in  one  preparation, 
however,  a  minute  tilament  was  found  concealed  behind  the 
coxal  joint,  which  probably  represents  the  missing  exopod. 
The  first  and  second  pairs  of  maxillipedes  are  normal,  with 
well-developed  exopods. 

The  clielipcdes  and  an)bulatory  legs  are  (>f  moderate  length, 
with  a  few  spinules  on  the  upper  surface  of  the  merai  and 
carpal  joints.  The  cheli pedes  are  slightly  longer  than  the 
first  pair  of  ambulatory  legs,  as  a  result  of  the  lengthening 
out  of  the  four  terminal  joints ;  the  propodus  is  more  slender 
than  the  carpus,  and  its  i)almar  jjortion  is  about  one  fourth 
longer  than  the  dactylus  ;  the  fingers  are  slender,  acutely 
pointed,  and  distinctly  incurved.  Tiie  ambulatory  legs  are 
moderately  stout,,  and  there  is  no  su(;li  special  diminution  in 
thickness  of  their  propodi  as  is  noticeable  in  the  chelipedes. 
The  legs  gradually  diminish  in  size  on  passing  backwards, 

new  Species  of  Cordl-infestintj  Cmh.  217 

but  there  is  no  special  reduction  in  regard  to  one  or  otlicr  of 
the  last  two  pairs  ;  the  dactyli  are  short,  stout,  and  strongly 
curved,  with  a  yeUow  horny  apex  to  each. 

The  sternal  phistron  is  subpcntagonal  in  outline,  and  is 
not  si)ecially  excavated  mesially ;  the  posterior  margins  of 
the  sternal  j)ieces  opposite  the  penultimate  pair  of  legs  meet 
together  in  the  middle  line,  and  thus  isolate  the  small 
triangular  sternal  pieces  of  the  List  pair  of  legs,  as  the  latter 
sternites  do  not  reach  the  middle  line.  The  openings  of  the 
oviducts  are  seen  towards  the  inner  limits  of  the  sternal 
j)ieces  belonging  to  the  third  pair  of  legs. 

The  abdomen  is  semi-extended  and  composed  of  seven 
distinct  segnionts,  including  the  tels-on,  of  which  the  first 
five  are  visible  from  above  in  the  natural  condition  ;  in  some 
cases  the  abdomen  viewed  from  above  is  almost  equal  in 
length  to  the  carapace.  The  first  two  segments  arc  about 
equal  in  width  to  the  posterior  margin  of  the  carapace,  but 
from  the  third  onwards  there  is  a  gradual  increase  up  to  the 
fifth,  which  is  broader  than  the  broadest  part  of  the  carapace. 
All  the  seguients  are  smooth  and  semimembranous;  their 
free  edges  form  a  thin  continuous  membrane  Avhich  bounds 
a  deeply  concave  subabdominal  cavity  or  brood-pouch,  in 
Avhich  the  eggs  are  placed.  The  eggs  are  o£  large  size  for  so 
small  a  species. 

The  average  total  length  of  the  body,  including  the  semi- 
extended  al)domen,  is  about  5 '5  mm. 

Characters  of  the  male. — The  carapace  is  roughly  four- 
sided,  with  the  length  about  one  and  a  half  times  the 
breadth  ;  it  is  regularly  arched,  or  convex,  from  end  to  end, 
less  so  from  side  to  side,  and  the  downward  slope  of  the 
convexity  is  most  marked  at  the  extreme  anterior  end.  The 
surface  is  glabrous  and  without  spinules,  but  roughened  by 
very  minute  tubercles;  the  margins  are  entire,  with  the 
exception  of  a  few  minute  spinules  near  each  antero-lateral 
angle  and  on  the  edge  of  the  frontal  lobes.  In  some 
individuals,  though  not  in  all,  the  submedian  frontal  lobes 
project  further  forwards  than  the  antero-lateral  angles  of 
the  carapace,  and  are  somewhat  closer  together  than  in  the 
female,  with  the  result  that  the  orbital  notches  are  relatively 
wider  ;  the  frontal  notch  is  shallow.  The  posterior  margin 
of  the  carapace  is  straight  in  its  median  portion,  while  the 
lateral  margins  of  the  carapace  have  practically  the  same 
course  as  in  the  female.  The  lateral  or  protogastric  portions 
of  the  gastric  area  are  slightly  elevated.  The  arrangement 
of  the  antennules,  antennpe,  and  eyes,  as  seen  from  above, 
is  similar  to  that  in  the  female,  with  the  exception  that  the 
spinules  are  almost  obsolete  on  the  basal  antennular  joints 

218  Prof.  J.  1{.  Henderson  on  a 

and    reduced    ou    tlie    eye-stalks;    the    eyes    are    relatively 

The  elielipodes  and  ambulatory  legs  are  relatively  better 
developed  than  in  the  female,  but  the  spinules  on  the  meral 
and  carpal  joints  are  almost  obsolete  ;  a  few  very  minute 
spinules  are  visible  on  the  upper  surface  of  the  palm.  The 
propodus  of  the  clielipedes  is  slightly  wider  than  the  carpus; 
the  fingers  are  incurved^  with  acute  apices,  and  are  about 
equal  in  length  to  the  palmar  portion  of  the  pro[)()dus.  The 
ambulatory  dactyli  are  strongly  incurved,  doubtless  for 
attachment  to  the  female,  and  their  horny  apices  are  very 
slender  and  acute  ;  they  are  more  than  halt"  the  length  of  the 
re'atively  stout  propodi. 

The  arrangement  of  the  antennules,  antennae,  eyes,  and 
external  maxillipedes,  seen  from  below,  is  similar  to  that  in 
the  female.  The  basal  antennnlar  joint  is  somewliat  laterally 
compressed,  and,  when  viewed  from  the  side,  exhibits  five  or 
more  terminal  spinules. 

The  sternal  plastron  is  somewhat  similar  in  outline  to  that 
of  the  female.  The  male  sexual  openings  are  seen  on  the 
small  sternal  pieces  belonging  to  the  last  pair  of  legs,  and 
these  pieces,  as  in  the  ease  of  the  female,  do  not  meet  together 
in  the  middle  line ;  no  grooves  are  visible  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  openings. 

All  seven  abdominal  segments  (including  the  telson)  are 
distinct,  and  they  gradually  diminish  in  width  from  the 
third  backwards  to  the  telson,  so  that  the  general  outline  of 
the  abdomen  is  triangular.  The  first  abdominal  segment, 
which  is  di^vtinctly  narrower  than  the  hind  margin  of  the 
carapace,  and  a  portion  of  the  second  segment,  are  alone 
vitsible  from  above.  Both  pairs  of  sexual  appendages  are 
well  developed,  and  the  first  pair  extend  as  far  forwards  as 
the  sternal  ])ieces  of  the  first  pair  of  ambulatory  legs. 

The  average  total  length  is  about  I'Zo  mm. 

The  species  described  above  differs  in  the  following  im- 
portant respects  from  C.  coraU'wdytes,  Heller.  In  Heller's 
species,  which  is  of  much  larger  size,  the  female  measuring 
about  17*5  mm.  in  total  length,  and  the  male  about  6*5  mm., 
the  entire  body  is  narrower  ;  the  regions  of  the  carapace  are 
more  distinctly  circumscribed,  and  the  frontal  loI)es  more 
prominent,  with  acutcr  apices.  The  chelipcdcs  are  more 
slender,  and  are  shorter  than  the  first  pair  of  walking-legs  ; 
the  propodal  joint  of  the  chelipcdcs  is  very  short,  and, 
judging  from  Heller's  figure,  is  apparently  not  larger  than 
the  carpus  ;  the  last  pair  of  legs  are  longer  than  the  penulti- 
mate pair.  The  male  abdomen  is  narrow  and  linear,  with 
the  })r()ximal  segments  not  wider  than  the  distal  ones.     The 

new  Species  of  Corahi'n/esliufj  Crab.  219 

ischial  joint  of  the  outer  maxillipedes  is  narrower,  and  the 
nienis,  wliicli  is  almost  double  the  length  of  the  carpus,  is 
j)r()h)ngc'd  at  its  antero-cxtcrnal  angle  into  an  almost  spinose 
j)oint ;  the  cxopod  is  a  small  leal-like  lobe  distinctly  seen  in 
the  usual  position.  In  other  respects  the  two  species  agree 
more  or  less  closely.  It  may  be  that  some  of  the  above 
dift'erences,  more  particularly  those  in  the  external  maxilli- 
])cdcs,  relative  knigth  of  the  dittcrent  pairs  of  legs,  and  male 
abdomen,  are  of  generic  value,  and  that  the  new  species 
may  eventually  recpiirc  a  new  genus  for  its  reception.  At 
present,  however,  it  seems  safer  to  include  it  in  Cri/plochirus. 

Locality. — Living  in  cylindrical  holes  in  growing  reef- 
coral,  at  a  depth  of  12  fathoms,  on  Invisible  Bank,  40  miles 
off  the  east  side  of  the  southern  extremity  of  the  Andaman 

The  following  particulars  were  noted  by  ^Major  Anderson 
at  the  time  of  capture.  The  crabs  were  found  living  in  a 
large  branching  Madrepore,  in  cylindrical  cavities,  some- 
what wider  at  the  closed  end  than  at  the  mouth,  which 
latter  was  too  narrow  to  permit  of  the  exit  of  the  female. 
The  holes  were  most  numerous  near  the  extremity  of  the 
coral  branches,  but  also  frequently  occurred  at  the  points 
where  the  branches  bifurcated.  In  the  great  majority  of 
the  cavities  the  two  sexes  were  found  together,  the  male 
generally  sheltering  under  the  female,  attached  to  her 
ventral  surface,  but  m  some  cases  free.  In  a  very  few  cavities 
careful  searching  revealed  only  the  female,  but  as  the  crabs 
were  obtained  by  fracturing  the  coral  with  a  hammer,  it 
was  possible  that  some  of  the  males  disappeared  during  the 
process.  The  colour  of  the  female  during  life  is  a  dull 
yellow,  while  the  male  shows  a  mixture  of  dull  brown  and 

In  conclusion  I  would  thank  my  friend  Major  Anderson 
for  the  opportunity  thus  afibrded  me  of  examining  this 
interesting  species. 


Cryptochirtis  diviorphus,  sp.  n. 

Fig.  1.  Dorsal  view  of  female,      x  9. 

Fig.  2.  ^  eutral  view  of  female  showing  male  in  situ.      X  12. 

Fig.  3.  Cephalic  region  of  female  from  below. 

Fig.  4.  Left  external  (third)  maxiilipede  of  female. 

Fig.  5.  Left  chelipede  of  female. 

Fig.  6.  Second  left  leg  (first  ambulatory  leg)  of  female. 

Fig.  7.  Sternum  of  female. 

Fig.  S.  Sternum  of  male. 

Fig.  9.  Abdomen  of  male. 

220  Mr.  O.  TiioiiKis  on 

XXXII. —  Three,  new  Pa^cearctic  Mammals. 
By  Oldfield  Thomas. 

Myotis  Bechsteini  favonicus,  subsp.  n. 

A  smaller-eared  Spanish  representative  of  M.  Bechsteini. 

Size  decidedly  less  than  in  true  Bechsteini.  General 
colour  darker,  the  tips  of  the  hairs,  both  above  and  below, 
less  conspicuously  lighter  than  the  dark  bases.  Ears  con- 
siderably shorter  than  in  true  Bechsteini  ',  laid  forward  they 
only  surpass  the  muzzle  by  about  5  mm.,  as  compared  with 
9  or  10  ;  their  shape  apparently  quite  similar.  Tragus  rather 
less  attenuated  above,  and  with  practically  no  tendency  to  an 
outward  curvature.  Wings  to  the  base  of  the  toes.  Calcar 
extending  hallway  towards  the  tip  of  the  tail,  its  end  marked 
by  a  projecting  lobule.  Terminal  vertebra  of  tail  projecting 
from  membrane.  Edge  of  membrane  finely  serrated,  not 

Skull  quite  like  that  of  true  Bechsteini,  except  that  it  is 
slightly  smaller,  and  the  bulla?,  in  correlation  with  the  smaller 
external  ears,  are  less  swollen. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  on  the  spirit-specimen) :  — 

Forearm  41  mm. 

Head  and  body  55  ;  tail  o8  ;  head  20  ;  ear,  from  notch  22'5, 
from  lobe  at  base  of  internal  edge  19'8,  breadth  when  flat- 
tened 13'5 ;  tragus  on  inner  edge  9 ;  tiiird  finger,  meta- 
carpus 35,  first  phalanx  13,  second  phalanx  11  ;  lower  leg 
and  hind  foot  (c.  u.)  30;  calcar  18. 

Skull:  greatest  length  17"7. 

Hah.  La  Granja,  on  the  northern  side  of  the  Sierra  de 
Guadarrama,  Central  Spain. 

Type.  Old  male  in  alcohol.  Collected  by  Sr.  M.  de  la 

Tliis  bat,  while  conspicuously  different  from  true  M.  Bech- 
steini by  its  much  smaller  ears,  is  so  evidently  the  Spanish 
representative  of  that  species,  that  I  prefer  to  give  it  a 
trinomial  rather  than  a  binomial  designation. 

Hungarian  examples  of  Myotis  Bechsteini  have  been 
kindly  ceded  to  the  British  Museum  for  the  purpose  of  this 
comparison  by  Prof.  L.  von  Mehely,  our  National  Museum 
possessing  hardly  any  good  examples  of  this  rare  bat. 

Glis  gUs  spoliatus,  subsp.  n. 

A  small  form  of  G.  glis. 

General  colour  quite  as  in  Central   European  examples  of 

new  Palwarc/ic  ManiiiKils.  221 

true  glis,  and  siinilaily  with  a  white  line  alon^-  the  underside 
of  the  tail.  Upper  surface  of  hands  wiiite  and  of  feet  white 
with  a  dark  metatarsal  patch,  but  this  is  less  strongly  defined 
than  in  true  glis.  Tail  of  about  the  same  bushiness  and 
colour  as  in  glis,  not  as  in  italicus. 

Skull  very  like  that  o( glis,  but  smaller  in  all  dimensions, 
lower  in  the  brain-case,  and  with  smaller  bullae. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  145  mm. ;  tail  120  ;  hind  foot  27  ;  ear  14. 

Skull:  greatest  length  35'5;  basilar  length  2S ;  zygo- 
matic breadth  12;  length  of  nasals  11*4;  interorbital 
breadth  4"9  ;  height  from  alveolus  of  m^  to  supraorbital 
edge  8*1;  palatilar  length  14"3 ;  diastema  8'7  ;  palatal 
foramina  4x2;  length  of  bulhe  8*2  ;  length  of  upper  tooth- 
series  Q"2. 

Hub.  Khotz,  near  Trebizond.     Alt.  100  m. 

Ti/pe.  Adult  male.  B.M.  no.  6.  5.  1.  38.  Original 
number  2437.  Collected  24th  Feb.,  190G,  by  Alphouso 

This  dormouse  is  readily  distinguishable  from  true  G.  glis 
by  its  smaller  size,  falling  almost  as  far  short  of  that  animal 
as  the  latter  in  turn  is  inferior  to  the  large  Italian  species 
G.  italicus,  B.-Ham. 

Dr.  Satunin's  G.  g.  caspius  from  Aschabad  is  based  on  a 
specimen  fully  as  large  as  true  G.  glis,  and,  bearing  in  mind 
the  difference  between  the  faunas  of  Trebizond  and  Trans- 
caspia,  the  present  form  is  not  likely  to  be  caspius.  Dr. 
Satunin  speaks  of  the  white  line  under  the  tail  as  a  differential 
character  of  caspius,  as  compared  with  Blasius's  description 
of  glis ;  but  Blasius  was  notoriously  indiflferent  to  colour 
details,  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  every  glis  I  have  seen  has  a 
white  line  in  this  situation.  Possibly  the  Transcaucasian 
specimens  referred  by  Satunin  to  caspius  may  prove  to  be 
referable  to  G.  g.  spoliatus. 

Evotomys  Nageri  hallucalis,  subsp.  n. 

Similar  in  general  characters  to  typical  Swiss  E.  Nageri ^ 
but  tail  longer,  skull  larger,  and  incisors  narrower. 

Colour  as  in  true  Nageri,  the  belly  perhaps  rather  whiter 
than  usual.  Tail  comparatively  long,  rather  shorter-haired, 
sharply  bicolor,  brown  above,  dull  white  on  sides  and  below. 

Skull  decidedly  longer  than  in  the  Swiss  form,  the  brain- 
case  long,  smooth  and  rounded,  though  the  anterior  angles 
are   well   marked.      Interorbital   region    broad,   smooth,   not 

Ann,  (&  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.    Vol.  xy'ni.  16 

222  Mr.  O.  Thomas  on  new 

markedly  concave  above.  Nasals  comparatively  broad  be- 
liind.  Palatal  foramina  unusually  short,  falling  nearly  a 
millimetre  short  of  the  level  of  the  front  of  m}- ;  well  open, 
not  narrowed  behind. 

Incisors  slender,  narrow,  bevelled  laterally.  Molars  as 
usual,  the  length  of  the  tooth-row  noticeably  greater  than  in 
Swiss  specimens. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  115  mm.;  tail  &&  ;  hind  foot  21 ;   ear  13. 

Skull:  greatest  length  27;  condylo-basilar  length  24'3 ; 
zygomatic  breadth  14"5;  nasals,  lengtli  7"5,  breadth  behind  2'2; 
interorbital  breadth  4;  palatilar  length  12;  p-datal  foramina 
4'5  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  (grinding-surface)  5"8. 

Hah.  Aspromonte,  Calabria,  extreme  South  Italy.  Type 
from  S.  Enphemia.     Altitude  1000  m. 

Type  Male.  B.M.  no.  6.  8.  4.  9.  Original  number  2575. 
Collected  18th  July,  1906,  by  A.  Robert. 

When  Mr.  Miller  wrote  his  revision*  of  the  European 
forms  of  Evotomys  no  species  of  the  genus  was  known  from 
the  south  of  Italy,  and  the  capture  of  a  specimen  in  the 
Aspromonte  mountains  by  Mr.  Hobert  is  therefore  of  much 
interest.  I  am,  however,  informed  by  Dr.  Forsyth  Major 
that  Dr.  Cavanna  obtained  an  example  on  Monte  Pollino 
about  1880,  so  that  this  is  not  absolutely  the  first  discovery 
of  the  genus  in  the  "great  toe"  of  Italy. 

E.  N.  hallucalis  may  be  readily  distinguished  from  its 
Swiss  relative  by  its  large  size,  long  tail,  long  skull,  short 
palatal  foramina,  narrow  incisors,  and  long  molar  series. 

XXXIII. —  Ttvo  new  Genera  of  small  Mammals  discovered  hy 
Mrs.  Holms-Tarn  in  British  East  Africa.  By  Oldfield 

The  British  Museum  owes  to  Mrs.  Holms-Tarn  a  small 
collection  of  mammals  obtained  by  her  in  British  East  Africa 
not  far  from  Nyeri.  Although  only  ten  species  were  obtained 
altogether,  it  is  remarkable  that  two  of  them  are  not  only 
new,  but  represent  new  genera,  thus  showing  how  much 
more  there  is  still  to  be  done  in  this  rich  region  in  spite  of  all 
that  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Hiude  have  achieved  in  the  same  district. 
The  other  animals  collected  were  Funisciurus  Jacksoni, 
de  Wint.,     Graphiuriis    mnrinus,    Desm.,    Otomys    irroratus 

*  rroc.  Waab.  Ac.  Sci.  ii.  p.  83  (1900). 

ManuiHtls  from  British  East  Africa.  223 

tropicalisj  Thos.,  Lophuromi/.t  aquilmt^  True,  Arvicanthis  sp., 
Le(](j(ida  miniitoideH^  Sin.,  Mas  IHndei,  Tlios.,  and  Deti- 
droiinis  iusir/itis^  Tlios.  Tlie  two  last-named  are  rare  species, 
and  those  additional  oxanij)le.s  are  most  welcome. 

'J'lie  prize  of  the  collection  is  the  remarkable  little  mole- 
like  shrew  trap|)ed  on  the  Aberdaie  Mountains  at  9500',  to 
which  I  propose  to  apply  the  following  name: — 

SUHDISOREX,  gen.  nov.  {Soricidce). 

IMost  nearly  allied  to  Mi/osore.v,  but  with  no  external  ear- 
conches,  with  the  fore  claws  enormously  enlarged,  with  only 
throe  upper  unicuspids,  the  minute  penultimate  premolar 
absent,  and  with  the  minute  lower  supplementary  tooth  more 
normal  in  shape  and  position. 

Type  S.  Norce. 

This  genus  is  clearly  related  to  Myosorex,  but  is  more 
fossorial  in  character,  as  evidenced  by  the  aborted  ear-conches, 
long  fore  claws,  and  short  tail,  all  of  which  tend  t)  make  it 
look  more  like  a  mole  than  a  shrew.  The  comparatively 
normal  position  of  the  extra  lower  unicuspid  shows  an  even 
more  primitive  condition  than  in  Myosorex,  which  is  the  only 
other  genus  of  Soricidic  that  has  retained  this  tooth. 

Surdisorex  Norce,  sp.  n. 

Size  rather  larger  than  in  any  known  species  of  Myosorex. 
Fur  close  and  mole-like,  rather  coarser  than  in  average 
Myosorex;  hairs  of  back  about  6  mm.  in  length.  General 
colour  above  dark  bistre  with  a  greenish  iridescence;  indi- 
vidual hairs  slaty  grey  for  five-sixths  their  length,  their  ends 
pale  brown  with  darker  tips.  Under  surface  similar  but 
rather  paler,  without  line  of  demarcation.  Ear-conches 
absent.  Upper  sides  of  hands  and  feet  dark  brown  ;  fore  claws 
very  long  and  powerful,  those  of  the  second,  third,  and  fourth 
digits  subequal,  about  5*5  mm.  in  length  (measured  from  the 
base  above)  ;  poUex  with  a  pointed  claw  over  2  mm.  long ; 
median  hind  claws  about  2-5-2*8  mm.  in  length.  Tail  very 
short,  not  twice  the  length  of  the  hind  foot,  closely  hairy, 
without  longer  bristles,  dark  brown  above  and  below. 

Skull  longer  than  in  any  known  species  of  Myosorex,  but 
more  slender,  the  palatal  area  actually  narrower  than  in  the 
smaller  M.  Sclateri  ta/pinus,  though  decidedly  longer.  Teeth 
much  as  in  Myosorex,  but  the  second  upper  unicuspid  is  pro- 
portionally larger,  about  one  third  the  size  of  the  first  in  cross 
section,  and  the  third  is  more  elongated  and  nearly  touches  the 
large  »m*,  leaving  no  space  for  a  fourth  unicuspid.     Below 


224  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on  neto 

there  is  a  marked  difference  in  tlie  sliape  and  position  of  the 
minute  extra  tooth  characteristic  of  Myosorex.  In  the  latter 
it  is  nearly  in  the  centre  line  of  the  tooth-row,  jammed  closely 
between  the  two  usual  unicuspid  teeth,  its  transverse  several 
times  greater  than  its  longitudinal  diameter,  and  looking  more 
like  a  piece  of  the  cingulum  of  the  first  unicuspid  than  a 
separate  tooth.  On  the  other  hand  in  Surdisorex  the  tooth  is 
M(arly  circular  in  section,  and  is  placed  in  a  more  normal 
position  in  the  inner  angle  between  the  two  larger  teeth — in 
fact,  almost  exactly  as  in  the  bat  Trachops. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  fl  ^sb)  : — 

Head  and  body  108  mm.;  tail  25;  hind  foot  14. 

Skull:  greatest  length,  including  incisors,  265;  basal 
length  23  ;  greatest  breadth  12"8;  front  of  i'  to  back  of  iu 
11"2 ;  breadth  of  palate  between  outer  corners  of  nt^  7  ;  length 
of  lower  tooth-row  10. 

Hah.  East  side  of  the  Aberdare  range,  near  Nyeri,  British 
East  Africa.     Alt.  9500'. 

Type.  Adult  femah'.  B.M.  no.  G.  7.  8.  1.  Original 
number  7.  Collected  5th  November,  1U05,  by  Mrs.  Holms- 
Tarn.     One  specimen. 

This  mole-like  shrew  is  a  most  interesting  little  animal, 
and  Mrs.  Holms-'i'arn  is  to  be  congratulated  on  its  dis- 
covery. She  states  that  it  appeared  to  be  rare,  as  she  only 
saw  this  one  example,  although  trapping  in  the  locality  for 
some  little  time. 

MylomyS,  gen.  nov.  {Muridce). 

General  external  characters  and  skull  not  markedly  different 
from  those  of  Felomys.  Fore  limbs  slender,  the  forearms 
long  and  thin  ;  fifth  finger  rudimentary,  with  a  short  nail 
instead  of  a  claw,  like  the  pollex.  Hind  feet  long,  the  fifth 
toe  shortened,  little  longer  than  the  hallux. 

Upper  incisors  each  with  a  single  clearly  defined  groove; 
the  grooves  more  external  than  in  Pelojnys,  the  outer  portion 
of  the  tooth  only  about  one  half  the  breadth  of  the  inner. 
The  outer  part  is  also  at  a  lower  level,  the  groove  and  inner 
part  clearly  visible  in  a  lateral  view. 

Molars  large,  the  sj^ace  between  the  two  upper  first  molars 
less  than  their  breadth.  Their  structure  peculiar,  somewhat 
as  in  CE7iomys,  though  more  modified.  In  eacii  lamina  of  the 
upper  series  the  centre  cusp  is  raised  in  the  middle  to  a  point 
and  curved  backwards,  its  grinding-surface  pointing  back- 
wards and  deeply  concave,  its  enamel  walls  sharp  and  angular  ; 
inner  cusp  in  each  case  about  two  thinls  the  size  of  the  central 

Mammals  from  British  East  Africa.  225 

one.  AP  with  a  large  antero-internal  and  a  niinnte  antero- 
external  secontlary  cusp  ;  inner  cusp  of  main  lamina  (and 
also  the  corrospoiuliiii^  cusp  ot"  ?/«')  large,  projected  backwai'ls 
to  tiie  level  of  the,  pDsteiior  lamina,  which  has  no  postero- 
internal cusp.  ;)/'  with  its  antero-extcrnal  cusp  almost 
obsolete  ;  its  main  cus|)  longer  antero-postcriorly  than  broad, 
sharply  separated  from  its  large  inner  cusp,  with  which  it 
does  not  fuse. 

Lower  molars  with  their  deeply  concave  grinding-surfacea 
facing  forwards,  their  beak-like  iiinler  edges  highly  raised, 
il/j  with  its  two  anterior  cusps  unusually  small  in  ])roportiou 
to  the  others,  perhaps  in  cross  section  one  third  the  area  of 
the  cusps  next  succeeding  them.  No  external  cingular  cusps 

'i  ype  Mylomys  Ganinghamei. 

The  highly  modified  teeth  of  this  rat  compel  me  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  Pelomys,  which  it  resembles  in  its  general 
appearance  and  in  the  grooving  of  its  upper  incisors.  The 
n)olarsof  Pelomys  an^.  much  more  roundetl  in  all  respects,  with 
low  central  cusps  and  without  angular  projections  connecting 
the  laminffi.  Jn  some  respects  the  molars  of  the  Abyssinian 
rats  which  in  1902  ^  1  assigned  with  doubt  to  Pelomys — 
"  P."  demheensis  and  Ilarringtoni — are  intermediate  between 
those  of  Mylomys  and  Pelomys ;  but  I  am  now  convinced 
that  these  animals  should  not  be  included  in  Pelomys,  and 
think  they  may  be  provisionally  looked  upon  as  aberrant 
members  of  (Enomys,  the  so-called  grooving  of  their  upper 
incisors  being  hardly  worthy  of  the  name,  and  their  molars 
being  very  similarly  formed  to  those  of  that  group. 

In  any  case  the  striking  rat  discovered  by  Mrs.  Holms- 
Tarn  cannot  be  assigneil  to  any  known  genus,  and  needs  a 
special  one  to  be  formed  for  its  reception. 

Mylomys  Cum'nghamei,  sp.  n. 

General  appearance  very  much  as  in  Pelomys  falla.v.  Fur 
coarse  and  harsh  ;  hairs  of  back  about  15  mm.  in  length. 
Colour  above  coarsely  grizzled  brown  or  dull  bufFy,  becoming 
rather  more  rufous  on  the  rump.  Under  surface  dull  whitish, 
the  bases  of  the  hairs  slaty.  Ears  broad,  rounded,  uniformly 
brown.  Arms  grizzled  brown  and  buffy  ;  hands  dark  bufty. 
Legs  and  feet  reddish  buffy,  the  skin  of  the  feet  brownish. 
Tail  well  haired  throughout,  the  hairs  almost  hiding  the  scales, 
which  are  large,  about  ten  to  the  centimetre;  in  colour  it  is 
markedly  bicolor,  blackish  brown  above,  dull  bufFy  below. 

*  P.  Z.  S.  1902,  ii.  p.  313. 

226  Prof.  J.  E.  Duerden  on  the 

Skull  strongly  built,  arched  above,  the  zygomata  not  widely 
spread,  tapering  forwards.  Supraorbital  edges  finely  beaded. 
Palatal  foramina  extending  to  the  level  of  the  front  lamina  of 
m^.  Para  pterygoid  fossae  deep,  ending  some  way  behind  the 
front  of  the  mesopterygoid,  whose  ledge  is  level  with  the 
middle  of  m^.  Bullse  fairly  large.  Teeth  as  described 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  155  mm.  ;  tail  102  ;  hind  foot  33*5  ;  ear  17. 

Skull:  greatest  length  34*5  ;  basilar  length  28;  greatest 
breadth  17;  nasals  13x4*5;  interorbital  breadth  4"6; 
palatilar  length  16  ;  diastema  9 ;  palatal  foramina  8  X  2*4  ; 
length  of  upper  molar  series  7*7  ;  breadth  across  outside  m^ 
6*8,  breadth  of  m^  23. 

Hah.  British  East  Africa,  east  of  the  Aberdare  Mts. 
Alt.  4480'. 

Type,  Adult  male,  B.M.  no.  6.  7.  8.  9.  Original  number  2. 
Collected  September  1905.     One  specimen. 

I  have  named  this  interesting  rat  after  Mr.  R.  J. 
Cnninghame,  to  whose  tuition  Mrs.  Holms-Tarn  owes  her 
skill  in  the  capture  and  preservation  of  small  mammals, 
and  to  whom  the  Museum  is  indebted  for  many  valuable 

XXXIV. —  The  Morphology  of  the  Madreporaria. — VIII. 
T'he  Primary  Septa  of  the  Rugosa  *.  Y^j  J.  E.  Duerden, 
Ph.D.,  A.R.Cy.S. (Lond.),  Professor  of  Zoology,  Rhodes 
University  College,  Graharastown,  Cape  Colony. 

In  the  first  paper  of  this  series,  published  in  1902,  entitled 
"The  Relationships  of  the  Rugosa  (Tetracoralla)  to  the  Living 
Zoanthese/'  I  confirmed  Count  de  Pourtales's  observation  that 
the  rugose  coral  Lopliophyllum  prollferum,  E.  &  H.,  has  six 
primary  septa  (protosepta),  all  equal  iu  size  and  situated  at 

*  The  first  two  parts  of  this  series  of  papers  appeared  in  the  '  Johns 
Hopkins  University  Circulars,'  vol.  xxi.  nos.  155  &  15",  and  were  re- 
printed in  the  Ann.  &  Mag.  Xat.  Hist.  ser.  7,  vols.  ix.  &  x.,  Mav  and 
August  1902 ;  the  third  and  fourth  parts  appeared  in  the  Ann.  &  Mag. 
Nat.  Hist.  vol.  x.,  JN'ovenibor  1902,  and  vol.  xi.,  February  1903 ;  the  hfth 
and  sixth  parts  iu  the  'Biological  Bulletin,"  vol.  vii.,"  July  1904,  and 
vol.  ix.,  June  1905  ;  the  seventh  part  in  the  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist, 
vol.  xvii..  May  190G.  The  work  is  being  carried  out  with  the  assistance 
of  an  appropriation  iVom  the  Carnegie  Institution,  Washington.  I  am 
under  great  obligations  to  Prof.  Sydney  J.  Hickson,  F.K.S.,  for  seeing  the 
paper  through  the  press  in  Eughuid. 

Morphohgij  of  the  Madreporaria.  227 

equal  distances  apart.  Also,  by  means  of  a  series  of  micro- 
scopic sections,  I  established  that  the  subsequent  principal 
septa  (meta.septa)  are  achled  in  a  bilateral  manner  within  tour 
ot  the  six  primary  interseptal  ciianil)ers,  the  two  middle  and 
the  two  ventro-iatcral  chambers;  further,  that  the  additions 
are  made  at  oidy  one  region  within  each  chamber,  immediately 
dorsal  to  the  alar  or  ventro-lateral  septum  in  the  case  of  the 
middle  chambers,  and  immediately  next  to  the  cardinal  or 
ventral  directive  septum  in  the  ventro-lateral  chambers.  I 
then  proceeded  to  show  that  of  all  modern  Anthozoa  the 
Kugosa  find  their  nearest  representatives  in  the  zoanthid 
aetinians.  lu  the  Zoantheaj  the  secondary  mesenteries 
(metacnemes)  are  addeti  bilaterally  at  one  region  within  each 
of  the  primary  ventro-lateral  intermesenterial  chambers  or 
exocoeles,  exactly  as  are  the  septa  in  the  Rugosa,  but  no 
mesenteries  are  added  within  the  primary  middle  and  dorso- 
lateral exocoeles.  From  our  knoiv ledge  of  tbe  relationship  of 
the  septa  and  mesenteries  in  modern  corals,  it  was  assumed 
that  the  two  cycles  of  septa  of  the  rugose  corals  were  formed 
within  mesenterial  chambers  similar  to  those  characteristic 
of  the  zoanthids,  the  principal  or  larger  septa  within  entocoeles 
and  the  secondary  or  smaller  septa  within  exocoeles  ;  hence 
the  former  are  termed  entosepta  and  the  latter  exosepta. 

In  the  sixth  paper  of  tiiis  series,  published  in  1905,  with 
the  subtitle  "  The  Fossula  in  Rugose  Corals,"  I  endeavoured 
to  show,  from  a  series  of  developmental  stages  in  Streptelastna 
rectunij  Hall,  the  true  nature  of  the  alar  fossul^e,  and  also 
that  of  the  cardinal  or  ventral  directive  fossula.  I  demon- 
strated that  the  latter  fossula  is  composite  in  character,  at 
any  rate  during  the  early  stages  ;  that  it  is  made  up  of  a 
series  of  incomplete  septa  on  each  side  of  the  ventral  directive 
septum,  while  the  ventral  directive  septum  is  itself  smaller 
than  the  other  principal  septa.  It  was  suggested  that  the 
small  ventral  directive  septum  is  to  be  correlated  with  the 
presence  in  the  rugose  polyp  of  a  ventral  siphonoglyph  or 
gonidial  groove,  similar  to  that  characteristic  of  modern 
zoanthid  polyps.  This  interpretation  I  considered  as  greatly 
strengthening  the  earlier  suggestion  that  the  Rugosa  are 
nearly  related  to  the  Zoantlieie,  and  expressed  it  in  the 
following  terms  (p.  40)  :  "  In  the  absence  of  the  rugose  polyp 
itself,  no  surer  proof  of  the  relationship  of  the  group  to  the 
zoanthids  coulcl,  to  my  mind,  by  adduced  than  that  which 
admits  of  the  correlation  of  the  simple  cardinal  fossula  with 
a  ventral  stomodoeal  groove.'''  Figures  were  given  (/.  c. 
tigs.  2-11)  showing"  that  in  Streptelasma  i-ectum,  a.s  in  Lopho- 
phyllum^  there  are  six  primary  septa,  and  that  the  subsequent 

228  Prof.  J.  E.  Duerden  on  tlie 

septa  are  added  in  tlie  same  bilateral  manner  at  four  distinct 

Witliin  the  present  year,  Mr.  C.  E.  Gordon,  working  in 
the  Palpeontological  Laboratory  of  Columbia  University,  New 
York,  has  published  a  paper,  "  Studies  on  Early  Stages  in 
Paleozoic  Corals^'  (Anier.  Journ.  Science,  vol.  xxi.  Feb.  1906), 
devoted  almost  exclusively  to  a  discussion  of  my  first 
contribution.  By  inverting  my  figures  Gordon  shows  that 
the  sections  of  Lophoiihyllum  can  be  brought  into  harmony 
with  Kuiith^-^  oft-repeated  figure  representing  the  schematic 
septal  ])lan  of  a  zaphrentoid  coral,  a  fact  of  which  tiiere 
could  be  no  possibility  of  dispute.  Further,  while  admitting 
the  hexameral  nature  of  Lophophyllum ,  he  attempts  to  show 
that  it  docs  not  re|)resent  the  true  primary  character  of  the 
liugosa,  but  is  to  be  explained  as  a  dej^arture  from  a  primary 
tetramerism,  due  to  acceleration  in  time  of  appearance  of  the 
tliiid  jiair  of  septa.  Moreover,  from  his  own  observations  on 
a  decalcified  silicified  specimen  of  Streptelasma  i'>rofundam 
(Owen),  he  presents  what  he  considers  as  evidence  in  sup]:»ort 
of  a  primary  tetramerism.  He  concludes  ''  that  the  primitive 
condition  of  these  [primary]  septa  in  the  E-ugosa  is  not  yet 
settled,"  and  that  exception  must  be  taken  to  my  statement 
that  ''  studies  on  the  septal  development  of  extinct  Palaeozoic 
corals  reveal  that  in  these  early  >k)rms  the  primary  septal 
plan  was  hexameral  like  that  of  mocftrn  fcrms." 

These  assertions  of  Gordon  are  so  opposed  to  what  I  hold 
to  be  the  truth  with  regard  to  the  Rngosa  that  it  becomes 
necessary  to  re-open  the  question,  Tlie  problem  is  one  of 
greatest  importance  if  we  are  to  arrive  at  a  proper  appreciation 
of  the  phylogenic  relationships  of  the  Rugosa. 

Since  tlie  apj^earance  of  my  first  paper  1  have  obtained 
much  additional  evidence  in  su))port  of  my  contentions, 
and  I  shall  attempt  to  show  that  Gordon's  assertions  are 
not  warranted  by  the  evidence  he  submits.  In  the  first 
place,  it  must  be  admitted  that  the  iigures  of  Lopho- 
phylhim  given  in  U)02  are  unsatisfactory,  from  the  fact  that 
the  microscopic  sections  upon  which  they  were  founded 
where  not  all  taken  from  the  same  individual  coral. 
Exception  might  be  taken  to  their  representing  the  actual 
development  of  the  septa,  while  the  stages  depicted  are  not 
always  those  best  adapted  for  illustrating  the  sequence.  In 
my  later  investigations  I  have  pursued  a  different  method  of 
study,  the  results  from  which  are  far  more  reliable  than  those 
obtained  from  the  old  method  of  sections.  In  preparing 
separate  sections  much  loss  of  material  is  entailed,  only  a  few 
Bcctions  can   be  obtained   from   any  one  corallum,   and  the 

}forj)holo<j7j  of  the  Madreporaria.  221) 

iiidivitluMlity  of  the  septa  is  soniewliat  uncertain  owing  to 
possible  loss  of  orientation.  To  remeily  these  defects  a 
method  was  devised  by  which,  with  suitable  material,  one 
can  follow  step  by  sti-p  all  the  develoj)nientaI  stages  from 
beginning-  to  end  without  any  uncertainty  of  orientation,  and 
secure  drawings  ot  all  desirable  stages.  The  process  involves 
the  grinding  down  of  an  individual  fixed  coralluni  from  one 
end  to  the  other,  and  the  study  and  drawing  of  all  the  stages 
as  revealed.  The  broad  end  of  a  corallum  is  first  ground 
smooth,  and  fixed  by  Canada  balsam  to  a  glass  slide,  in  the 
manner  usually  followed  by  geologists  in  j)reparing  micro- 
scopic sections  of  rocks;  grinding  down  with  fine  emery  or 
on  a  ground-glass  plate  is  then  commenced  at  the  opposite 
end,  the  narrow  tip,  and  continued  all  the  way.  Willi 
favourable  specimens  the  septa  can  be  most  clearly  recognized 
under  a  low  power  of  the  microscope,  and  their  arrangement 
outlined  by  the  aid  of  a  camera  lucida.  The  distinctness  of 
the  septa  can  be  often  em))hasized  by  etching  the  exposed 
surface  with  a  little  weak  acid,  and  to  secure  the  best 
reflection  of  the  light  iVom  the  ground  surface  while  drawing 
tiie  latter  may  be  smeared  with  weak  glycerine  or  balsam. 

By  these  devices  the  whole  septal  develo{)ment  of  a  simple 
corallum  can  be  followed  almost  as  satisfactorily  as  if  one  had 
watched  its  actual  growth  day  by  day.  It  was  from  such  a 
series  that  the  ten  stages  representing  the  septal  development 
of  Streptelasma  rectum  given  in  the  paper  on  tiie  Fossubi 
were  secured,  and  also  the  series  here  reproduced  (figs.  1-8), 
depicting  the  septal  development  of  Lophcphyilum  yroliftrum , 
and  intended  to  replace  those  given  in  1902. 

For  purposes  of  the  present  paper  it  is  not  necessary  to 
describe  the  sections  of  Lophophyllum  at  greater  length  than 
is  given  in  the  explanation  to  each.  They  reveal  nothing 
fundamental  beyond  what  was  brought  forward  in  the  first 
paper,  but  a  confusion  in  the  latter  of  main  and  counter  septa, 
alluded  to  by  Gordon,  is  corrected.  In  place  of  the  older 
terminology  1  think  the  time  has  come  to  adopt  that  founded 
upon  more  modern  knowledge  of  the  relationships  of  the 
group  and  accepted  for  the  Anthozoa  geneially.  With  the 
exception  of  unimportant  details,  the  septal  sequence  of 
Lophophyllum  here  given  bears  the  closest  relationship  to 
that  of  btnptehisma  rectum  in  the  sixth  part  of  these  con- 
tributions; moreover,  it  is  that  found  to  be  characteristic  of 
a  large  number  of  other  species  of  rugose  corals  which  I  have 
studied  by  the  same  method  (c/.  figs.  9-12  ;  13-16).  Septal 
and  mesenterial  development  is  unquestionably  one  of  the 
most  reliable   means  zoologists   possess  for  determining  the 


Prof.  J.  E.  Ducrdcn  on  the 

Fi-.  1. 

Fig.  3. 

Fig.  1. — Lophophyllum  prolxferwn  (Septal  Sequence,  Figs.  1-8).  Trans- 
verse section  immediately  above  the  tip  of  a  corallum.  The  lines  of 
calcitlcation  of  six  primary  septa  (protosepta)  are  clearly  seen,  those 
of  the  two  median  septa  being  continuous.  At  this  level  all  the 
septa  are  thickened  to  such  a  degree  that  there  are  no  interseptal 
spaces  remaining,  and  in  such  a  surface  view  as  that  from  which  the 
figure  was  taken  there  is  no  indication  of  the  boundary  surfaces 
between  two  adjacent  septa.  According  to  the  accepted  terminology, 
the  upper  border  is  dorsal  and  the  lower  ventral. 

Fig.  2. — Section  above  that  of  Fig.  1.  An  interseptal  chamber,  repre- 
sented by  the  black  wedge-shaped  areas,  now  occurs  between  all  the 
septa.  The  lines  of  calcification  of  an  additional  pair  of  septa 
(metasepta,  a,  a)  are  seen,  situated  within  the  two  middle  of  the  six 
priuiary  interseptal  chambers  (the  counter  quadrants  of  palamnto- 
logists).  The  number  of  external  ridges  and  grooves  is  double  the 
number  of  internal  septa,  a  septum  corresponding  with  each  alternate 

Fig.  3. — Section  above  that  of  Fig.  2.  A  pair  of  raeta>:epta  (rt,,  </,)  has 
now  appeared  within  the  two  ventro-lateral  of  the  six  primary 
interseptal  spaces  (tlie  prinei])al  or  chief  quadrants),  corresponding 
with  the  metasepta  (n,  «)  of  the  middle  primary  chambers. 

Fig.  4.— A  section  still  higher.  .\nother  pair  of  septa  (i,  />)  is  now 
appearing  within  the  two  middle  primary  chambers.  At  first  tlie 
new  septa  are  sharply  turned  toward.^;  the  older  septum  on  their 
dorsal  aspect  and  there  is  no  interseptal  space. 


Morjthohgy  of  the  Mudreporaria. 

phvloffcnic  relationships  of  the  Antliozoa,  and  the  Rugosa  so 
fai  l.ave  been  found  to  be  remarkably  uniform  as  regards  tlieir 
septal  sequence. 

Fig.  5.-A  corresponding  septum  {h„  b)  has  appeared  within  each  of  the 
ventro-lateral  primary  chambers.  .■,  ,,      i       i.       „   j 

Fi-  6.-Another  septum  (c)  occurs  withm  each  middle  chamber,  and 
^  the  line  of  calcihcution  of  the  dorsal  and  Tentral  directive  septa  (the 
Gegmseptum  or  counter  septum  and  the  Hauptseptum  or  cardinal 
septum)  are  now  discontinuous. 

The  fundamental  contention  raised  by  Gordon  centres  in 
the  number  of  primary  septa  characteristic  ot  the  iiugosa, 
that  is,  whether  four  or  six  ;  and  upon  this  mainly  depends 

232  Prof.  J.  E.  Duerden  on  the 

the  possibility  of  firmly  establishing  the  relationships  of  the 
group.  The  ingrained  idea  of  a  primary  tetrameral  plan  for 
tiie  rugose  corals  rests  upon  the  fact  that  in  the  mature 
corallite  there  are  frequently  four  ])rimary  se|)ta,  which  by 
their  greater  or  less  size  stand  out  more  or  less  conspicuously 
among  the  rest  and  divide  the  calice  into  quadrants;  and,  in 
addition,  it  is  easily  seen  that  new  septa  are  added  at  four 
regions,  one  within  each  quadrant.  As  demonstrated  in  my 
two  earlier  papers,  these   suggestions  of  tetramerisra  in  both 

FiiT.  7. 

A  further  septum  {(X)  occurs  witliin  each  middle  chamber,  witliout  a 
correspouding  pair  bein<r  added  Avithin  the  ventro-lateral  chambers. 
The  central  part  of  the  dorsal  directive  septum  is  beginuing  to  be 
freed  from  the  inner  ends  of  the  other  septa,  and  appears  something 
like  a  columella,  with  distinct  centres  of  calcification.  In  the  space 
between  any  two  adjacent  principal  septa  the  first  traces  of  the 
centres  of  calcification  of  the  exosepta  (.r)  are  nuw  displayed,  their 
appearance  all  round  the  calice  being  nearly  simultaneous.  Tlie 
exosepta  have  thus  no  ordinal  value,  such  as  the  principal  septa  or 
entosepta  possess  ;  they  con-espond  with  alternate  external  grooves 
alternating  with  the  principal  septa. 

the  developing  and  mature  corallite  are  not  at  all  proofs  of  a 
primary  tetramerism  \  moreover,  Gordon  jiroduces  no  proofs 
beyond  a  suggestive  condition  in  Streptelasma  profundum  to 
be  discussed  later.  According  to  my  interpretation,  in  the 
Rugosa  a  secondary  tttramerism  has  been  impressed  upon  a 
p  rim  a  ri/  h  exa  m  e  r  is  m . 

At  first  sight   it  would   seem    to  be   a   simple   matter  to 
determine  the  number  of  primary  septa  in  a  corallum.      It  is 

Morphology  of  the  Madreporaria. 


rarely,  however,  tluit  one  secures  examples  of  these  ancient 
corals  having  perfect  tips,  and  otherwise  of  such  a  character 
that  the  arrangement  of  the  earliest  septa  can  be  made  out, 
either  from  microscopic  sections  or  grinding  down.  Speci- 
mens of  Lopliophyllum  proUferum^  the  species  first  studied  in 
this  connectiuu,  are  usually  remarkably  favourable  for  such 
an  investigation.  Where,  in  other  species,  the  tips  are 
perfect,  it  is  often  found  that  the  septa  are  not  determinable 
until  one  or  more  metaseptal  pairs  have  aj)peared,  in  addition 

The  interseptal  spaces  are  now  preatly  enlarged,  and  all  the  septa  are 
free  from  eacli  other  and  from  the  dor.^al  directive  septum  with  its 
colmnella-like  free  end.  Exosepta  regularly  alternate  with  the 
entosepta  all  round  the  calice,  and  the  ventral  directive  septum  is 
a  little  smaller  than  the  other  principal  septa,  thus  giving  rise  to  a 
fossula.  The  stage  I'epreseuted  is  practically  that  characteristic  of 
the  fully  developed  corallum. 

to  the  protosepta  ;  sometimes  partial  or  entire  silicification  of 
the  corallum  has  taken  place,  and  rendered  the  preparation 
of  sections  practically  impossible;  while  in  such  as  Dancanella 
horeah's  the  original  tip  is  wanting,  and  when  first  collected 
four,  five,  or  six  pairs  of  septa  are  frequently  exposed  to 
view  (fig.  17). 

Since  the  publication   of  my  first  paper  I  have  made  con- 
siderable eff'orts  to  secure  from  various  sources  specimens  of 


Prof.  J.  E.  Duerden  on  the 

rugose  corals  particularly  adapted  for  investigating  this 
special  problem.  The  number  now  available  has  enabled 
me   to  demonstrate  the    presence   of   six    primary    septa    in 

Fig.  9. —  Cyafhaxonia  cynodon   (Septal  Sequence,  figs.  9-12).      Section 

immediately  above   the    tip,   showing   six    primary    equal    septa, 

separated  by  six  primary  iuterseptal  chambers. 
Fig.  10. — The  first  pair  of  metasepla  [a,  a)  has  appeared,  a  septum  within 

each  of  the  middle  interseptal  chambers. 
(In  the  next  section  a  corresponding  pair  of  meta^epta  is  seen  within  the 

ventro-lateral  chambers:  cf.  fig.  4,  a^,  a,,  and  iig.  11,  a„  a,.)  * 

An  additional  pair  of  septa  has  appeared  within  the  two  middle  chambers 
(6,  h),  and  also  within  the  two  ventro-lateral  chambers  (i,,  6,). 
Certain  of  the  exosepta  (.r)  are  also  present. 

(In  the  next  section  a  pair  of  septa  (c,,  c,)  is  developing  witliin  the  ventro- 
lateral chambers  in  advance  of  the  corresponding  pair  within  the 
middle  chambers.)  * 

*  [The  figures  intended  to  follow  fig.  10  and  fig.  11  were  not  found 
amono-  the  drawings  forwarded  by  Prof.  Duerden.  I  have  added  these 
notes  to  explain  the  points  that  should  have  been  illustrated  by  the 
missing  figures. — S.  J.  H.] 

Morphology  of  the  Madreporaria. 


several  species,  in  addition  to  Lopliophyllum  proliferum  ;  in 
fact,  wherever  the  specimens  have  been  such  as  to  admit  of  the 
proseptal  stage  heing  determined  six  septa  have  been  revealed. 
Streptelasma  rectum,  Ilall,  is  a  species  of  wliicli  examples  are 
fVcqiuMitly  obtained  having-  perfect  tips,  and  the  whole 
coral Inin  ])rescrved  in  such  a  way  that  tiie  septal  develop- 
ment can  be  followed  throuj^hout.  All  the  principal  stages 
have  been  described  and  figured  in  my  paper  on  the  Fossula, 
and  in  the  present  connection  the  fact  of  supreme  interest  is 
that  six  primary  septa  occur,  all  of  equal  size  and  situated 
at  equal  distances  apart  [1.  c.  fig.  2).  It  may  be  mentioned 
that  in  one  specimen  of  S.  rectum,  only  five  primary  septa 

The  same  number  of  septa  occur  withiu  the  middle  primary  chamber 
(a,  c)  as  within  the  ventro-lateral  chamber  («,,  c).  In  the  sub- 
sequent growth  all  the  entosepta  become  free  from  the  central  mass, 
and  the  exosepta  become  free  from  the  entosepta. 

were  present,  and  the  later  septa  were  added  in  an  order 
different  from  that  o£  the  examples  with  six  primary  septa. 
Manifestly  one  must  be  prepared  for  irregularities  in  the 
septal  formation  of  fossil  corals  just  as  much  as  in  living 

Coralla  of   Cyathaxonia  cynodon,   E.  &  H.,  are  also  well 
adapted   for   the  determination   of  the    number   of    primary 

236  Prof.  J.  E.  DuerJen  on  the 

septa,  as  their  tijjs  are  iisLuilly  perfect.  On  grinding  down  a 
coralliim  for  a  short  distance  six  equal  septa  are  disclosed, 
radially  arranged,  and  separated  by  comparatively  large  equal 
interspaces.  On  pages  234-235  four  figures  are  given 
(figs.  9-12)  displaying  tlie  early  stages  in  the  septal  develop- 
ment of  this  species,  starting  as  before  with  a  primary 

In  the  above  and  other  species,  in  which  the  septal  con- 
stitution has  been  estaljlished  by  the  process  of  grinding,  it 
may  be  objected  that  if  earlier  stages  than  tho^e  first  repre- 
sented could  be  obtained  four  primary  septa  might  t!ien 
be  disclosed,  and  the  other  two  would  be  seen  to  be  but  later 
additions  to  a  tetrameral  group  ;  in  other  words,  that  the 
earliest  septal  stage  is  not  that  indicated  as  such.  Were  tiiis 
the  case  the  dorso-lateral  pair  here  regarded  as  protosepta 
would  be  really  the  first  pair  of  metasepta.  Against  this 
reasonable  objection  it  can  be  aflirraed  that  in  all  cases  as 
soon  as  any  of  the  primary  septa  are  determinable  they  are 
already  six  in  number,  all  fully  developed,  practically  equal 
in  size,  and  radially  disposed  at  equal  distances  apart.  Two 
pairs  never  appear  in  advance  of  a  third  pair.  Moreover, 
there  is  never  any  hint  of  the  third  pair  being  inclined  at 
its  origin  towards  the  others,  after  the  manner  of  develop- 
ment invariably  characteristic  of  the  first  and  later  pairs  of 
metasepta.  All  the  sections  representing  the  appearance  of 
the  metasepta  indicate  that  the  new  septa  first  arise  within 
the  wall  of  the  calice.  Their  free  end  is  then  turned  towards 
the  older  septum  dorsal  to  them,  and  as  they  become  larger 
and  extend  higher  they  seem  gradually  to  travel,  as  it  were, 
along  the  older  septum,  until  tliey  nearly  reach  the  middle  of 
the  calice.  The  centripetal  end  then  becomes  independent 
of  the  adjacent  septum,  and  is  either  free  or  united  in  a 
columellar  mass.  Tlius  the  metasepta  are  not  truly  radial 
until  they  are  fully  formed.  These  stages  are  presented  by 
all  the  metasepta  and  also  exosepta  in  their  devolopment,  but, 
as  already  stated,  they  are  never  represented  by  any  of  the 
first  six  septa.  All  the  studies  on  the  development  of  the 
corallum  of  recent  hexameral  corals^  conducted  by  Lacaze- 
Dutliiers,  (Jr.  von  Koch,  and  myself,  indicate  that  six  equal 
se))ta  are  formed  simultaneously  in  a  radiate  manner,  and 
such  would  appear  to  have  been  the  case  with  the  corals  of 
Palaeozoic  times. 

Among  a  large  collection  of  rugose  corals  lent  me  for  study 
by  the  United  Slates  National  Museum,  through  the 
assistance  of  Prof.  C.  Schuchert,  are  several  specimens 
labelled  Zaphrentis  pusiUa,  n.  sp.     These  have  j)roved  to  bo 

M<)rph(iJ(i(j>j  of  the  Madreporaria. 


very  satisfactory  for  tlio  present  study,  liavinn^  perfect  tips 
and  septa  clearly  disjjlayed.  Four  of  tiie  early  stages  are 
reproduced  in  figs.  13-16.  Here,  again,  on  the  earliest 
appearance  of  the  septa  six  members  are  present,  equal  in 
size,  situated  at  equal  distances  apart,  and  disposed  approxi- 
mately in  a  radial  manner;  the  mctasepta  are  added  at  four 
regions  in  the  maniu'r  just  described,  the  newer  as  they 
ap[K'ar  bein;^  inturned  towards  the  older. 

Fiff.  15. 

Fijr.  IG. 

Figs.  13-16. — Series  of  sections  showing  four  early  stao-es  in  the  .«eptal 
development  of  Zaphrentis  pusilla.  The  general  relationships  very 
closely  resemble  those  of  the  two  series  already  described. 

In  addition  to  these  four  very  decided  cases  of  liexamerism, 
secured  from  several  specimens  of  each  species,  six  primary 
septa  have  been  demonstrated  in  Iladrophyllum  glans  (White), 
Hadropliylluin  jiauciradiatnm^  E.  &  H.,  and  Microci/clus 
discus,  Meek  &  Worthen,  though,  largely  on  account  of  their 
squat  form,  these  species  are  not  so  well  adapted  for  displaying 
the  entire  septal  development  as  those  figured.  Still  other 
rugose  corals  have  been  examined  in  which  it  has  been  found 
impossible  to  secure  the  protoseptal  stage  alone,  yet  when 
the  earliest  stage  is  reached  at  which  septa  are  exposed  their 

Ann.  ct'  }[a</.  X.  Ilist.  Scr.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  17 


Prof.  J.  E.  Duciclcii  on  the 

Fi-r.  21. 

Figs.  17-21. — Series  of  sections  sbowing  four  stflges  in  the  septal  develop- 
ment of  IhmcaneUa  borealis.  The  earliest  stage  available  in  the 
coralliim  figured  already  shows  six  pairs  of  senta,  as  Eaturally 
exposed  in  ii jr.  17  and  as  seen  on  grinding  smooth  in  tig.  18;  the 
subsequent  .septa  are  added  as  in  the  three  previous  species,  with  tlie 
exception  that  in  the  last  figure  the  number  of  septa  within  each 
middle  chamber  ('(-(/)  c.vcccds  1>\  two  ihat  wiihin  llie 
chambers  («,,  f>)' 

Mor^ilivhiijij  of  the  M(t(/rejiorarii(.  239- 

arrangement  i.s  sucli  as  to  leave  no  uncertainty  that  the 
])rimary  condition  was  lioxaineral,  and  that  the  later  septa 
have  been  added  in  the  same  manner  as  in  other  forms  where 
the  sequence  is  determinaljle  from  the  beginning.  h;uch  are 
Strepteliumii  proftindinn,  iStrejitelasnia  loayensis^  and  JJaii- 
canella  iorealis  (iigs.  17-21). 

It  seems  unnecessary  to  multiply  examples.  Wherever 
the  tip  is  sufficiently  Avell  preserved  to  display  the  primary 
septa  they  are  found  to  be  six  in  number  ;  in  no  case  has 
even  a  suggestion  of  a  primary  tetrameral  condition  been 
encountered.  With  all  these  definite  facts  available  there 
^vould  seem  to  be  i\o  longer  a  possibility  of  any  reasonable 
doubt  as  to  the  primary  hexamerism  of  the  llugosa. 

In  l)is  paper  Gordon  does  not  attempt  to  dispute  the 
liexamerism  of  Lojihojihijllum  prolifevum,  but  endeavours  to 
explain  it  as  the  result  of  the  precocious  appearance  of  what, 
according  to  him,  should  be  the  first  pair  of  metasej)ta. 
'J'liis  pair,  here  regarded  as  the  primary  dorso-Iateral  pair, 
Gordon  supposes  to  belong  not  to  the  protosej)tal,  but  to  the 
metaseptal  series,  and  owing  to  its  accelerated  appearance  it 
gives  a  false  hexameral  character  to  the  primary  stage. 
This  idea  of  acceleration  is  altogether  hypothetical,  and  its 
author  does  not  produce  a  single  acceptable  fact  in  its 
sup{)ort.  He  considers  that  a  departure  from  the  original 
tetrameral  type  is  likely  to  occur  in  a  form  such  as  LopJiO' 
phylhun  which  appears  in  Carboniferous  times,  that  is,  towards 
the  close  of  the  geological  distribution  of  the  rugosids.  This 
argument,  unsatisfactory  in  itself,  now  fails  altogether  in  view 
of  the  fact  that  comprised  in  the  list  of  corals  given  above, 
in  which  six  primary  septa  have  been  defii\itely  established, 
there  are  representatives  of  almost  all  ages  in  the  chrono- 
logical extension  of  the  rugose  corals. 

Gordon  draws  attention  to  the  fact  that  in  the  older  stages 
of  growth  of  a  corallum  there  is  no  diiference  in  character 
between  the  dorso-lateral  pair  of  primary  septa  and  the 
principal  septa  which  arise  later,  that  the  niterseptal  spaces 
between  these  septa  and.  the  adjacent  septa  differ  in  no  ways 
from  the  other  interspaces,  and  that  exosepta  appear  in  the 
dorso-lateral  primary  interseptal  spaces  just  as  in  others. 
Were  these  really  primary  septa  he  expects  that  they  would 
present  some  feature  distinguishing  them  from  the  later 
principal  septa.  Such  an  expectancy,  however,  is  altogether 
contrary  to  what  we  actually  know  of  development  and  growth 
in  the  Anthozoa.  All  studies  in  this  group,  particularly  among 
the  aclinians  and  corals,  reveal  that  the  growth  tendency  is 
everywhere  towards  a  perfectly  cyclic  plan,  with  all  the  parts 

240  Trof.  J.  E.  Daeidcn  on  the 

in  any  cycle  alike  in  size  and  other  chavacters ;  however 
strongly  bilateral  or  otherwise  varied  may  be  the  course  of 
development,  the  final  result  is  an  approximation  towards 
radial  symmetry,  such  as  is  characteristic  of  most  sessile 
organisms  where  the  environmental  forces  act  equally  all 
round.  Most  rugose  corals  have  an  almost  perfect  cyclic  plan 
in  the  uppermost  part  of  thecalice,  though  we  know  that  this 
is  founded  upon  decidedly  bilateral  developmental  stages; 
likewise  the  cyclic  disposition  of  the  organs  in  the  adult 
stages  of  nearly  all  actinians  and  corals  gives  scarcely  any 
hint  of  their  strongly  bilateral  developmental  sequence. 
Hence  any  argument  as  to  the  primary  or  development 
relationships  of  the  septa  founded  upon  adult  appearances 
Las  little  or  no  value. 

Gordon  errs  with  Kuntli  and  others  in  assuming  that  each 
of  the  external  grooves  on  the  surface  of  a  lugose  corallum 
represents  a  septum  formed  in  orderly  sequence  within  each 
quadrant  (see  Gordon^s  fig.  15).  As  a  matter  of  fact  only 
alternate  grooves  correspond  with  principal  septa  (entosepta), 
and  it  is  these  alone  wiiicli  have  any  sequence  value.  This 
is  manifest  from  the  series  of  sections  represented  in  Hgs.  1-8. 
In  figs.  1-6  only  entosepta  are  yet  present,  and  correspond 
with  alternate  external  grooves,  while  figs.  7  and  8  show 
that  the  smaller  sejtta  (exosepta)  arise  almost  simultaneously 
at  a  rather  late  developmental  stage,  and  are  tiius  of  no 
significance  as  regards  septal  sequence. 

Attention  may  now  be  directed  to  the  proof  which  Gordon 
has  to  offer  in  support  of  iiis  contention  that  the  primary 
septal  jjlan  of  the  rugosids  is  tetrameral.  He  fully  recognizes 
the  difficulties  attendant  upon  securing  sections  through  the 
tips  of  the  coralla,  and  ai)i}arently  has  not  succeeded  in 
obtaining  such  ;  for  the  only  evidence  he  adduces  rests  upon 
a  couple  of  decalcified  silicified  specimiens  of  Sirei'telasma 
prof unduDij  one,  of  which  was  broken  during  examination; 
witii  such  material  study  must  necessarily  be  limited  to 
surface  views.  He  states  that  "  of  the  four  primary  septa 
represinied  in  the  drawing  [/.  c.  tig.  J 6],  the  counter  septa 
extended  farthest  down,  the  cardinal  next,  and  the  alar 
next/'  and  claims  that  these  four  septa  extended  larthest 
down  into  the  base  of  the  caliceand  are  the  only  true  primary 

1  likewise  have  in  my  possession  about  a  dozen  decalcified 
specimens  of  S.  prof  nudum,  of  all  sizes,  which  present  all  the 
a|  pearanccs  described  by  Gordon,  and  in  some  the  earlier 
sti.ges  are  more  completely  preserved  than  Gordon's  figures 
and  remarks  indicate  his  two  exan)ples  to  be.     1  have  already 

MufjiliuUxii/  (ij  III    .\iadreporaria.  211 

ri<i;urctl  the  septal    ]jlau   of   one  of  these   young   forms  (I'iol. 
15ulL,   Jnne   19(J.'),    ]).    '.V.)).     The   fi<,aire  shows  that   in   this 
partienhir  specimen   the   details  of  the   early   septal    groivtii 
are  so  well  preserved  as  to  display  the  septa  turned  towards 
one  another  in  the  regular  manner  revealed  by  serial  sections, 
but  suc'.i  are  not   indicated   in   Gordon's  drawings  ;   the  exo- 
septa  can  also  be  seen  in   their  initial   relationships  with  the 
entosejita,  which  is  likewise  not  the  case  in  Gordon's  example. 
Gordon  himself  suggests  that  al)sori)tion  has  taken  place  in 
the  lower  j)aits  of  the  sej)ta  of  his  specimen,  and  in  the  case 
of  the  tertiary  septa  {'wosepta  of  the  present  paper)  acknow- 
ledges (p.  124)  that  "  it  was  impossible  in  all  cases  to  tell  to 
what  length  they  extended  down  into  the  coral."     His  own 
figure   and   statements  would    prove    that  even  the  })rimary 
septa  were  not  all  formed  at  the  same  time,  though  such  is 
certainly  the  evidence  from   all   well-preserved    material    of 
other   species.     Taking    into   account   all   the  details  which 
Gordon  offers,  and  studying  along  with  them  my  own  much 
better  series  of  the  same  species  of  coral,  I  am  convinced 
that  Utile  or  no  value  can  be  placed  upon  his  specimen  as  an 
aid  in  solving  the  present  problem.     ]\Ioreover,  I  consider 
that    the   evidence    from    none    of    my   specimens    could   be 
regarded   as   conclusive   as   far    as    concerns  the  number  of 
primary  septa;  to  a   certain   extent  the  actual  details  would 
for    ever    remain     a     matter    of    individual    interpretation. 
Assistance  from  decalcified  silicified  specimens  must,  in  my 
opinion,    always    be   unsatisfactory,  largely    on   account    of 
possible   iniperfect   silicification   of  the  earliest  stages.     The 
details  obtainable  from  sections  or  grinding  of  the  actual  tip 
afford  by  far  more  convincing  evidence,  and  manifestly,  from 
the  additional  evidence  produced  in  tliis  paper,  there  is  no 
occasion  for  any  uncertainty  in  the  matter;  there  can  now 
be  no   reasonable    doubt    that   the   hexameral    plan    is    that 
characteristic  of  the  grouj). 

To  sum  up,  Gordon,  in  my  opinion,  (1)  has  failed  to  pro- 
duce any  evidence  in  favour  of  a  ])rimary  tetrameral  plan  in 
the  rugosids,  and  (2)  his  attempt  to  explain  the  hexameral 
character  of  Loji/iop/tyUiun  proliferum  as  resulting  from 
precocity  of  the  first  metaseptal  pairs  is  altogether  unsup- 
ported by  facts.  The  demonstration  of  six  primary  septa  in 
many  other  species  is  proof  beyond  doubt  that  L.  i^roliferum 
is  not  exceptional  in  its  hexamerism,  but  conforms  to  the 
rugosid  type. 

Gordon  is  not  in  a  position  to  discuss  the  view  tliat  the 
Rugosa  find  their  nearest  modern  representatives  m  the 
Zoantheae.     One   of  tiic  necessary  arguments  for  the  main- 

212  Dr.  F.  C.  Wellman  on 

tenance  of  this  is  the  establishment  of  their  primary  hcxa- 
merism,  an*]  unless  verj  weighty  evidence  to  the  contrary 
should  be  forthcoming  this  must  now  be  regarded  as 
accomplished.  The  facts  in  support  of  the  relationship  may 
be  summarized  as  follows  : — 

1.  The  Rugose  corals  and  the  Zoanthid  actinians  have  both 
a  primary  hexamerism. 

2.  The  septa  in  the  Rugosa  and  the  mesenteries  in  the 
Zoanthese  are  added  in  bilateral  pairs  at  only  one  region,  a 
vertical  zone  within  the  primary  exocoeles,  there  being  four 
such  regions — middle  and  ventro-lateral  chambers — in  the 
Rugosa,  and  two — ventro-lateral  chambers — in  the  Zoantheae. 

3.  The  septa  in  the  Rugosa  and  the  mesenteries  in  the 
Zoanthese  are  never  polycyclic,  as  in  modern  corals  and 
ordinary  actinians  ;  at  most  there  are  only  two  cycles  of 
septa,  large  entosepta  and  small  exosepta,  disposed  in  such 
a  manner  as  could  only  have  been  produced  in  polyps  with 
a  mesenterial  arrangement  similar  to  that  of  the  Zoantheaj. 

4.  The  presence  of  a  ventral  directive  fossula  in  the 
Rugosa,  usually  persisting  in  the  fully  developed  and  other- 
wise perfectly  radial  calice,  can  be  explained  by  the 
occurrence  within  the  living  rugose  polyp  of  a  single  ventral 
siphonoglyph  or  gonidial  groove,  such  as  is  characteristic  of 
zoanthid  polyps. 

XXXV. — Xotps  on  the  Ilahits  of  Tsetse-Jlies. 
By  F.  Ckeighton  Wellmax,  Benguella,  West  Africa. 

Having  recently  had  opportunity  to  make  some  observations 
on  tsetse-flies  in  the  Esupua  "  fly- belt,"  about  thirty-tive  miles 
inland  from  the  seaport  town  of  Benguella,  West  Africa,  [ 
present  here  some  of  my  findings.  Our  knowledge  of  these 
flies  is  as  yet  very  far  from  complete,  and  first-hand  observa- 
tions, including  mention  of  the  date,  habitat,  and  species 
studied,  should  be  recorded. 

The  following  notes  were  a  few  of  them  made  in  November 
1904,  but  most  of  them  date  from  October  28tli  and  L'yth  and 
November  'Jth  and  10th,  1905.  The  Esupua  ''fly-belt"  is, 
as  I  have  said,  about  thirty-five  miles  inland  from  the  port  of 
Benguella  (13°  S.  on  the  west  coast  of  Africa)  and  twenty 
miles  from  the  city  of  Catumbella.  The  fly  studied  by  me  is 
a  subspecies  of  Glosstna  j'alj'ali't--,  Robineau-Dcsvoidy,  which 

the  lltil.lls  of  Tsetse-flies.  2i:3 

was  last  year   dcscrihcil   in    the  Ann.  <^  Maj^.  Nut.  Hist,  a.s 
Glossina  palpalis  M'e/linani,  Austen  (1905)  *. 

Altlion^li  the  district  in  whicli  the  tiies  were  taken  was 
found  to  contain  some  game,  including  eland  {Oreas  cannn 
Livingstunei),  roan  antelope  (f/ippotraqus  eqninus),  kudu 
{Strejisiceros  kudu),  the  duyker  {CephahAophus  Griinmi)j^\v\ 
Speke's  tragelaj)h  [Limnotragus  Spekei),  yet  I  bidieve  that 
human  hlood  ionns  the  greater  part  of  their  food.  This  is 
luidoubtedly  true  over  at  least  a  part  of  the  "belt."  Alouf 
the  north  bank  of  the  lower  Katumbehi  Hiver  from  Esupua 
to  a  point  half  a  day's  march  up  the  river  lies  the  great 
Benguclla  caravan. route,  near  which  there  is  little  or  no 
game,  but  over  which  constantly  pass  great  caravans  of  half- 
naked  Bantus.  At  Esu|nia  one  may  see  half  a  dozen  of  these 
large  caravans  camping  in  one  place.  It  is  here  that  the  flies 
are  the  most  plentiful.  They  hide  in  the  tall  grass  and 
sedges  near  the  river,  and  also  on  stones,  trunks  of  trees  and 
vines,  and  among  the  leaves  of  shrubs  and  bushes  on  the 
bank.  When  a  native  is  sent  to  the  river  for  water  the  flies 
rise  from  their  resting-places  as  he  passes  and  follow  him, 
seeking  for  an  opportunity  to  bite.  On  several  different 
occasions  1  followed  natives  going  to  the  river  to  fetch  water. 
One  of  these  1  saw  bitten  twice,  three  were  bitten  once  each, 
and  seven  1  did  not  see  bitten  at  all.  'J'he  Batitus  say  that 
the  bite  is  painful,  and  I  noticed  that  if  a  fly  settled  on  a 
porter's  back  the  man  generally  slapped  himself  as  it  began 
to  insert  its  proboscis.  Some  of  the  specimens  I  took  had 
abdomens  greatly  distended  with  blood.  The  flies  do  not 
always  remain  so  close  to  the  river.  The  first  one  I  saw  in 
Koveniber  11/01  was  between  three  and  four  hundred  yards 
from  the  river  in  thin  "desert'^  bush,  consisting  of  Acacia 
refeciens  and  other  thorny  shrubs,  which  afford  practically  no 
shade.  Gl.  palpalis  Wellinani  certainly  does  not  share  the 
dislike  for  huiuan  ordure  which  has  been  ascribed  to  its 
congeners.  I  have  frequently  seen  it  in  and  around  the 
filthiest  native  camps  at  some  distance  from  the  river  and 
from  shade,  where  it  had  evidently  gone  for  the  purpose  of 
sucking  human  blood.  The  fly  bites  most  viciously  durinp- 
the  heat  of  the  day,  and,  as  I  have  said,  goes  considerable 
distances  in  search  of  food.  It  bites  less  readily  in  the 
evening  and  early  morning.  The  native  blacks  claim  that  it 
occasionally  bites  at  night.  The  one  observation  that  I 
made  in  view  of  this  statement  leads  me  to  suspect  that  it  is 

*  Ser.  7,  vul.  xv.,  April  1905,  p.  300. 

244  Geological  Society, 

not  true,  at  least  for  the  time  of  year  mentioned  at  the 
beginning  of  these  notes.  All  three  of  my  visits  to  Esupua 
were  made  during  the  iieaviest  rains  of  the  year,  which, 
according  to  native  reports,  do  not  seem  to  have  the  effect 
which   has  been  claimed  for  them  in  reducing  the  numbers  of 

1  have  elsewhere  shown  that  Gl.  palpalis  Wellrnam  is  a 
disseminator  of  human  trypanosomiasis,  and  that  this  disease 
is  unfortunately  on  the  increase  in  Benguelhi  District. 



April  25th,  1906.— J.  E.  ilarr,  Sc.D.,  F.Il.S., 
Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  communications  were  read : — 

1.  '  Trilobites  from  Bolivia,  collected  by  Dr.  J.  W.  Evans  in 
1901-1902.'     By  Philip  Lake,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 

Several  horizons  are  represented  by  these  fossils.  Tsvo  speci- 
mens of  Peltura,  probably  from  the  Upper  Linjula-Flags,  were 
collected  at  Cochaiya,  about  3  miles  north-east  of  Pata.  Xew 
species  of  Stfmj^^^'jsurus  and  Trlnudeus,  probably  of  Arenig  age, 
were  found  about  a  mile  from  Apolo,  Province  of  Caupolican.  An 
indeterminable  species  of  Ojifjia  was  obtained  from  the  right  bank  of 
the  River  Caca,  in  the  same  province.  Fluicops  cf.  arbuteits,  Dal- 
maaites  Paitana,  and  D.  Maecarna  were  collected  in  the  track 
from  Apolo  to  San  Jose  de  Chupiamouas,  also  in  the  province  of 
Caupolican.  The  nodules  from  which  the}'  were  derived  are 
probably  of  Lower  Devonian  age.  Descriptions  are  given  of  the 
new  species  and  other  forms  menlioned.  It  is  worthy  of  remark 
that,  while  the  earlier  forms  show  affinities  with  the  contemporaneous 
European  fauna,  the  Devonian  species  are  much  more  closely  allied 
to  those  of  South  Africa  and  North  America. 

2.  '  Graptolites  from  Bolivia,  collected  by  Dr.  J.  W.  Evans  in 
1901-1902.'     By  Ethel  M.  R.  Wood,  D.Sc. 

In  black  pyritic  shales  from  three  localities  several  specimens 
of  Diibimo(iraptus  were  collected  :  one  referable  to  bijidiis,  one  of  the 
type  of  (iffiitis,  and  one  of  the  Nicholsoai-type.  Ph>iUo(jraptu8, 
Glossogi'tqHns,  Cri/pfor/ra/>tus,  and  Diplograptas  were  also  obtaineK 
A  pale,  silky  grey  shale  shows  also  rare  graptolites,  belonging  to  a 
species  comparable  with  CVunacoiiraptus  confertit.<.  These  forms 
indicate  that  both  the  black  and  the  pale  shales  belong  to  horizons 
ill  the  Upper  Arcnij;  rocks  (^ Lower  Llanvirn  of  Hicks). 




No.  106.  OCTOBER  1906. 

XXXyi.—NatKmt  Histori/  Notes  from  R.I.M.S.  'Investi- 
gator.'— Series  III.,  No.  10.  On  Mollusca  from  the  Bay  of 
Bengal  and  the  Arabian  Sea.     By  Edgar  A.  Smith,  I.S.O. 

[Concluded  from  p.  175.] 

Bathijbembix  Nevilli,  sp.  u. 

Testa  turbinata,  imperforata,  alba,  periostraco  tenui  griseo  induta ; 
spira  conica,  pagodiformis  ;  aiifractus  8-9,  supra  concave  declivos, 
infra  medium  angulati,  ad  angulum  acute  tuberculati,  t^upra  ad 
suturam  tuberculati,  infra  ad  suturam  minute  denticulati,  liiieis 
incremeuti  obliquis  striati,  ultimus  infra  angulum  tul)erculatum 
liris  quiuque  crenulatis  cinctus  ;  apertura  obliqua,  irregulariter 
rotundata,  intus  sulcis  levibus  4—5  sculpta ;  labrum  tenue,  basi 
subexpansum ;  columella  alba,  incrassata,  reflexa,  callo  tenui 
labro  juncta. 
Alt.  30  mm.,  diam.  maj.  2G,  min.  22;  apertura  12  longa,  13  lata. 

Hab.  Station  277,  south  of  Ceylon,  859-880  fath. 

The  minute  tuberculation  or  crenulation  at  the  suture  and 
the  crenulation  of  the  five  basal  lirse  are  caused  by  the  lines  of 
growth.  The  acute  tubercles  are  about  twenty  in  number 
upon  the  last  whorl,  and  become  smaller  and  closer  together 
as  they  ascend  the  spire. 

Rather  lil^e  B.  argtnteo-nitens,  Lischke,  from  Japau,  but 
smaller,   with  a  thicker  external  calcareous   suriace,    more 

Ann.  &  Mag.  N,  Hist.   Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  18 

2J6  ^If.  E.  A.  S:nitli  on  Mvllusca  from  the 

acute   tubercles,  and  stronger  lines  of  growth  making  the 
basal  lirai  more  distinctly  crcnulatcd. 

Named  B.  Nevilli  in  reniemljrance  of  my  late  friend 
Geoffrey  Nevill,  formerly  of  the  Indian  Museum,  Calcutta. 

Gaza  {Callogaza  ?)  Frederici,  sp.  u. 

Testa  breviter  couica,  late  umbilicata,  albo-margaritacea  ;  anfractus 
8,  regulariter  lente  accrescentes,  plani,  sujira  et  infra  serie  tuber- 
culorum  acutorum  ornati,  lineii-que  incrementi  obliquis  sculpti, 
sutura  canaliculata  sejuncti,  ultirausad  peripheriam  carina  secuiida 
pulchcrrime  serrata  cinctus,  infra  liris  coueentricis  quinis  minute 
eerralis  oruatus  ;  apertura  obli(pie  subquadrata,  intus  iridescens, 
margaritacca  ;  labrum  leviter  incrassatum,  album,  subexpansura ; 
cohimella  reflexa,  umbilicum  partim  obtegens,  callo  tenui  labro 

Diam.  maj.  25  mm.,  min.  23  ;  alt.  20. 

Hah.  Station  333,  Gulf  of  Manar,  401  fath. 

A  single  specimen  only.  It  is  a  very  beautiful  form  and 
■well  characterized  by  its  nacreous  surface,  the  rows  of  acute 
tubercles  at  the  upper  and  lower  part  of  the  whorls,  the  deep 
channelled  suture,  the  wide  pervious  umbilicus,  partly  covered 
by  the  reflection  of  the  columella,  and  the  biearinate  cha- 
racter of  the  body-whorl  The  lower  keel,  which  forms  the 
periphery,  is  very  finely  serrated  l^y  the  clearly  developed 
lines  of  growth.  Of  the  live  basal  lirte,  which  are  also 
minutely  serrated,  that  which  borders  the  umbilicus  is 
stouter  than  the  rest. 

BusUissa  patida,  Martens,  is  more  widely  umbilicated,  has 
a  third  row  of  acute  nodules,  only  four  on  the  base,  and  a 
less  raised  spire,  and  the  characters  of  the  peristome  appear 
to  be  different  if  Martens's  shell  was  mature. 

Named  after  ray  friend  Mr.  F.  Beavis,  who  was  much 
impressed  with  the  beauty  of  this  shell. 

Calliostoma  admirandum,  sp.  u. 

Testa  elate  acute  conica,  imperforata,  pallide  cornea,  maculis  saturati- 
oiibus  irregulariter  picta  ;  anfractus  9,  plani,  seriebus  quiuque 
granulorum  minimorum,  seriebus  minoribus  inteicalantibus, 
ornati,  ultiraus  ad  peripberiam  acute  angulatus,  infra  concentrice 
liratus,  liris  circiter  12,  subgranulatis,  rufo  punctatis  ;  apertura 
obli(]ua,  subquadrata  ;  columella  alba,  ihcrassata,  obliqua,  leviter 
arcuata,  retlexa. 

Diam.  17  mm.,  alt.  20. 

Hub.  Station  258,  W.  of  Travancore,  103  fatli.,  sand. 

Bay  of  Bengal  and  the  Arabian  Sea.  217 

The  scries  of  granules  on  the  last  and  penultimate  whorls 
arc  alternately  largcM*  and  smaller,  hut  on  the  u[)[)er  V(jlutiou3 
the  (iner  granules  arc  wanting. 

Glijphis  dclicdta  (Smith). 

Fissurella  dclicata,  Smith,  Ann.  &  ^^ffig-  Nat.   Hist.    1893,  Vdl.   iv. 
p.  L'l'J  ;  lUiust.  Znol.  '  Invusti^-.itor,'  MolliHca,  pi.  xii.  fi^'s  8,  8  a. 

Huh.  Station  333,  Gulf  of  Manar,  401  fath. 
A  single  specimen,   differing  from    the  type  only  in  its 
greater  size.     It  is  39  mm.  long,  .21  broad,  and  14  high. 

Puncturella  {Cranopsis)  asturiana  (Fischer). 

Pniicfurella  {Cranopxis)  asturiana,    Smith,   Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.   Hist. 
1806,  vol.  xviii.  p.  371  ;  1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  o. 

Hah.  Station  333,  Gulf  of  .Manar,  401  fath. 

This  is  another  instance  of  the  same  species  occurring  in 
the  Indian  -ind  Atlantic  Oceans.  The  only  slight  difference 
between  the  shells  from  the  above  locality  and  those  obtained 
by  the  'Challenger^  Expedition  in  the  West  Indies  in. 
390  fath.  is  that  the  slit  is  perhaps  a  little  nearer  the  apex  in 
the  jSIanar  shells  than  in  those  from  Culebra  Island. 

Scaphander  mundus,  Watson,  var. 

Scaphander  mundus,  Watson, Gasteropoda  *  Challenger'  Exped.  p.  043, 
pi.  xlviii.  tig.  2. 

Huh.  Station  .276,  W.  of  Ceylon,  1003  fath. ;  off  Arrou  I., 
809  fath  ('Challenger'). 

The  'Investigator'  specimens  are  rather  more  finely  punc- 
tate than  the  types,  but  are  similar  in  other  respects. 

Scaphander  andamanicus,  Smith. 

Scaphander   andamanicus,   Smith,    Ann.    &    Mag.    Nat.    Hist.    1894, 
vol.  xiv.  p.  107,  pi.  iv.  tig.  15 ;  1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  o. 

Hab.  Station  256,  W.  of  Ceylon,  937  fath.,  green  mud  ; 
Station  273,  off  Malabar  coast/823-870  fath. ;  Station  321, 
S.  of  Ceylon,  660  fath. 

Scaphander  cancellatus,  Martens. 

Scaphander  cancellatus,  Martens,  Deutscli.  Tiel'see-Exped.  '  Vuklivia,' 
vol.  vii.  p.  131,  pi.  V.  fig.  19. 

Hab.  Station  322,  Andaman  Islands,  378  fath.;  Station 
259,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  295-360  fath.,  green  mud  and 
sand  ;  W.  of  Sumatra,  47U-616  metres  {Martens). 


248  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  Mollusca  from  the 

Although  varviiij^  somewhat  in  form,  some  examples  being 
Darrower  than  others,  the  strong  cancellated  sculpture  will 
ilistiuguish  this  species  from  its  congeners. 

Scaphander  vicinus,  sp.  n. 

Testa  ovata,  raediocriter  tennis,  alba,  periostraco  tenni  pallide 
lutescenti  induta,  laivis,  nitida,  interdum  lineis  elatis  transversis 
vel  carinis  instructa,  lineis  incrementi  striata,  et  spiralitcr  trans- 
Tcrsim  leviter  punctata,  punctis  elongatis  gracilibus  ;  apertura 
alba,  supra  anfractum  jiroducta ;  columella  valde  arcuata,  incras- 
sata,  reflexa,  callo  tenui  apici  juncta. 

Lougit.  36  mm.,  diam.  24. 

Bab.  Station  318,  W.  of  Ceylon,  1085  fath. 

More  delicately  punctate  than  S.  mvndus^  Watson,  S.  anda- 
municus,  Smith,  or  *S'.  cancellatus,  Martens.  S.  alatus,  Dall, 
is  closely  allied,  but  has  the  lip  peculiarly  produced,  and 
S.  nohilis,  Verrill,  has  a  different  columella  and  sculpture. 

Dentalium  magmficum,  Smith. 

Dentah'um  magnificum,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  IJist.  1S96,  vol.  xviii. 
p.  371 ;  1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  7  ;  Illust.  Zool.  'Investigator,'  Mollusca, 
pi.  vii.  figs.  5,  5a ;  Pilsbry,  Man.  Conch,  vol.  xvii.  pp.  78,  251. 

Hub.  Station  232,  off  Travancore  coast,  430  fath.,  grey 
mud ;  Station  265,  off  N.  of  Ceylon,  225-594  fath.,  mud ; 
Station  323,  N.of  Andaman  Islands,  463 fath.;  Station 327, 
W.  of  Burmah,  419  fath. 

The  specimens  from  Station  232  are  a  trifle  more  slender 
than  the  typical  form,  but  in  other  respects  quite  similar. 
A  young  specimen  from  Station  327,  73  mm.  in  length  and 
8  at  its  broadest  end,  tapers  to  a  fine  point  only  1  mm.  in 
diameter,  and  there  exhibits  a  very  narrow  slit  5  mm.  in 

Dentalium  keras,  Watson. 

Dentalium  keras,  Watson,  'Challenger'  Scaphopoda,  p.  3.  pi.  i.  fig.  4; 
Dall,  IJull.  Mus.  Conip.  Zool.  Harvard,  vol.  xviii.  p.  425  ;  Pilsbry, 
Man.  Conch,  vol.  xvii.  p.  QS,  pi.  iii.  fig.  41. 

Hab.  Station  316,  S.  of  Ceylon,  1500  fath. 

These  specimens  are  much  finer  than  the  '  Challenger ' 
type  from  the  mid-Pacific,  E.  of  Japan.  The  largest  is 
62  mm.  in  length  and  11  in  diameter  at  the  aperture. 

U<n/  <>f  liiiujiil  (Hid  (In:  Anihiuil  Sea.  2  IM 

Dentalrum  profundoruiit,  Smith. 

Denfaliutn  profundorinn,  Smith,  Anu.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist,  1894,  vol.  xiv. 
p.  1(57,  pi.  iv.  fig.  18;  Pilsbrv,  Man.  Conch,  vol.  xvii.  p.  7!),  pi.  vi. 

Hah.  Station  28.3,  ofTK.  of  Ceylon,  108G  fath.;  Station  331, 
off  Andiiniaii  Islands,  509  fath. 

The  single  very  slender  specimen  from  Station  331, 
although  80  ram.  in  length,  is  only  6  mm.  at  the  broadest 
diameter.  This  results  from  its  perfect  growth  from  the 
very  young  state,  the  young  shell  not  being  broken  as  is 
generally  the  case  in  these  large  Dentalia.  It  tapers  to  a 
point  less  than  a  millimetre  broad,  aiul  exhibits  in  the  usual 
position  a  very  fine  slit  4  mm.  in  length.  The  examples 
from  Station  283  arc  quite  like  the  original  ty[)e  from  off 

Dentalium  serrulatum,  sp.  n. 

Testa  solidinscula,  levitor  arcuata,  lente  attenuata,  longitudinaliter 
tenuiter  lirata,  liris  s8Di)e  plus  minus  minute  serratis,  transversim 
tenuiter  striata,  striisquo  longitudinalibus  iiidistincte  decussata, 
alba,  [jostice  breviter  fissnrata  ;  apcrtura  circularis. 

Longit.  56  mm.,  diam.  max.  G. 

Hab.  Andaman  Islands,  (iO  fath. 

The  distinguishing  feature  of  this  species  is  the  peculiar 
fine  serration  of  t!;e  fine  riblets,  especially  those  upon  the 
concave  curve  of  the  shell.  Probably  this  character  would 
be  lost  in  worn  specimens.  Judging  from  the  gradual 
tapering  of  the  shell,  1  do  not  think  it  would  attain  much 
larger  dimensions  than  those  here  given.  The  fine  decus- 
sation of  the  surface  is  only  observable  in  well-preserved 
examples.  The  riblets  number  sixty  to  sixty-six  at  the  larger 
end  and  about  thirty  at  the  narrow  extremity.  Only  one  of 
the  two  speidmcns  exhibits  a  slight  terminal  notch,  but 
probably  the  young  shell  would  have  a  narrow  slit.  The 
curve  of  shell  is  different  in  the  two  examples  at  hand,  one 
being  straighter  ihan  the  other. 

Dentalium  cornu-bovis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  magna,  valde  curvata,  celeriter  accrescens,  alba,  nitida, 
solidiuscula,  tenuissirae  longitudinaliter  striata,  striis  antice  fere 
o^soletis,  lineis  incrementi  oblique  llexuosis  sculpta,  postice 
breviter  vel  vix  ti.ssa  ;  apertura  circularis,  ad  margiuem  tenuis, 
iiitus  alba. 

Longit.  59  mm.,  diam.  max.  12. 

250  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  Molhisca  from  the 

Hah.  Indian  Ocean,  1154  fath. ;  var.  from  Station  248, 
W.  of  Travancore,  22 1-284  fatli.,  sand. 

The  greater  part  of  the  siirface  of  this  interesting  shell  is 
merely  finely  striated,  but  the  younger  portion  is  somewhat 
distinctly  lirate.  It  enlarges  more  rapidly  than  D.  keras  and 
is  more  fiuely  sculptured.  The  variety  from  Station  248  has 
the  striation  continued  to  the  aperture. 

Dentalium  usitatum,  Smith. 

Dentiilvim  usitatum,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag-.  Nat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  xiv. 
p.  108,  jil.  iv.  fio-s.  16,  16  a  ;  Pilsbry,  Man.  Conch,  vol,  xvii.  p.  29, 
pi.  X.  figs.  08,  69. 

Hub.  Station  325,  W.  of  Burraah,  843  fath. 

The  largest  specimen  is  58  mm.  in  length,  1  mm.  in 
diameter  at  the  tip,  and  5  anteriorly.  The  apes  was  origi- 
nally descwbed  as  "hand  fissa,^'  but  the  present  examples 
exhibit  a  very  narrow  slit,  varying  in  length  from  1  to  3  mm. 
The  presence  or  absence  of  an  apical  fissure  is  known  to  be 
a  variable  character  in  some  otlier  species  of  this  genus. 

Dentalium  insolitum,  Smith. 

Dentalium  insolitinn,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Ma?.  Nat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  .xiv. 
p.  108,  pi.  iv.  figs.  17,  17  a ;  Pilsbry,  Man.  Conch,  vol.  xvii.  p.  109, 
pi.  xxii.  iigs.  50,  57. 

Hub.  Station  282,  off  X.  of  Ceylon,  498-726  fath. 

Dentalium  lubricatum,  Sowb. 

Dentalium  lubricatum,  Sowerhy,  Thes.  Conch,  vol.  iii.  p.  97,  pi.  ccxxv. 
fig.  56 ;  Reeve's  Conc-h.  Icon  vol.  xviii.  fig.  55 ;  Pilsbrv,  Man. 
Couch,  vol.  xvii.  p.  110,  pi.  xix.  fig.  22. 

Hub.   Station  331,  off  Andaman  Islands,  569  fath. 

A  single  specimen  about  the  same  size  as  the  type  from 
Australia,  but  a  trifle  more  curved,  agreeing  in  this  respect 
with  the  two  other  specimens  received  together  with  the 
figured  shell  in  the  Cuming  Colkction. 

Dentalium  eburneum,  Linn. 

Dentalium  ehurneum,  Linn.;  I'ilsbrv,  Man.  Conch,  vol.  xvii.  p.  115, 
pi.  XX.  figs.  33,  34. 

Hab.  Station  271,  off  Malabar  coast,  22  fath. 

The  single  specimen,  47  nmi.  in  length,  differs  only  frem 
the  normal  form  in  being  a  pale  fiesh-colour  instead  of  white. 
It  exhibits  the  raised  rings  anil  longitudinal  stria?  so  charac- 
teristic of  the  species. 

Tioy  (if  H(')i(j(tl  and  the  Arabian  Sea.  251 

Dcnitalium  subcurvatum^  sp.  n. 

Testa  gracilis,  loiito  accrcsccns,  parum  arcuala,  alba,  haud  uitida, 
loTigitudiiialiter  tenuiter  lirata,  liris  filiforniibus,  antice  circiter 
'62,  striisque  incrementi  conspicuia  supra  ct  iutcr  liras  coutinuis 

Longit.  63  mm.,  diam.  max.  G. 

Hub.  Station  275,  S.W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  731-771  fatli. 

Only  a  single  specimen  obtained.  It  tapers  very  slowly, 
is  only  slightly  cnrvcd  and  delicately  ribbed,  the  fine  ribs 
being  in  places  almost  crenulate,  caused  by  being  cut  through 
or  crossed  by  the  strong  lines  of  growth. 

Lepidopleunis  andamanicus,  sp.  n. 

Tosta  parva,  sordide  albida,  elongata,  raediocriter  alta,  in  medio 
fere  carinata,  intus  albida,  undique  minute  puuctulata,  epidermido 
quasi  decidua  punctata  induta ;  valva  aiitica  angusta,  intus 
incrassata,  margine  posteriore  in  medio  angulato  ;  valvte  centrales 
augustoe,  apice  distincto  instructae,  margine  utrinque  apicem 
leviter  concave  ;  area^  laterales  Icviter  elatie,  sulco  arcuato  trans- 
verso  utrin(iuo  ssepe  sciilpta; ;  laminte  suturales  parva^,  substriatac ; 
sinus  mediocriter  profundus ;  valva  postica  anteriore  longior,  in 
medio  mucronata ;  ligamentum  angustum,  dense  et  microscopice 

Longit.  13  mm.,  diam.  7,  alt.  3'o. 

Hab.  Off  N.  Sentinel  Island,  Andaman  Islands,  24.0  fath. 

Eather  like  L.  urctica,  Sars  (Moll.  Keg.  Aret.  Norveg. 
pi.  vii.  figs.  7  a,  7  d-7  g),  but  not  quite  so  broad,  more 
sharply  angled  down  the  back,  with  a  narrower  sinus  between 
the  sutural  laminie,  more  distinct  apex  to  the  central  valves, 
&c.  The  sculpture  is  peculiar.  The  surface  seems  to  be 
covered  with  a  minutely  shagreened  epidermis,  which  is  easily 
rubbed  off,  leaving,  however,  theimpression  of  theshagreening. 
The  curved  sulcus  at  the  sides  of  the  valves  being  continuous 
round  the  shell  marks  off  a  narrow  encircling  zone ;  it  is  not, 
however,  present  in  every  specimen. 

Nucula  [Acild)  granulata,  sp.  n. 

Testa  valde  iua^quilatcralis,  ovato-subtrigoualis,  aniicc  oblique  sub- 
truncata,  ad  extiemitatem  subacute  angulata,  postice  acute 
rotundata,  niodice  couvexa,  albida,  i^eriostraco  tenui  olivaceo-flavo 
induta,  seriebus  confertis  arcuatis  granorum  postice  divergentibus 
instruct  a  ;  umbones  incurvati,  ad  apicem  Iseves,  louge  ante  medium 
siti ;  lunula  infra  umbones  excavata,  dein  promiuens ;  area 
postica  angusta,  lanceolata,  Ijevis,  circumscripta. 

Longit.  Jo  mm.,  alt.  11,  diam.  7. 

252  ]\Ir.  E.  A.  Smltli  on  MoUusca  from  the 

Hab.  Station  324,  W.  of  Burmali,  448  fath. 

One  specimen  only.  Reniaikuble  on  account  of  the 
radiating  series  of  granules  or  small  pustules.  The  extreme 
tips  of  the  umbones  are  smooth,  then  comes  a  small  defined 
unibonal  cap  with  about  nine  plain  -radiating  riblets,  after 
Avhich  commence  the  rows  of  granules  These  are  as  broad 
as,  or  even  in  some  cases  broader  than,  the  grooves  between 
them.  On  the  anterior  slope  tliey  become  ridges  rather  than 
rows  of  pustules  and  are  at  right  angles  to  the  margin  of  the 
valves.  They  are  also  very  much  of  the  same  character  on 
the  lunular  slope. 

Nucula  Layardi,  A.  Adams. 

Nucula  Layardi,  A,  Adams;  Hanley,  Sowerby's  Tlies.  Conch,  vol.  iii. 
p.  160,  pi.  ccxxx.  fig.  loiJ. 

Hab.  Persian  Gulf,  47  fath.  ('Investigator^);  Ceylon 
{Adams) . 

The  single  shell  is  probably  adult  and  measures  15  mm.  in 
length,  wliereas  the  type  in  the  "  Cuming"  Collection  is  only 
10^,  the  figure  above  quoted  being  enlarged.  The  Ceylon 
shells  are  evidently  young,  from  their  thinness.  The  present 
examj)lc  is  moderately  thick,  white  beneath  the  periostracum, 
and  beautifully  white- nacreous  within.  The  hinge-teeth 
are  long,  acute,  six  in  front  and  nineteen  behind. 

Yuldia  vicina,  sp.  n. 

Testa  Y.  nicoharicce  similis.  scd  postice  magis  acuminata,  striisque 
oVliquis  niinus  confertis  insculpta ;  valvse  tenues,  pellucidae, 
periostraco  flavo-olivaceo  induta,  nitida  ;  pagina  iuterna  nitens, 
caerulco-albida  ;  denies  postcriores  circiter  2*3,  anteriores  ad  19, 
panic  validiores  ;  r.mbones  laevigati,  aliqiianto  antemediani. 

Longit.  20*5  mm.,  alt.  11-5,  diani.  7. 

Hab.  Persian  Gulf,  35  and  47  fath. 

This  species  is  very  like  Y.  nicobarica,  Brug.,  but  is  more 
sharply  pointed  at  the  posterior  extremity,  which  is  not  so 
high  up  as  in  that  species.  The  oblique  striae  are  much 
fewer  and  further  apart,  and  terminate  in  an  oblique  line 
nearer  the  middle  of  the  valves.  Two  specimens  only  were 

Malletia  brevis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  oblonga,  antice  rotundata,  postice  subqnadrata,  multum  con- 
vexa,  periostraco  Hifente  Ihivescenti  induta,  apices  versus  pallidior, 
incrcmenti  lineis  tenuibu*  sculpta,  striis  postice  magis  conspicuis, 

J>tiij  of  li<  ngdl  and  the  Araln'ati  Sea.  253 

confertioribiis  ;    lunula  aiigusla,  concava,  carinis  circumscripta; 
area  postica  nulla;  dentos  crecti,   acuti,   anteriores  circitcr  14-, 
posteriores  ad  21. 
Loiigit.  14  mm.,  alt.  10,  diani.  7. 

Hob.  Station  818,  off  W.  of  Ceylon,  1085  fath. 

Dillcrs  iVom  M.  coiis/zicittt,  Smith,  in  form  and  sculpture, 
being  more  rouiuled  in  front,  shorter,  and  squarcr  posteriorly. 
A  single  specimen. 

Solenomya  patagonica,  Smith. 

Solcnomyn paiagonica^  Smitli,  Ann.  &  ^lag.  Nat.  Hist.  1895,  vol.  xvi. 
p.  11. 

Hah.  Station  2G0,  W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  487  fath.,  grey 
mud  and  Globigcrinc  ooze ;  Station  327,  W.  of  Burmah, 
4iy  fath. 

A  single  specimen  from  the  latter  station  is  remarkable 
for  its  great  size.  The  shell,  exclusive  of  the  extension  of 
the  periostracum,  is  100  mm.  in  length  and  33  in  height, 
being  mucli  larger  any  of  the  other  known  species. 

Area  [Acar)  domingensis,  Lamarck. 

Hab.  Station  291,  Gulf  of  Oman,  48-49  fath. 
A  very    widely   distributed  species,  occurring    in  various 
localities  in  the  Atlantic,  Indian,  and  Pacific  Oceans. 

Area  {Barbatia)  pteroessa,  Smith. 

Ai'ca  (Barbatia)  pteroessa,   Smith,   Ann.   Sc  Mag.   Xat.  Hist,   1904, 
Aol.  xiv.  p.  12. 

Hab.  Station  31G,  S.  of  Ceylon,  1500  fath. 

Area  {Barbatia)  incerta,  Smith. 

Area  (Barbatia)  incerta,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1899,  vol.  iv. 
p,  251 ;  Illust.  Zool.  '  Investigator,'  MoUusca,  pi.  xiii.  figs.  3,  'S  a. 

Hab.  Station  333,  Gulf  of  Manar,  401  fath. 
These    specimens    are    larger   than   the    type,    measuring 
29  mm.  in  length,  15  in  height,  and  11-5  in  diameter. 

Area  {Barbatia)  innoeens,  sp.  n. 

Testa  parva,  oblonga,  valde  inaequilateralis,  mediocriter  convexa, 
utrinque  obliqua,  alba,  radiatim  teuuiter  confertim  costulata, 
costis  subnodulosis,  posterioribus  quara  anticis  magis  distautibiis, 
periostraco  tenui,  inter  costas  plus  minus  hirsuto,  induta  ;  latu3 
anterius    oblique    curvatum,    supra    acute  angulatum,   posticura 

254  Mr.  E.  A.  Smitli  on* Moll usca  from  the 

primo  recte  oljliqunra,  ad  extrcmitatem  acute  rotundatum  ;  mar-^o 
ventris  rectiusculus ;  valva3  haud  crassa^,  intus  Cicruleo-albidio, 
radiatim  subsulcatse,  ad  margiiiem  denticulata? ;  area  dorsalis 
lanceolata,  periosfcraco  fusco  induta  ;  umbones  loiige  antemediani, 
circiter  in  i  longitudinis  coUocati;  dentes  cardinis  parvi,  circa 
Longit.  18  ram.,  alt.  11-5,  diam.  7. 

Hub.  Station  258,  W.  of  Travancore,  102  fath.,  sand. 

This  species  may  be  separated  from  A.  incerta,  Smith, 
both  by  its  form  and  'sculpture.  Tliat  species  is  narro\v 
anteriorly  and  widens  behind,  whereas  the  present  form  is 
almost  equally  broad  at  both  ends.  Tlie  surface  of  the 
valves  is  less  distinctly  granulated  and  the  ribs  upon  the 
posterior  slope  are  fewer,  broader,  and  further  apart  than  in 
incerta.  Tbe  hinge-teeth  are  different  in  the  two  species, 
those  at  the  hinder  end  of  incerta\hem^  peculiarly  oblique, 
whereas  in  this  species  they  are  more^upright  and  coarser. 

Limopsis pidica,  Sunth. 

Lwiopsis  indica,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  xiv.  p.  171, 
pi.  V.  fig.  7  ;  1895,  vol.  xvi.  p.  15  ;  1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  12. 

Hab.  Station  249,  S.W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  1022  fath., 
green  mud  and  Globigerine  ooze ;  Station  269,  W.  of  Cape 
Comorin,  461  fath.,  green  mud  and  sand;  Station?, 
1055  fath. 

Some  of  the  specimens  from  the  above  localities  are 
considerably  larger  than  the  type,  beiug  30  mm.  in  length, 
27  bigh,  and  14  in  diameter. 

Modiola  philippbiai'um,  Hauley. 

MocUoIa  phi/ippiyianitn,  Hauley,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1844,  p.  15  ;  Cat. 
Kecent  SbeUs,  p.  235,  pi.  xxiv.  iig.  2(i ;  Reeve,  (Jou.  Icon.  vol.  x. 

fig.  1. 

Hab.  Persian  Gulf,  27  fath. 

The  single  specimen  is  ratlier  narrowed  posteriorly,  but 
agrees  in  every  other  respect  with  tlie  typical  form. 

Modiola  {Amygdalum)  Watsoni,  Smith. 

Modiola  Watsoni,  Smith,  Ann.  e'vr  Mag.  Xat.  Hist.  1895,  vol.  xvi.  p.  14  ; 
1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  11. 

Hub.  Station  265,  off  X.  of  Ceylon,  225-591  fath.; 
Station  267,  off  W.  of  Ceylon,  457-589  i'ath. ;  Station  310, 
Gulf  of  Oman,  261  fath. 

Bay  of  Bengal  and  ihe  Arahian  Sea.  2r)5 

Mod'iola  [Ainyyduliun)  arborcsccns  (Chemnitz). 

Modiola  arboreseem,  Chemnitz;  Reeve,   Conch.   Icon.  vol.  x.  fifj.  30; 
Clessin,  Conch. -Cab.,  Mjtilidae,  p.  100,  pi.  xxix.  fig.  10. 

Hab.  Station  346,  Persian  Gulf,  47  fath.  {'  Investigator ') ; 
Tasmania  and  oft'  Sydney  {Brazier). 

Crenella  persica,  sp.  n. 

Testa  parva,  irregularitcr  ovata,  globosa,  tenuis,  sordide  pellucido- 
albida,  liris  tenuissimis  radiantibus  aliisque  concentrici.s  paulo 
reuiotis  caucellata ;  umboucs  lajves,  incmvati,  albi,  contigui, 
terminalcs  ;  pngina  interna  nitida,  structuram  cancellatam  exter- 
nam  exliibens,  ad  margiiiera  undique  denticulata ;  dens  cardinis 
uiiicus,  plus  minus  biHdus  in  utraque  valva  ;  ligamentum  gracile, 
intra  marginem  situin. 

Longit.  6  mm.,  alt.  4-5,  diam.  4. 

Hab.  Persian  Gulf,  47  fath. 

The  vtry  delicate  radiating  costellse  have  a  tendency  to 
bifurcate  at  the  outer  margin. 

Amnssium  caducum,  Smith. 

Amussiuin  caducum.  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.   Nat.   Hist.   1894,  vol.   xiv. 
p.  173  ;  189.5,  vol.  xvi.  p.  18  ;  1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  13. 

Hab.  Station  269,  W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  464  fath.,  green 
mud  and  sand;  Stations  289,  297,  Gulf  of  Oman,  667-811 
fath. ;  Station  322,  Andaman  Islands,  378  fath. ;  Station  327, 
W.  of  Burmah,  419  fath. 

Amnssium  A/cocki,  Smith. 

Amusshun  Alcocki,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  xiv. 
p.  172,  pi.  V.  tigs.  15,  16. 

Hab.  Station  275,  S.W.  of  Cape  Comorin,  731-771  fath. 

Amussium  investigatoris,  sp.  n. 

Testa  siibcircularis,  compressa,  fragilis ;  valva  dextra  albido- 
pellucida,  radiis  opaco-albis  circiter  10  picta,  concentrice  regu- 
lariter  et  tenuiter  striata,  intus  eostis  ad  10  albis  medioeriter 
crassis  baud  ad  marginem  attingentibus  instructa  ;  valva  sinistra 
convexior,  flavoscens,  radiis  decern  aurautiacis  ornata,  radiatim 
tenuiter  costulata  et  concentrice  delicate  lamellata,  lamellis 
supra  costulas  squamulatis,  intus  flavescens,  eostis  albidis  10 
tenuioribus  munita ;  auriculae  parvge,  subajquales ;  umbones 
acuti,  lateribus  ad  augulum  circa  113"  convergentibus. 

Longit.  26  mm.,  alt.  26-5,  diam.  5*5. 

256  Mr.  E.  A.  Sniitli  on  Mollusca  from  (he 

Hab.  Station  2J8,  VV.  of  Travancore,  224-284  fatli.,  sand. 

The  sculpture  of  the  two  valves  in  this  beautiful  species  is 
altogether  different,  that  of  the  right  valve,  which  is  a  litile 
flatter  than  the  left,  consisting  of  very  delicate  and  close-set 
regular  lauiellaj  or  stride,  whilst  the  left  valve  has  numerous 
fine  radiating  riblets,  which  are  minutely  squamose  through 
being  crossed  by  the  very  fine  concentric  lamellae.  The 
internal  riblets,  ten  in  number  in  each  valve,  do  not  reach  to 
the  margin,  and  those  of  the  left  valve  are  a  little  finer  than 
those  of  the  right.  The  colour  of  the  valves  is  also  different. 
The  deeper  valve  is  more  or  less  orange-tinted  within  and 
"without,  whereas  the  light  valve  is  almost  white,  with  only  a 
trace  of  colour  on  each  side  towards  the  dorsal  slopes. 

Amussium  manaricum,  sp.  n. 

Testa  fragilis,  pellucido-albida,  opaco-albo  radiata,  inicquivalvis, 
leviler  obliqua,  et  paulum  insequilateralis,  valva  sinistra  cou- 
vexiuscula,  ooncentrice  tenuiter  lamellata,  lirisque  radiantibus 
tenuibus  plus  minus  caucellata,  valva  dextra  conceutrice  lamellata, 
versus  marginem  concava ;  umbones  acnti,  ad  angulum  circa 
115°  coiivergentes  ;  lira^  interute  circiler  ]5,  baud  ad  marginera 
continua).  illis  in  valva  sinistra  tenuioribus  ;  auriculce  ina}quales, 
anticis  pauUum  majoribus. 

Longit.  24-5  mm.,  alt.  26,  diara.  4-5. 

Hah.  Station  333,  Gulf  of  Mauar,  401  fath.;  Station  322, 
Andaman  Islands,  378  fath. 

The  valves  arc  fairly  strong  up  to  the  ends  of  the  radiating 
lirae,  but  beyond  that  point  they  become  very  fragile  and 
easily  break  away.  The  concentric  fine  lamellse  are  very 
similar  in  both  valves,  but  the  left  valve,  which  is  gently 
convex  from  the  umbo  to  the  opposite  margin,  also  exhibits 
fine  radiating  lirae.  These,  however,  gradually  disappear 
about  the  middle  of  the  valve,  so  that  only  the  upper  half  of 
the  suiface  is  cancellated.  The  auricles,  of  which  the  ante- 
rior are  a  trifle  larger  than  the  posterior,  exhibit  fine  lines  of 
growth  and  a  few  radiating  threads  also,  excepting  the  hinder 
auricle  of  the  right  valve,  which  liardly  shows  any  trace  of 
this  radiating  sculpture.  The  front  auricle  of  the  same  valve 
is  bounded  below  by  a  narrow  groove  at  the  byssal  sinus. 

Loripes  victorialis  (Melvill). 

Ci-yptodon  victorioUs,  Melvill,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.   1890,  vol.  iv. 
p.  08,  pi.  ii.  tig.  8. 

Hab.  Station  34(>,  Persian  Ciulf,  47  fath. 

The  presence  of  hinge-teeth,  as  described  by  Mr.  Melvill, 

Bdji  (if  BriKjal  (iiid  the  Arahi  ni  Sta.  257 

at  once  removes  this  species  from  Cri/ptodon,  which  is  eden- 
tulous. I  am  incliued  to  refer  it  to  the  genus  Lori/jcs,  with 
which  it  is  practically  identical  in  dentition,  but  the  ligament 
is  not  (juiteso  deeply  placed  within  tiie  dorsal  margin. 

Lucina  dentifera,  Jonas. 

Lucinn  dentifera,  Jonas  ;  Sinitli,  Aim.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1904,  vol.  .yIv. 
p.  10. 

Hub.  station  34,6,  Persian  Gulf,  47  fath. 

Lucina  bengalensis,  Smith. 

Lucinn  benc/alensis,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  xiv. 
p.  171,  pi.  V.  tig3.  1,  2  ;  1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  10. 

Hab.  Station  261,  W.  of  Cape  Coraorin,  386-44-5  fath,, 
green  mud  and  sand  ;  Station  323,  N.  of  Andaman  Islands, 
463  fath. 

Cnjptodon  investh/atoris,  Smith. 

Cryptodon  invest!(iatoris,  Smith,  Ann.  «fe  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  18.95,  vol.  xvi, 
p.  13,  pi.  ii.  tigs.  6,  Ga;  1896,  vol.  xviii.  p.  374 ;  1904,  vol.  xiv. 
p.  10. 

Hab.  Station  336,  W.  of  Ceylon,  603  fath. 

Cryptodon  omanensis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  quadrato-rotundata,  compressa,  inaequilateralis,  alba,  lineis 
incremenli  tenuibus  oriiata,  striisque  radiantibus  tenuissimis 
Timbones  versus  sculpta  ;  lunula  parva,  excavata,  circumscripta  ; 
unibones  autemcdiani,  acuti,  approximati,  ad  apicem  lagves  ;  liiiea 
cardiuis  leviter  incrassata,  Itevis,  edcntula  ;  ligamcntum  in  sulco 
angusto  profundo  intra  margiiiem  situin  ;  valvie  subtenues,  intus 
radiatim  tenuiter  striata?,  cicatrice  angusta,  baud  profunda,  ab 
umbone  margincm  vontralem  versus  extendeute  sculptoe ;  cicatrix 
antica  angusta,  lougit.  10  mm.,  intra  lineara  pallii  sita,  postica 
brevior,  latior. 

Longit.  26  mm.,  alt.  24,  diam.  10. 

Hab.  Station  341,  Gulf  of  Oman,  230  fath. 

A  flat  compressed  species  like  C.  barbatus  (Reeve),  but 
thinner,  lighter,  and  different  in  form.  The  concentric 
sculpture  is  very  fine  and  at  each  side  is  slightly  lamellated. 
The  anterior  and  po.-terior  ends  arc  both  somewhat  roundly 
angulated  and  the  ventral  margin  shar[)ly  arcuate. 

258  j\rr.  E.  A.  Smitli  on  Moll asca  from  the 

Cardita  eleyantula,  var.  conferta,  Smith. 

Cardita  eleyantula,  Deshayes ;  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1904, 
vol.  xiv.  p.  9. 

Hub.  Station  328,  S.  of  Lower  Burmah,  61  fath. 

The  two  specimens  from  the  above  locality  and  tho^e 
already  recorded  in  the  '  Annals  '  are  not  quite  identical  witli 
Deshayes's  type.  They  have  a  few  more  ribs,  the  sulci 
between  them  are  not  quite  so  deep,  and  the  nodules  on  the 
costse  are  closer  topjether.  However,  I  am  of  opinion  that  a 
more  extended  series  of  specimens  would  show  that  these 
differences  were  not  of  specific  value. 

Crassatellistes  omanensis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  C.  ahnipUe,  Sowb.*,  similis,  sed  major,  magis  compressa, 
costis  concentricis  postice  baud  interruptis ;  valvae  mediocriter 
erassae,  iatiis  et  extra  albidae. 

Longit.  35  mm.,  alt.  23,  diam.  17. 

Hab.  Station  341,  Gulf  of  Oman,  230  fath. 

Beyond  its  superior  size,  rather  compressed  form,  and 
continuous  costse  there  is  little  to  distini^uish  this  form  from 
its  South-African  congener.  The  outline  is  very  similar, 
the  radiating  microscopic  striation  is  the  same,  the  strength 
of  the  costse,  the  character  of  the  lunule,  the  escutcheon,  the 
hinge,  the  scars,  and  the  creuulation  of  the  edge  of  the  valves 
are  all  very  much  alike  in  both  forms. 

Abra  maxima  (Sowerby). 

Ahra  ?«nr.rma,  Sowerby  ;  Smith,  Ann.  &  Majr.  Xat.  Hist.  1894,  vol.  xiv. 
pi.  V.  figs.  5,  6  ;  1895,  vol.  xvi.  p.  10  ;  1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  1 1 . 

Hab.  Station  263,  off  N.E.  coast  of  Ceylon,  665-771  fath., 
sand  and  soft  green  mud  ;  Station  265,  off  N.  of  Cevlon, 
225-591  fath.,  mud  ;  Station  299,  Gulf  of  Oman,  1299  fath. ; 
Station  301,  off  Mckran  coast,  1000  fath.;  Station  321, 
ofl'  S.  of  Ceylon,  660  fath.  ;  Station  327,  W.  of  Burmah, 
419  fath. 

Abra  affinis,  Smith. 

Abraaffinis,  Smith,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1899,  vol.  iv.  p.  ioO; 
1904,  vol.  xiv.  p.  11;  lUust.  Zool.  'Investigator,'  Moll.  pi.  xiii. 
tigs.  2,  2  a. 

Hub.  Station  265,  off  X.  of  Ceylon,  225-594  fath.,  mud. 
A  single  specimen,  with  the  preceding  species. 

*  '  Marine  Invert.  S.  Africa,"  vol.  iv.  Mollusca,  p.  10,  pi.  vi.  fig.  15,  as 

Btuj  of  Ben(jal  and  the  Arabinn  Sea.  259 

Tcllina  iruvancorica,  Smith. 

TcUinn  travnnrorica,  Smith,  Ann.  Sc  Mug.  Nat.  Hist.  1899,  vol.  iv. 
p.  2ii);  1U04,  vol.  xiv.  p.  11;  Illust.  Zuol.  'Investigator,'  Moll. 
pi.  xiii.  figs.  1,1a. 

Hub.  Stations  259,  337,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  271-300  fatli., 
green  sand  and  mud. 

These  specimens,  wliich  appear  to  b.c  adult,  arc  somewhat 
smaller  than  those  originally  (lcscril)cci,  and  the  concentric 
sculpture  is  a  little  finer  and  closer  together. 

Tellina  [Arcopagia)  Isseli,  H.  Adams. 

Tellina  {Arcopagia)  Isseli,  II.  Adams,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  1870,  p.  790, 
pi.  xlviii.  tig.  10. 

Hub.  Station  291,  Gulf  of  Oman,  48-49  fath. 

A  single  specimen  without  colour-rays  as  in  the  type  from 
the  Gulf  of  Suez,  but  like  it  in  being  marked  with  a  red 
rust-like  stain  at  the  posterior  end. 

Tellina  [Arcopagia)  altissima,  sp.  n. 

Testa  parva,  triangulatim  rotundata,  fere  a^quilateralis,  valde  con- 
vexa,  dilute  fusco-albida ;  latus  auticum  acute  rotundatum, 
posticum  magis  acuminatum,  subrostratum  ;  niargo  dorsi  utrinque 
valde  declivis,  anterior  arcuatus,  posterior  rectiusculus ;  ventris 
margo  multum  ciirvatus  ;  valvte  hand  crassne,  leviter  nitentes, 
lineis  incrementi  teuuibus  sculptce,  striisque  radiantibus  tenuis- 
simis  subobsoletis  ornatae,  intus  distinctius  radiatim  striata),  et 
plus  minus  albo-fusco  tinctoe. 

Longit.  16  mm.,  alt.  14,  diam.  10. 

Hah.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath. 

Somewhat  resembling  T.  robusta,  Hanley,  but  less  solid 
and  not  quite  of  the  same  form.  It  is  remarkably  high  m. 
proportiou  to  the  length.  The  lateral  teeth  are  long, 
slender,  and  remote. 

Macoma  blab-ensis^  sp.  n. 

Testa  oblonga,  valde  ina^quilateralis,  compressa,  antice  rotundata, 
postice  oblique  truncata,  sordide  albida,  concentrice  teuuissime 
striata,  striis  postice  tenuiter  lamellosis  ;  margo  dorsi  auticus 
arcuatim  descendens,  posterior  magis  obliquus,  rectus,  brevier, 
ventralis  late  curvatus ;  valvse  mediocriter  tenues,  subnitentes, 
et  radiatim  microscopice  striatce;  plica  postica,  ab  umbone  valvte 
dextrae  radians,  vix  couspicua  ;  cicatrix  antica  elongato-piriformis, 
postica  rotundata  ;  sinus  pallii  latus,  profundus. 

Longit.  44  mm.,  alt.  ;J1,  diam.  11. 

260  ]\Ir.  E.  A.  Smitli  on  Moll usca  from  (lie 

Hah.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath. 

Something  like  M.  yubernaculum  (Hanley)  in  shape,  but 
•with  a  broader  truncate  end.  The  very  fine  lamellate  sculp- 
ture behind  the  feeble  posterior  radiating  plication  is  peculiar, 
the  rest  of  the  surface  being  smoother. 

Fsammohia  niicans  (Haidey). 

Tellina  micariK,  Haiilev,  Sowerby's  Thesaur.  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  30H, 
pi.  lix.  fig.  106;  liomer,  Conch.-Cab.,  Tellina,  p.  liIO,  pi.  xxviii. 
ligs.  5-7. 

Hah.  Persian  Gulf,  31  £«.th.  ('  Investigator ')  ;  Philippine 
Islands  [Hanley). 

On  account  of  the  absence  of  lateral  teeth  and  the  oblique 
scul[)ture  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  this  species  should  i^e 
referred  to  Psaimnobia.  Romer  considers  Tellina  depauperata, 
Martens,  the  same  as  the  present  species. 

Cardilia  semisulcata  (Lamarck). 

Cardilia  semisulcata,  Laink.  ;  Sowerby,  in  Reeve's  Conch.  Icon.  vol.  xix. 
tig.  1  ;  II.  &  A.  Adams,  Gen.  Rec.  Moll.  vol.  iii.  pi.  cxii.  Jigs.  6,  (3  «  ; 
Deshaves,  Traite  el6meat.  Couch,  vol.  i.  pt.  2,  p.  2'A,  pi.  vlii.  bis, 
figs.  1(3-18. 

Hah.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath. 

Only  a  sinjjle  valve  of  this  rare  but  widely  distributed 
species  was  obtained.  It  has  been  recorded  from  South 
Australia  [Lamarck),  Straits  of  ^lalacca  [Deshayes) ,  China 
[Soiverhy) ,  Japan  [Lischke),  and  s[)ecimeus  in  the  Cuming 
Collection  are  said  to  be  from  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Mactrinula  tryphera,  Melvill. 

Madrinula  fn/p/iera,  Melvill,  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1899,  vol.  iv. 
p.  97,  pi.  ii.  tig.  7. 

Hah.  Station  3i5,  Persian  Gulf,  35  fath.  ['  Investigator  ' 
and  Melvill) . 

An  odd  valve  or  two,  the  largest  being  285  mm.  in  length, 
or  6  more  than  the  type. 

Meretrix  [Curyatis)  pudicissima  (Smith). 

Cytherea    {Caryatis)  2^Uificissima,   fcJuiith,  Ann.    &    Mag.   Nat.    Iliat. 
1894,  vol.  xiv.  p.  lt)9,  pi.  v.  tigs.  3,  4. 

Hah.  Station  311,  Gulf  of  Oman,  230  fath.  ;  Station  244, 
off  W.  coast  of  India,  119-1.24  fath. 

The  type  originally  described  was  evidently  only  a  yi)uug 
specimen,  for  the  examples  from  the  above  locality  (311)  are 

Bay  of  Bengal  and  the  Arabian  Sea.  261 

consi(lcra1)ly  larger  and  more  solid  shells,  but  af^rec  in  other 
respects.  The  largest  is  23  ram.  long,  20  in  height,  and  15 
in  diameter.  The  specimens  from  Station  214  are  smaller 
and  shorter  than  those  from  Station  341  :  length  1G*5  mm., 
height  IG,  diameter  12"25. 

Vesicomya  cretacea,  sp.  n. 

Testa  ovalis,  valde  inaequilateralis,  mediocriter  convexa,  antice  late 
rotundata,  postice  magis  acuta,  alba,  cretacea,  periostraco  tenuis- 
sirao  sordide  flavesceute  hie  illic  induta,  striis  incrementi  sub- 
rugose  sculpta ;  hniula  eloiigata,  cordiformis,  linea  impressa 
circumscripta;  area  ligamenti  elougata,  profunda,  utrinque 
carinata ;  valvoe  mediocriter  crassae,  iiitus  alb;© ;  cicatrix  antica 
elougata,  lajvis,  postica  latior;  linea  pallii  lata,  laivis,  baud 
sinuata  ;  dentes  cardiuis  duo  in  utraquc  valva,  illis  valva)  sinistra; 
conjunctis,  divergentibus. 

Longit.  57  mm.,  alt.  40,  diam.  25. 

Hab.  Station  327,  W.  of  Burmah,  419  fath.  ;  Station  318, 
ofFW.  of  Ceylon,  1085  fath. 

Beneath  the  ligament  there  is  in  each  valve  a  rather  deep 
groove,  "which  starts  a  little  behind  the  umbo  and  extends 
backwards  about  8  mm.,  becoming  gradually  broader.  It 
does  not,  however,  appear  to  be  for  the  reception  of  a 
resilium,  the  ligament  being  distinctly  external. 

More  inequilateral  than  V.  lepta,  Dall,  from  California, 
with  the  posterior  dorsal  margin  more  curved,  the  anterior 
more  descending,  and  the  hinge  rather  stronger. 

The  specimens  fi'om  Station  318,  the  largest  of  which  is 
only  44  mm.  in  length,  and  perhaps  not  adult,  are  thinner 
than  the  unique  type,  with  a  less  strong  hinge  and  only  a 
faint  indication  of  the  groove  in  the  nymphae  described 

Vesicomya  bi'evis,  sp.  n. 

Testa  brevis,  subquadrata,  multum  convexa,  valde  inrequilateralis, 
utrinque  late  rotundata,  postice  supra  subaugulata,  striis  incre- 
menti aspere  sculpta,  rufescenti-albida  ;  valvar  baud  crass?e,  infra 
marginem  dorsi  posticum  sulco  lato,  hand  profundo  et  parum  con- 
spicuo  instructae,  iutus  albte,  radiatim  obscure  striatse ;  lunula 
cordiformis,  linea  impressa  circumdata ;  area  dorsalis  posterior 
profunda,  lata,  utrinque  carinata ;  dentes  duo  in  utraque  valva, 
illis  valvoe  sinistroe  conjunctis,  antico  valvae  dextrse  erecto,  postico 

Longit.  36  mm.,  alt.  30,  diam.  22. 

Hab.  Station  259,  W.  of  Malabar  coast,  295-360  fath., 
green  mud  and  sand. 

Ann.  &  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.    Vol.  xviii.  19 

262  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  on  Mollusca  from  the 

The  muscular  scars  and  pallial  line  are  the  same  as  in 
V.  cretacea.  There  is  a  slight  indication  of  the  sulcus 
beneath  the  ligament  mentioned  as  occurring  in  that  species, 
and  in  the  left  valve  there  is  an  elevated  ridge  below  it  which 
might  ahnost  be  regarded  as  a  tooth.  The  dorsal  escutcheon 
is  both  broader  and  deeper  than  in  V.  cretacea. 

V.  indica,  Smith,  has  the  anterior  end  more  produced  and 
more  narrowed,  the  posterior  end  more  sharply  curved  and 
not  so  distinctly  angulated  at  its  junction  with  the  dorsal 
outline.  The  escutcheon  in  the  present  species,  which  may 
be  only  a  variety  of  indica,  is  broader  and  deeper. 

Cardium  exasperatum,  Sowerby. 

Cardium  exasper-atum,  Sowerby;  Reeve,  Conch.  Icon.  vol.  ii.  fig.  107; 
Romer,  Concb.-Cab.  p.  27,  pi.  ix.  figs.  2,  3. 

Hub.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath.  {'  Inves- 
tigator^) ;  Swan  Kiver  [Sowerby);   Hong  Kong  [Garrett). 

Cardium  fornicatum,  Sowerby. 

Cardium  fornicatum,  Sowerby ;  Reeve,  Concb.  Icon.  vol.   ii.  pi.  xx. 
fig.  110. 

Hab.  Andaman  Islands,  60  fath. 
Also  known  from  the  Red  Sea. 

Corbida  crassa,  Hinds. 

Corbula  crnssn,  Hinds  ;  Reeve,  Concb.  Icon.  vol.  ii.  figs.  8  a~c  ;  Smith, 
Lamellibrancbiata  '  Challenger  '  Exped.  p.  30. 

Hab.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath. 
Also  known  from  Torres  Straits,  Port  Essington,  Straits  of 
Macassar,  and  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Corbula  persica,  sp.  n. 

Testa  parva,  valde  insequivalvis,  paulum  inoequilateralis,  subtrian- 
gularis,  postice  truncata,  alba,  ad  apices  flavesccus  ;  valva  dextra 
transversim  fortiter  ct  coiifcrtim  costulata,  sinistra  concentrice 
tenuiter  striata,  cpidermide  fibrosa  propo  marginem  induta,  lirisquo 
paucis  radiautibus  instructa  ;  umboucs  lawigati,  flavcsceus. 

Longit.  7  mm.,  alt.  6,  diam.  4*5. 

Hab.  Station  346,  Persian  Gulf,  4-7  fath. 
This   species  in  sizp,   form,   ami  sculpture  is  rather  like 
C.  Philippii,  Smith ■^,  a  West   Indian   species.     The  young 

*  Lamellibrancbiata  '  Challenger'  Expcd.  p.  33.  pi.  vii.  figs.  4-4 ft. 

Bay  of  Bengal  and  the  Arahian  Sea.  2G3 

shell,  however,  is  different  in  size  and  shape  and  the  rij^ht 
valve  is  less  distinctly  keeled  posteriorly.  C.  bifrons, 
A.  Adams,  is  another  allied  form.  The  white  ribs,  which 
contrast  strongly  with  the  yellow  nnclear  shell,  are  about 
seventeen  to  twenty  in  number.  The  right  valve  exhibits  a 
faint  rounded  angle  from  the  umbo  to  the  lower  corner  of 
the  posterior  end,  but  less  pronounced,  than  that  in  C.  Philippii. 

Corhula  andamanica,  sp.  n. 

Testa  C.  perslccn  similis,  sed  postice  minus  distincte  truncata,  valva 
dextra  ad  umbonem  magis  producta,  costis  tenuioribus,  magis 
numcrosis  instructa. 

Longit.  (j'o  mm.,  alt.  G,  diam.  4. 

Hab.  Off  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Islands,  100  fath. 

Very  like  C.  persica,  yet  diftering  in  the  points  indicated. 
The  ribs,  wliich  are  dirty  yellowisli,  are  about  twenty-five  in 
num])er.  C.  albuginosa,  Hinds,  is  closely  allied,  but  longer, 
and  with  the  right  valve  more  finely  sculptured. 

Solecurtus  {Azov)  coarctatus  (Gmelin). 

Solecurtus    {Azov)    coarctatus    (Gmeliu) ;    Smith,    Lamellibranchiata 
*  Challenger '  Exped.  p.  79. 

Hab.  Station  295,  Gulf  of  Oman,  37-40  fath. 

Also  known  from  the  Nicobar  and  Philippine  Islands. 
The  synonymy  and  some  remarks  upon  this  species  are  given 
at  the  above  reference. 

Lyonsiella  papyracea,  Smith, 

Lyonsiella  papyracea,  Smith,  '  Challenger '  Lamellibranchiata,  p.  73, 
pi.  XXV.  tigs.  2-2  h ;  Pelseneer,  Anat.  '  Challenger  '  Deep-sea  Moll. 
p.  18,  pi.  ii.  fig.  8. 

Hab.  Station  276,  W.  of  Ceylon,  1006  fath.  (^Investi- 
gator^) ;  about  1100  miles  south-west  of  Australia,  in 
1950  fath.  {'  Challenger  '). 

The  single  specimen  differs  from  the  type  in  having  more 
numerous  radiating  threads,  about  fifty-six  altogether.  It  is 
rather  larger  and  less  fragile,  and  has  a  somewhat  thicker 
and  coarser  periostracum.  The  form  is  very  similar,  although 
not  absolutely  identical ;  but  that  is  a  character  which  is 
liable  to  considerable  variability. 


264  Mr.  R.  C.  Wroughton  on 

Cuspidaria  approximata,  Smith. 

Cusjiidaria  approximata,  Smith,  Aun.  &  ^fag.  Nat.  Hist.  1890, 
vol.  xviii.  p.  373 ;  Illust.  Zool.  '  Investigator,'  Moll.  pi.  viii. 
figs.  2-2  a. 

Hub.  Station  322,  Andaman  Islands,  378  fath. 

A  single  specimen  2  mm.  longer  than  the  type.  Specimens 
from  the  Gulf  of  Oman  have  been  presented  to  the  British 
Museum  by  Mr.  J.  C.  Melvill. 

XXXVIT. — Notes  on  the  Genus  Otomys." 
By  R.  C.  Wroughton. 

The  material  available  to  me  for  examination  in  the  collec- 
tion of  the  Natural  History  Museum  amounts  to  about 
150  specimens  (skins  and  skulls)  from  some  30  localities. 
Though  Africa  north  o£  the  Equator  is  very  poorly  repre- 
sented, yet,  at  first  sight,  the  total  material  seems  sufficient 
for  a  fairly  exhaustive  classification  ;  but,  on  careful  com- 
parison, I  am  convinced  that  this  is  not  so,  and  that  the  area 
south  of  the  Zambesi,  which  is  especially  well  represented  by 
series  from  many  different  localities,  is  just  that  in  which 
the  results  I  have  obtained  are  the  furthest  from  finality. 

All  but  two  species  of  the  genus  have  the  anteiior  molar 
in  the  lower  jaw  composed  of  four  laminre  or  their  equiva- 
lents. Setting  aside  for  the  moment  these  two  aberrant  forms 
as  Section  III.,  the  genus  may  be  easily  further  divided  into 
two  sections,  according  as  the  lower  incisors  are  smooth  (or 
but  faintly  grooved),  or  are  markedly  grooved  ;  and  each  of 
these  Sections  falls  again  naturally  into  two  groups.  lu 
Section  I.,  comprising  the  forms  with  smooth  lower  incisors, 
those  in  which  the  posterior  molar  in  the  upper  jaw  is 
composed  of  four  laminse  (or  their  equivalents)  and  large 
bullae  form  the  Brantsi  group,  and  those  in  which  m^  is 
composed  of  five  laminai  and  the  bullae  are  quite  small  form 
the  unisulcatus  group.  In  Section  II.,  comprising  the  forms 
with  grooved  lower  incisors,  those  with  a  single  groove  as  in 
irrorutns,  Brants,  are  readily  separated  from  those  with  a 
double  groove  as  in  Jacksoni,  Thos. 

The  geographical  distribution  fairly  closely  agrees  Avith 
these  main  divisions  of  the  genus.  Thus  Section  I.  is  found 
in  a  strip  of  country  running  across  S.  Africa  between  28^ 
and  32°  S.  hit.     Of  Section  II.  the  Jacksoni  group  is  found 

the  Genus  Otoinys.  265 

north  of  tlie  Equator,  while  the  irroratus  group  inhabits  the 
whole  eastern  liall"  ol"  the  continent  from  Cape  Town  to  the 
Equator,  the  forms  south  ol"  the  Zambesi  showing  normally 
six  lamina;  in  m\  with  about  5  per  cent,  of  exceptional 
inclividiuiLs  having  seven  lamituc,  while  those  north  of  that 
river  show  exactly  the  reverse.  The  western  half  of  Africa 
is  unfortunately  unrepresented  in  the  collection,  so  far  as 
Section  II.  is  concerned,  except  by  a  single  specimen  from 
Angola  and  a  skull  from  the  Cameroons,  both  showing  seven 
laminic  in  iii'.  This  would  seem  to  show  that  the  rule  of 
seven  lamin;x)  in  m''  in  the  northern  forms  holds  good  also  of 
the  west  coast.  But  the  Angola  specimen  probably  reached 
that  country  via  the  Congo  Valley  (the  common  Otomys 
of  Angola  seems  to  be  the  aberrant  Anchietce  of  Bocage),  and 
therefore  is  no  indication  of  the  truly  indigenous  fauna  of 
western  Soutii  Africa. 

I  arrange  the  forms  I  have  been  able  to  distinguish  in  a 
key  as  follows  : — 


A.  wj,    composed    of    four    lamina3    or    llieir 
a\  Lower  incisors  not  or  very  fiiiiitl}'  grooved. 
a^.  ?«■'  composed  of  two  complete  laminas 
aud    a    modified    posterior     portion. 
]Jull;e  large  (11  mm.). 
«'.  Tail  long,  |  of  head  aud  body  ;  hind 
foot  28  mm.  ;  lower  incisors  with  a 
faint  groove  ;  length  of  upper  molar 
series*  8  mm.     (Namaqualand.)    ..      (1)  Braidsi,  Sm.. 
b^.  Tail  shorter,  little  more   than   i   as 
long  as  head  and  body ;  hind  foot 
25  mm.  ;    lower  incisors    smooth  j 
length  of  upper  molar  series  7  mm. 

(Deelfontein,  C.C.) (-)  ^-  hUeolus,  Thos.  Sc 

b"^.  m^  composed  of  three  complete  laminas  [Schw. 

and  a  modified  posterior  portion  in  the 
shape  of  a  trefoil. 
a^.  Two  anterior  laminte  of  m^  mudified 
and  showing  a  "  spiral "  or  "  kidney- 
shaped  "  pattern ;    tail  long,  stout, 
a*.  Grooves  of  upper  incisors  distinct. 
a'.  Larger;  head  aud  body  175  mm. ; 
tail    shorter,     90    mm. ;     ears 

*  The  length  of  the  upper  molar  series  is  a  very  difficult  measurement 
to  take  in  this  genus,  owung  to  the  sloping  laminae  which  constitute  the 
crown  of  each  tooth.  I  have  here  and  throughout  this  paper  used  a 
measurement  from  the  posterior  point  of  the  crowu  to  the  base  of  the 
enamel  on  the  front  of  the  anterior  tooth. 

266  Mr.  R.  C.  Wroughton  on 

smaller;  bullae  7.     (S.  Africa, 

E.  coast.) (3)  unisulcatm,  Cuv. 

i'.  Smaller,  head  and  body  150mm.; 
tail  longer,  100  mm. ;  ears 
larger;    bullae  8.      (Namaqua- 

laud.)     (4)  u.  Broomi,  Thos. 

h*.  Grooves   of    upper  incisors  obso- 
lescent.    (Deelfontein.) (5)  m.  Grunti,  Thos. 

P.  All  four  laminas  of  m^  complete ; 
tail  short,  slender,  pale.  (Deel- 
fontein.)          (6)  Sloygetti,  Thos. 

b^.  Lower  incisors  distinctly  grooved. 

d^.  Lower  incisors  with  one  deep  and  one 
shallow  groove. 
a^.  m^    normally     with      six     laminae. 
(South  of  Zambesi.) 
a*.  Colour  black,  grizzled    with   yel- 
lowish white ;    individual    hairs 
black,  with  short  pale  tips.    (Cape 

Town  &c.)     (7)  irroraius,  Brants. 

bK  Colour    much    paler  ;    individual 
hairs    with    distal   g   pale    buff. 

(O.R.C.  and  Mashonalaud.)   ....     (8)  i.  nwutus,  subsp.  n. 
c*.  Colour  much  warmer;   individual 
hairs  black,  with  distal  g  brown. 

(Zoutpansberg,  Transvaal.)     ....      (9)  i.  aipreiis,  subsp.  u. 
b^.  rn?    normally    with     seven    laminae 
(except  irruratus  orcstes  and  irrora- 
ius Uenti).     (North  of  Zambesi.) 
a*.  Size  larger  ;  hind  foot  30  mm. 
a'.  Skull  longer,  more  stoutly  built, 
with  narrower  brain-case  and 
broader  nasals.    (Mkombuie.) .  .   (10)  i.  ou(/oniensi^, 
b'.  Skull    shorter,    more    slenderly  [subsp.  n. 

built,  with  broader  brain-case 
and  narrower,  subtermiually 
compressed,  nasals.  (Mt.Kenva, 

B.E.  A.,  8000-10,000'.)    ...."..   (11)  i.  tr<>j>i'calis,  Thos. 
i*.  Size  smaller;  hind  foot  27  mm. 
a*.  Narrow    nasals;    ni^  with  live 

laminae.     (Kuwenzori.) (12)  i.  Lenti,  Thos. 

6".  Narrow  nasals;  vi^  with  six 
laminae.     (Mt.  Kenya,  B.E.A., 

13,000'.)    (13)  {.  onstes,  Thos. 

c'.  Broad  Hat  nasals  ;  j?*^  with  seven 

laminae.     (Nyika,  B.C.A.).  . .  .    (14)  i.  nyikee,  subsp.  n. 
ft*.  Lower  incisors  with  two  deep  grooves. 
a^.  m^     composed     of    eight    laminae. 

(Shoa.) (15)  typus,  Ileugliu. 

b^.  m^     composed     of    seven    laminae. 

(Mt.  Elgon,  13,000'.)  . (16)  Jac/.soiii,  Thos. 

c'.  ;/*•*      composed      of       six      laniinie. 

(Ruwenzori,  12,-500'.) (17)  Dmimouthi,  Thos. 

B.  ?H,  composed  of  more  ihan  four  lamina?. 

«'.  )y/,  composed  of  live  lamina}.     (Angola.).  (IS)  A>uhiei(r,'Roc. 
b\  wi,  composed  of  seven  lamina;.      (Zulu-  [Schw. 

land.) (19)  laminatiis,  Thos.  & 

the  O'enus  Otomys.  267 

Section  I. 

Tlic  forms  in  this  Section,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  key  (A.  a^), 
arc  characterized  by  the  smooth  lower  incisors  and,  in  most 
cases,  the  modification  of  the  anterior  two  laminae  of  nii.  The 
exact  structure  of  the  molars  of  Otomys  has  never,  I  believe, 
been  worked  out.  It  is  not,  therefore,  certain  whether  the 
nuxlified  portion  of  ?>«,  in  this  Section  represents  one  or  two 
lauiinie;  but  in  view  of  the  almost  universal  presence  of  four 
laminae  in/z/j  throughout  the  rest  of  the  genus,  and  the  fact  that 
Sloyyettiy  which  undoubtedly  belongs  to  this  Section,  has  four 
complete  laminae  in  that  tooth,  I  have  accepted  the  proba- 
bility that  the  modified  area  represents  two  laminae.  This 
modification  takes  two  forms,  which,  in  well-marked  cases, 
are  quite  distinct  and  cannot  have  been  produced  the  one 
from  the  other  by  wear.  In  both  forms  the  inner  ends  of 
the  two  anterior  lamintc  are  produced  in  a  curve,  the  ante- 
rior backward  and  the  posterior  forwards,  and  fused  into  one 
continuous  strip  of  enamel  in  the  shape  of  a  horseshoe  with 
the  open  end  outwards.  In  w  hat  I  have  called  the  "  kidney  "- 
shaped  form  the  two  free  ends  of  the  horseshoe  arc  doubled 
inwards,  showing  a  heart-shaped  or  kidney-shaped  pattern; 
in  the  "  spiral  ""^  form  the  free  end  of  the  posterior  lamina  is 
not  or  scarcely  })rodueed,  while  that  of  the  anterior  is 
produced  boldly  inwards  and  again  doubled  on  itself,  thus 
showing  a  distinct  spiral  pattern. 

These  forms  of  modification,  though  one  form  is  found 
in  a  large  majority  of  individuals  of  a  given  species  or 
subspecies,  are  not  quite  constant,  and  I  have  therefore  not 
relied  upon  them  in  my  key. 

(1)   Otomys  Brantsi. 

Euryotis  Brantsi,  A.  Smith,  111.  S.  Afr.  Zool.  1839,  pi.  xxiv. 
Euryotis  pallida,  Wagner,  Wiegm.  Arch.  Naturg.  1841,  p.  13J. 
Otoniys  nijifrons,  Itiippell,  Verzeichn.  Mus.  Seuck.  i.  1842,  p.  28  (noni. 
nud.)  ;  Wagner,  iSchreb.  Saug.,  Suppl.  iii.  1843,  p.  507. 

158  a  (41.803).  Mouth  of  Orange  Hiver  (skull  70^  c) 
{A.  Smith,  type). 

764  6  (no  skin).     S.  Africa  {A.  Smith), 

98.  9.6. 1  (in.  al.).    Namaqualand.    (Cape  Town  Museum.)  Klipfoutein  &c.,  Namaqualaud.  (Rudd 

The  type  is  very  young  and  immature,  and  although  it 
seems  in  some  respects  to  resemble  suspiciously  the  eastern 
form,  still,  all  things  considered,  I  am  constrained  to  agree 
with  and  follow  Thomas   (P.  Z.  S.  1901,  vol.  i.  p.  178)  in 

2G8  Mr.  E.  C.  ^Yrougllton  on 

accep1;ing  the  Namaqualand  series  as  quoted  above  as  topo- 
types  of  true  Brantsi. 

From  this  series  I  deduce  the  following  as  normal  dimen- 
sions of  this  s])ccies  : — 

Head  and  hody  150  mm.;  tail  100;  hind  foot  28  ;  ear  17. 

Skull:  greatest  length  38;  basilar  length  31  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  20;  lengtli  of  upper  molar  scries  8;  bullae  11. 

Smith  describes  the  colour  as  "  .  .  .  .  sienna-yellow  varie- 
gated with  black  or  umber-brown" — a  fairly  exact  description, 
only  that  the  sienna-yellow  fades  to  white  except  in  the 
central  dorsal  area,  i.  e.  in  a  band,  from  the  nose  to  the  base 
of  the  tail,  about  as  wide  as  the  ears  are  apart.  The  indi- 
vidual hairs  are  all  slate-coloured  basally,  the  majority  being 
broadly  tipped  paler ;  this  pale  tip  is  white  except  in  the 
central  dorsal  line,  where  it  is  tinged  with  brown ;  the 
minority  are  black-tipped.  The  belly,  as  stated  by  Smith,  is 
pale  grey. 

All  the  individuals  from  Klipfontein,  without  exception, 
show  the  modification  in  the  "  spiral "  pattern  of  the  two 
anterior  laminaj  of  m-^,  as  also  does  7G4  b,  the  second  of 
Smith's  specimens.  On  the  other  hand.  Smith's  specimen 
158  ft  (skull  764  c),  selected  by  Mr.  Thomas  (/.  c.  supra)  as 
the  type,  shows  a  modified  form  in  which  the  inner  end  of 
the  anterior  lamina  is  produced  into  the  "spiral^'  form,  but 
the  inner  end  of  the  penultimate  lamina  is  also  slightly 
produced  and  doubled  inwards  as  in  the  "  kidney  "  pattern. 
One  specimen  only  (98.  9.  6.  I,  received  from  the  Cape  Town 
Museum,  and  labelled  ''Namaqualand"")  shows  a  distinct 
"  kidney  "  pattern. 

Both  Brantsi  and  its  subspecies  hiteohis,  forming  group  1 
of  this  Section,  are  easily  distinguishable  from  group  2  by 
the  huge  bullae  and  m^  composed  of  the  equivalents  of  only 
four  laminae. 

(2)    Otomys  Brantsi  luteolus. 
Otomys  Brantsi  luteolus,  Thos.  &  Scliw.  P.  Z.  S.  1904,  i.  p.  178. 

1.  7. 9.  28-29.     Deelfontein,  C.C. 

2. 9. 1. 35-47.     Deelfontein,  C.C.  {Col.  Sloqgett).     Deelfontein,  C.C.  {Col.  Sloggelt). 

This  form  difters  from  true  Brantsi  in  its  darker,  more 
brownish  fulvous  colouring  (the  whole  uppcrsidc  being  tinged 
with  brown,  and  not  only  a  dorsal  band  as  in  Brantsi,  and 
the  brown  is  much  darker  than  in  that  species),  shorter  hiud 
foot,  and  shorter  upper  molar  series. 

the  Genus  Otomys.  269 

The  following  may  be  taken  as  normal  dimensions  for  this 
species  : — 

Head  and  body  145  mm. ;  tail  80  ;  hind  foot  25  ;  car  17. 

Skull:  fjrcatcst  Icnjijth  38  ;  basilar  length  30;  zygomatic 
breadth  20;  length  of  upi)er  molar  series  7;  bulhc  11. 

In  all  the  individuals  of  this  suljspccies,  quoted  abovCj  the 
niodlHcation  of  the  first  two  laminae  o£  the  anterior  lower 
molar  shows  distinctly  the  "  spiral  "  pattern. 

(3)    Otomys  unisulcatus. 
Otomys  unisulcntus,  Cuvier,  Mamm.  18:29,  pi.  cclxiv. 

41.805,  41.806  (skull  S.  Africa  {Dr.  A. 

There  is  unfortunately  no  really  satisfactory  specimen  of 
unisulcatus  in  the  Natural  History  jNluscuni  collection.  It 
is  probable  that  the  above  are  the  specimens  on  which 
Dr.  Smith  based  his  description  of  unisulcatus  (Zool.  S.  A. 
pi.  xxiii.).  Basing  on  these  and  on  this  description,  the 
following  may  be  taken  as  normal  dimensions  of  this 
species  : — 

Head  and  body  175  mm. ;  tail  90;  hind  foot  25;  ear  (no 
data) . 

Skull:  greatest  length  38;  basilar  length  30;  zygomatic 
breadth  21  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  8. 

The  shorter  tail  and  hind  foot  and  a  much  warmer 
colouring  seem  to  be  the  chief  characters  distinguishing  this 
species  from  unisulcatus  Broomi,  while  its  larger  size  and  much 
shorter  tail  differentiate  it  from  unisulcatus  Granti. 

m^  (in  this  and  the  following  members  of  this  group)  is 
composed  of  three  complete  laniinse  and  a  posterior  portion 
in  the  shape  of  a  trefoil ;  in  unisulcatus  the  modified  anterior 
portion  of  wij  shows  a  "  kidney  "-shaped  pattern. 

(4)    Otomys  unisulcatus  Broomi. 

Otomys  Broo7ni,  Thos.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  x.  p.  313  (1002). 

98. 9. 3.  3-4.     Port  Nolloth,  Namaqualand  [R.  Broom) . 

4. 2.  3.  75.  Klipfonteiu,  Namaqualaud.  Alt.  3104'. 
(Rudd  Exploration.) 

The  normal  dimensions  for  this  species  are : — 

Head  and  body  160  mm. ;  tail  105  ;  hind  foot  28;  ear  24. 

Skull:  greatest  length  38;  basilar  length  31;  zygomatic 
breadth  18  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  8  ;  bullae  8. 

This  form  differs  from  typical  unisulcatus  by  its  paler,  less 
rufous  colouring  aud  its  rather  larger  hind  foot^  ears^  and 

270  Mr.  R.  C.  Wroughton  oa 

bullae,  and  from  unisulcatus  Granti  in  additioa  it  differs  by 
its  larger  size. 

The  modification  of  mj  shows  a  close  approximation  to  the 
spiral  pattern  even  in  the  younger  specimens,  m^  is  quite 
as  in  unisulcatus. 

Mr.  Thomas  described  this  form  as  a  distinct  species,  but 
I  do  not  think  it  should  rank  as  more  than  a  subspecies  ot 
unisulcatus ,  to  which  it  is  quite  as  closely  related  as  Granti. 

(5)    Otomys  unisulcatus  Granti. 

Otomys  unisulcatus  Ch-antif  Thos.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  x.  p.  312 

97. 11.5.22.     Fish  River  (Graharastown  Museum,  C.C). 

1.  7. 9.  30.     Deelfontein,  C.C.  {E.  Seimund).,95;;  Deelfontein 
[Col.  Sloggett). 

The  type  is  a  very  old  male ;  more  normal  dimensions 
than  those  given  by  ^Ir.  Thomas  are  as  follows  : — 

Head  and  body  105  mm. ;  tail  100;  hind  foot  25  ;  ear  22. 

Skull  :  greatest  length  37 ;  basilar  length  30  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  19;  length  of  upper  molar  series  8;  bullae  7*5. 

The  only  well-marked  character  distinguishing  this  local 
race  from  true  unisulcatus  is  the  obsolescence  of  the  grooves 
on  the  upper  incisors,  and  therefore  the  Fish-River  specimen 
must  be  placed  here. 

The  modification  of  the  anterior  portion  of  the  first  lower 
molar  in  the  younger  specimens  shows  the  "  kidney  "  pattern, 
but  in  older  specimens  it  seems  to  approximate  to  the  spiral 
pattern  owing  to  wear.  The  third  upper  molar  is  quite  as  in 
unisulcatus — i.  e.  is  composed  of  three  distinct  laminae  and  a 
posterior  portion  in  the  form  of  a  trefoil. 

(G)    Otomys  Sloggetti. 
Otomys  Sloffetti,  Thos.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  x.  p.  311  0!X)2). 

3  3  G  ^0~^^'  l^eelfoutein  {Col.  Sloggett). 

The  following  are  normal  dimensions  for  this  Mcll-marked 
species : — 

Head  and  body  135  mm. ;  tail  05  ;  hind  foot  :2:2  ■  car  19. 

Skull :  greatest  length  35  ;  basilar  length  28  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  18;  length  of  upper  molar  scries  7'5  ;  bullae  8. 

This  species,  though  evidently  very  closely  related  to 
unisulcatus,  is  easily  ditfercntiatcd  by  its  small  size,  short 

the  Genus  Otomys.  271 

weak    tail,    the    presence    of    faint    grooves    on    the    lower 
ineisors,  &c. 

nil  is  composed  of  four  complete  laminae,  while  in^  is  quite 
the  same  as  that  tooth  in  nnisuicutus. 

Section  II. 

The  forms  of  this  Section  arc  easily  distinguished  from 
those  of  the  last  by  the  grooving  of  the  lower  incisors,  and 
the  two  groups  of  the  section  from  one  another  by  the 
character  of  this  grooving.  Group  1,  with  forms  which 
have  only  one  deep  groove  in  the  lower  incisors,  comprises 
the  larger  number  of  the  individuals  in  the  genus.  As  usual 
in  the  classification  of  the  mammal  fauna  of  S.  Africa,  the 
species  {irroratiis)  representing  Group  1  can  be  broadly 
divided  into  two  forms  iuiiabiting  opposite  sides  of  the 
Zambesi  River.  Individuals  from  localities  south  of  the 
river  are  found  to  have  an  m^  made  up  of  six  laminre,  but 
in  about  5  per  cent,  of  the  specimens  in  the  Natural  History 
Museum  are  found  seven  laminae ;  in  specimens  from  north 
of  the  Zambesi  exactly  the  converse  is  found  to  be  the  case, 
except  only  in  the  case  of  the  very  high-level  form  from 
IMount  Kenya,  which  at  the  northern  limit  of  the  species 
has  uniformly  six  laminae,  and  the  Ruwenzori  form  Denli, 
which  has  only  five.  Some  such  geographical  division  of  the 
species  is  also  indicated  by  the  colouring,  the  southern  forms 
being  black  speckled  with  white,  while  the  northern  sub- 
stitute a  brown  for  the  white  of  the  southern  forms.  It 
is  in  dealing  with  the  S. -Zambesi  form  of  irroratus  that  I 
have  found  that,  notwithstanding  the  very  considerable 
quantity  of  material  available  for  examination,  it  is  all  too 
small  for  any  really  satisfactory  result  to  be  arrived  at.  So 
far  as  skull-characters  go,  the  whole  species  seems  to  be  in  an 
unstable  condition.  I  have  failed  to  find  in  the  southern 
specimens  a  single  series  in  which  any  one  distinctive 
character  is  really  constant.  I  have  already  said  that  the 
laminae  composition  of  m^  presents  exceptions  to  an  other- 
wise general  rule.  In  size  there  is  similar  variation : 
specimens  (quite  mature)  from  Cape  Town,  De  Kaap,  Trans- 
vaal, &c.,  show  a  greatest  skull-length  of  36  mm. ;  others, 
from  King  ^Villiam^s  Town,  Kurumau,  &c.,  show  44  and 
even  46  mm. ;  while  the  normal  size  is  40—41  mm.  Similar 
in-and-out  variation  could  be  shown  for  almost  any  character. 
Under  the  circumstances  I  have  decided  to  leave  all  these 
forms  under  irroratus,  only  distinguishing,  south  of  the 
Zambesi,  a  couple  of  colour-forms  as  subspecies. 

272  Mr.  R.  C.  Wrougliton  on 

(7)    Otomys  irroratus. 
Otomys  irroratus,  Brantf,  Muiz.  1827,  p.  94. 

95.  9.  3. 9.     Rondebosch,  Cape  Town. 

3.  7.  2. 18-2 1.     Tokai,  Cape  Town.     Alt.  sea-level  to  600'. 
5.5.7. 59-G5.     Kuvsnaj  C.C.     (lludd Exploration.)     Alt. 

97.  11.  5.  23-25.     Grabamstown,  C.C. 

98. 10.  8.  9-10.     King  William's  Town,  C.C. 

3.  6.  2. 12.     Port  St.  Jolin,  Pondoland.     Notinsila,  Pondoland.     Alt.  2300'. 

94.  6.  29.  2 ;  4.  8.  31.  6.     Ziiluland.     Alt.  3000'. 

49.  4.  13.  6.     Durban,  Natal. 

4. 12.  5. 18-19.     Estcourt,  Natal.     Alt.  4500^.     Maseru,  Basutoland.     Alt.  5000'.     Wakkerstroora,  Transvaal.     Alt.  5900'.     Zuurbronu,  Transvaal.     Alt.  4400-4700'. 

96.  3.  30.  5.     Rustenberg,  Transvaal.     Alt.  4900'. 

97.  8.  51-2.     Krugersdorp,  Transvaal.     Alt.  4700'.;,    59,    60,   92.       Kuruman, 

Bechuanaland.     Alt.  4000'. 

98.  3.  23. 3-4.     Potchef  stroom,  Transvaal. 

Brants'  description  is  a  long  one,  but  does  not  furnisli  any 
strikingly  cliaracteristic  characters,  and  gives  no  type  locality. 
The  upper  incisors  have  one  deep  groove  towards  the  outer 
edge  and  a  shallow  inner  one,  and  the  lower  incisors  one 
deep  groove.  The  dimensions  given  are  : — Head  and  body 
222  mm.,  tail  100.  Allowing  for  the  exaggerated  measure- 
ments (according  to  tbe  method  of  taking  these  measurements 
at  the  present  day)  of  the  head  and  body,  the  following  may 
be  taken  as  normal  dimensions  of  irroratus : — 

Head  and  body  180  mm. ;  tail  100  ;  hind  foot  29  ;  ear  23. 

Skull :  greatest  length  41 ;  basilar  length  32  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  20  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  9  :  bullae  7. 

The  colouring  is  black,  with  a  minute  speckling  of  very 
pale  buff,  the  belly  grey.  ?w^  is  composed  normally  of  six 
laminne,  but  in  isolated  cases,  without  any  rule  as  to  size, 
age^  or  locality,  seven  laminae  are  found. 

(8)  Otomys  irroratus  auratus,  subsp.  n.;  Vredcfort,  O.R.C.  {Barrett- 

95.  7. 1.  19;  95.  11.  3. 12-13.  Mazoc.Mashonaland  [Dar- 
Old  d. 

193  (?) 





the  Genus  Otomys.  273 

The  colouring  is  much  as  in  irroratus,  but  the  pale  Ijiitt" 
speckling  is  in  such  ((uantity  as  to  overpower  the  dark 
ground  and  to  give  the  effect  of  a  dull  golden  colour. 

The  normal  dimensions  are  as  follows  : — 

Head  and  body  170  mm. ;  tail  85  ;  hind  foot  30  ;  car  20. 

Skull  :  greatest  length  41  ;  basilar  length  35  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  20  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  9  ;   bullte  7'5. 

The  following  are  some  actual  measurements  (in  mm.)  : —  4.3.1. .30. 

Old  cT.      Ad.  cT.      Yg.  d. 

Head  and  body  170  158  137 

Tail 85  75  74 

Hiud  foot    30  27  27 

Ear  22  19  18 

Skull : 

Greatest  length 42  41  38 

Basilar  length 35  ?  31 

Zygomatic  breadth   .  21  20  19 

Upper  molar  series.  .  9-3  9*3  9 

Bulkie   7'5  ?  7'5 

It  is  iuteresting  to  note  that  while  the  O.R.C.  specimens 
have  all,  without  exception,  six  laminae  in  m^,  two  out  of 
three  of  the  ]\lazoe  specimens,  which  come  from  what  I 
regard  as  the  northern  limit  of  this  form  of  tooth,  have 
seven  laminae  in  m^. 

(9)    Otomijs  irroratus  cupreus,  subsp.  n.,  148-9.  Zoutpansbcrg,  Transvaal.  (Rudd 
Exploration.)     Alt.  4500-5000'. 

More  resembling  irroratus  in  the  proportionally  longer 
tail,  but  shorter  in  the  hind  foot  and  smaller  in  the  skull 
than  either  auratus  or  typical  irroratus. 

The  colouring  is  like  that  of  the  northern  form^,  i.  e.  the 
place  of  the  pale  buff  of  auratus  is  taken  by  deep  brown, 
giving  a  generally  coppery  look  to  the  specimens. 

The  normal  dimensions  are  :  — 

Head  and  body  170  mm. ;  tail  100 ;  hind  foot  28  ;  ear  20. 

Skull :  greatest  length  39  ;  basilar  length  32 ;  zygomatic 
breadth  20 ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  9 ;  bullae  7. 

Some  actual  measurements  are  (in  ram.)  : — 

274  Mr.  R.  C.  Wroughton  on 

G.4.3.44.      G.4.3.47. 
Old  c?.  Ad.  $.         Yg.  d. 


Head  and  bodv 172  loo  127 

TaU... .' 97  97  76 

Hind  foot    28  26  24 

Ear 20  19  16 


Greatest  length 40  38  ? 

Basilar  length     33  31  ? 

Zygomatic  breadth     20  20  ? 

Upper  molar  series    ....  9  9  8'8 

Eullte 7  7  ? 

(10)    Otomys  irroratus  angoniensis,  subsp.  nov.  M'Komblmie,  B.C.A.  {Sir  H.  Johnston). 
Alt.  8000'.     (Type  B.M.  no.  2.  1.  6.  22,  a  fully  adult  ?  .) 

A  large  Otomys  with  the  characteristic  dark  brown 
colouring  of  the  northern  forms.  Unfortunately  the 
dimensions  were  not  recorded  by  the  collector  and  the 
skulls  are  much  broken,  but  the  following  may  be  accepted 
as  the  dimensions  of  the  species  : — 

Head  and  body  175  mm.  ;  tail  90;  hind  foot  30;  ear  21. 

Skull  :  greatest  length  42  ;  basilar  length  34  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  20  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  9  ;  bullae  7o. 

The  size  is  much  as  in  typical  irroratus,  but  the  warm 
northern  colouring  distinguishes  it  markedlyfrom  thisspecies; 
the  southern  form  cupreus  which  resembles  it  in  colouring 
is  much  smaller.  From  its  more  immediate  neighbours  it 
may  be  distinguished,  from  nyikce  by  the  shorter  hind  foot, 
much  broader,  flatter,  nasals,  and  the  much  smaller  bullae  of 
that  species,  and  from  tropiccdis,  which  it  resembles  in  size 
and  length  of  hind  foot,  by  its  narrower,  stouter  skull,  rather 
wider,  compressed  nasals,  and  rather  larger  bullae. 

(11)   Otomys  irroratus  tropicalis. 

Otomys  irroratus  tropicalis,  Thos.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  i.  p.  314 
(1902).,22,23.  Mt.  Kenya,  B.E.A.  {Mackinder). 
Alt.  10,000'. 

93.  2.  3.  29.     Mianzini,  B.E.A.  (Jackson).     Alt.  8500'. 

Thomas  in  his  description  quotes  from  the  collector's 
label  195  and  93,  for  the  head  and  body  and  tail  measure- 
ments respectively,  btit  1  am  confident  there  is  some  error  iu 
these.  It  is,  in  fact,  a  rather  short-tailed  Otomys  of  about 
the  size  of  typical  irroratus,  and  I  therefore  give  as  normal 
dimensions  of  this  species  : — 

the  Genus  Otomys.  275 

Head  and  body  180  mm. ;  tail  80;  hind  foot  30  j  car  23. 

Skull  :  greatest  length  44  ;  basilar  length  35  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  TZ  ;  length  of  u[)[)cr  mohir  series  9  ;  bulhc  7"5. 

In  acUlition  to  the  eluiraeters  recorded  by  jMr.  Thomas,  a 
subterminal  compression  of  the  nasals  is  most  marked,  and 
with  the  generally  narrower  nasals  serves  to  distinguish 
tropicalis  from  anyoniensis  at  a  glance.  The  Mianzini  series 
shows  this  compression  of  the  nasals  very  strongly,  and  tlie 
brain-case  is  even  broader  and  deeper  than  in  the  specimens 
from  Mt.  Kenya ;  but  the  skins  seem  to  belong  to  a  much 
smaller  animal  and,  moreover,  vary  a  good  deal  in  colour. 
No  measurements,  however,  were  recorded  by  the  collector; 
I  therefore  reluctantly  place  them  under  this  species. 

(12)  Otomys  irroratus  Denti. 

Otomys  Denti,  Thos.  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  xviii.  p.  142  (1906).  Ruwenzori  E.Kploratiou.  Ait.  G030- 

A  rather  small  dark-coloured  Otomys,  with  the  tail  wholly 
black,  above  and  below,  and  black  feet. 

The  dimensions  are  : — 

Head  and  body  165  mm.  ;  tail  95 ;  hind  foot  27  ;  ear  21. 

Skull :  greatest  length  37  ;  basilar  length  30;  zygomatic 
breadth  19 ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  7'5 ;  bullae  7. 

The  presence  of  only  five  laminae  in  m^  is  sufficient  to 
distinguish  this  from  any  other  member  of  the  northern 
group  or,  indeed,  of  Section  II. 

Mr.  Thomas  has  described  this  form  as  a  species,  but  as 
I  have  ranked  all  the  other  forms  as  subspecies  of  irroratus 
I  feel  it  more  convenient  to  treat  Denti  in  the  same  way, 
notwithstanding  the  laminae  formula  of  m". 

(13)  Otomys  irroratus  orestes. 
Oto7nys  irroratus  orestes,  Thos.  P.  Z.  S.  1900,  p.  175. 

0.  2. 1.  21 .  Teliki  Valley,  Mt.  Kenya,  B.E.A.  {Machnder). 
Alt.  13,000'. 

The  dimensions  of  this  species  as  recorded  by  ]\Ir.  Thomas 
are  : — 

Head  and  body  175  mm. ;  tail  Q2  ;  hind  foot  27  ;  ear  20  5. 

Skull:  greatest  length  39 ;  basilar  length  31-3  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  20;  leugth  of  upper  molar  series  8;   bullae  7-5. 

The  smaller  size,  comjiaratively  narrow  nasals,  and  pre- 
sence of  only  six  laminae  in  lit"  serve  to  distinguish  it  from 
any  of  its  neighbours. 

276  Mr.  R.  C.  Wrougliton  on 

(14)    Otomys  irroratus  nyikce,  subsp.  nov.,  112-114,  117,  277,  290,  291.  Nvika 
Plateau,  B.C.A.  {Sir  H.  Johnston).  Alt.  6500'.  (Tvpc  B.M. 
no.  97.  10.  1. 107,  an  adult  c? .) 

Rather  smaller  than  typical  irroratus,  with  the  usual 
brown  colouring  of  the  northern  species.  Unfortunately 
the  body-dimensions  were  not  recorded  by  the  collector,  but 
the  following  may  be  accepted  as  normal  for  the  species  : — 

Head  and  body  170  mm.;  tail  70  ;  hind  foot  27  ;  ear  20. 

Skull:  greatest  length  41 ;  basilar  length  34;  zygomatic 
breadth  20;  length  of  upper  molar  series  9  ;  bullre  7. 

The  extraordinarily  broad,  flat,  spatulate  nasals  serve  to 
separate  at  once  this  from  all  other  forms. 

(15)    Otomys  typus. 

Oreo7ni/s  typus,  Ileuglin,  Reis.  N.Ost.-Afr.  ii.  1877,  p.  76. 
Oreinomi/s  typus,  Trouess.  Cat.  Mamni.  i.  p.  469  (1899). 
Otomys  'jDeyeni,  Thos.  P.  Z.  S.  1902,  ii,  p.  311. 

2.  9. 9. 19.     Slioa,  Abyssinia. 

When  describing  his  Degeni,  Thomas  seems  to  have  had 
some  doubt  that  it  was  identical  with  Otomys  typus  of 
Hcuglin  :  more  recently  the  receipt  of  the  type  skull  from 
the  Stuttgart  Museum  for  examination  has  confirmed  this 
doubt.  The  dimensions  recorded  by  Mr.  Thomas  for  Degeni 
are  : — 

Head  and  body  160  mm.  ;  tail  90  ;  hind  foot  28-5  •   ear  22. 

Skull:  greatest  length  38;  zygomatic  breadth  19*7; 
length  of  upper  molar  series  95  ;  bulhc  (absent). 

This  species  is  easily  distinguishable  from  other  forms  of 
the  group  wdth  a  double  groove  on  the  lower  incisor  by  the 
presence  of  eight  laminse  in  m^. 

(16)    Otomys  Jacksoni. 
Otomys  Jacksoni,  Tlios.  Ann.  Sc  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  vii.  p.  2  (1891).  Mount  Elgon,  Uganda  {Jackson).  Alt. 

A  rather  small  Otomys  with  the  warm  northern  colouring. 
The  dimensions  arc  : — 

Head  and  body  120  mm.  ;  tail  50 ;  hind  foot  26. 

Skull:  greatest  length  36;  basilar  lengtii  28;  zygomatic 
breadth  18  ;  length  of  upper  molar  scries  8*5  ;  bulhe  6. 

The  small  size  and  long  soft  fur  are  marked  characters, 
but  the  presence  of  seven  laminai  in  ;«'  is  of  itself  amply 
sufficient  to  distinguish  Jacksoni  from  either  of  the  other 

the  Genus  Otomys.  277 

two  known  forms  of  the  group  with  doubly  grooved  lower 

(17)    O/oinijs  Dartmouthi. 

Otomi/s  Dartmouthi,  Tlio.s.  Ann.  Sc  May.  Nat.  Hist.  vol.  xviii.  p.  141 

6.  7.  1.  61-67.     Ruwenzori  Exploration.     Alt.  12,500'. 

Rather  smaller  and  darker  in  eolour  than  tijpus.  The 
normal  dimensions  are  : — 

Head  and  body  150  mm. ;  tail  90  ;  hind  foot  26'5  ;  ear  25, 

Skull :  greatest  length  39;  basilar  length  31  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  20;  length  of  upper  molar  series  8  ;  bullse  7. 

The  presence  of  only  six  laminae  in  m^  suffices  to  separate 
this  species  from  any  other  known  member  of  the  group 
with  double  grooves  on  the  lower  incisors. 

Section  III. 

The  two  aberrant  species  in  this  Section  seem  to  be  found 
isolated  in  the  midst  of  normal  forms  :  laminatus  has  been 
taken  only  from  Sibudeni,  Znluland  (and,  it  is  stated,  from 
a  locality  in  Pondoland),  and  we  have  qnite  normal  irruralus 
from  the  same  place ;  Anchietce  is  recorded  by  Bocage  from 
Caconda,  &c.,  Angola,  and  has  not  been  found  elsewhere 
outside  Angola  ;  while  we  have  a  specimen  from  Braganza 
which  is  apparently  a  normal  irroratus,  and  Bocage  records 
several  other  localities  in  Angola  in  which  irroratus  has 
been  found. 

(18)    Otomys  Anchieta. 

Otomys  Anchietce,  Bocage,  Joru.  Sc.  Acad.  Lisb.  ix.  1882,  p.  26. 

92. 1.  9. 12  ;  97.  3.  6.  10  (in  al.).     Caconda,  Angola. 

A  large  Otomys  Avith  the  brown  colouring  of  the  northern 
forms  of  «To>v/^M5  and  iu  addition  an  almost  red  colouring 
{I'oux  ardent  of  Bocage)  on  face  and  rump.  The  dimensions 
are : — 

Head  and  body  200  mm. ;  tail  120;  hind  foot  37  ;  ear  24. 

Skull :  greatest  length  47 ;  basilar  length  39  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  26  ;  length  of  upper  molar  series  11  ;  bullae  10. 

This  is  the  largest  form  so  far  recorded  in  the  genus ;  it 
is  larger  even  than  the  biggest  irroratus  from  Kuruman  both 
in  body  and  skull  dimensions,  yet  the  Kuruman  specimens 
are  very  old,  while  the  specimens  of  Arichietce  though  mature 
are  not  by  any  means  old.  But  for  its  aberrant  m^ 
Anchietce  would  fall  into  Group  1  of  Section  II.,  i.  e.  the 
forms  having  one  deep  and  one  shallow  groove  on  each  lower 

Ann.  d;  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  20 

278  Mr.  "R.  I.  Pocock  on 

(19)    Otomys  laminatus. 
Otomys  laminatus,  Thos.  &  Schw.  P.  Z.  S.  1905,  i.  p.  267. 

4.  5.  1.  45;  4.  8.  31.  5.  Sibudeni,  Zululand.  (Riidd 

An  Otomys  rather  larger  than  typical  irroratus  with  the 
colouring  of  southern  specimens  of  that  species.  The 
dimensions  are  : — 

Head  and  body  180  mm.;  tail  120;  hind  foot  30  ;  ear  22. 

Skull :  greatest  length  43  ;  basilar  length  35  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  23;  length  of  upper  molar  series  10;  bullae  7'b. 

The  extraordinary  multiplication  of  laminaj  in  w,  and  rri 
distinguishes  this  species  at  a  glance  from  any  other  known 

XXXVIII. —  On  the  Genus  Cercocebus,  with  a  Key  to  the 
knoivn  Species.  By  R.  I.  PocoCK,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S., 
Superintendent  of  the  Zoological  Society^s  Gardens. 

In  Trouessart's  Cat.  Mamm.,  Suppl.  p.  15  (1904),  the 
described  species  and  subspecies  of  Cercocebus  are  referred  to 
two  subgeneric  groups,  Cercocebus  (s.  s.)  and  Leptocebus. 
The  latter  name  appears  here  for  the  first  time  in  literature 
to  replace  Semnocebus,  Gray  (nee  Lesson),  restored  by 
Mr.  Lydekker  for  C  albigena,  Gray,  on  the  strength  of  the 
blackness  of  the  eyelids  and  the  presence  of  an  upstanding 
crest  on  the  crown  of  the  head.  Although  considerable 
latitude  in  opinion  as  to  what  constitutes  a  generic  or  sub- 
generic  character  must  be  allowed,  there  seems  to  me  to  be 
no  particuLar  reason  for  regarding  elongation  of  the  hairs  on 
the  crown  as  of  higher  systematic  value  than  elongation  of 
tiiose  on  the  brow,  the  cheeks,  or  the  end  of  the  tail,  features 
which,  happily,  no  one  has  as  yet  claimed  to  be  more  tlian  of 
specific  importance  within  the  group. 

As  for  the  whiteness  of  the  eyelids,  this  is  most  pronounced 
in  the  western  species  (C.  lunulatus,  cethiopicus,  fuii(/inosus) , 
mucli  less  marked,  or,  according  to  Mr.  Lydekker  himself, 
sometimes  absent,  in  specimens  referred  to  C.  Ilagenbeckiy 
and  also,  according  to  the  same  author,  absent  in  C.  albigena 
liotlischildi.  Moreover,  in  C.  congicus  and  C.  llamlyni  the 
eyelids  are  white,  and,  at  least  in  C.  llamlyni,  whiter  tlian 
the  skin  of  the  face.  Yet  these  two  species  are  certainly 
more  nearly  related  to  C.  albigena  Rothschildi  than  to  any- 
one of  the  three  typically  white-eyelidded  species. 

the  Genus  Cercocebns,  279 

It  was  formerly  lickl,  even  by  authors  familiar  with  C.  fuli- 
ginosus,  that  uniformity  in  the  colour  of  the  hair,  or,  to  be 
accurate,  the  absence  of  the  subapical  pale  annuli  so  common 
in  the  hairs  of  Cercopit/iecus,  was  characteristic  of  the  genus 
Cercocehufij  yet  in  G,  fulirjinosus  there  is  a  patch  on  the 
crown  of  the  head  due  to  a  broad  yellowisli  area  on  the  hairs 
of  this  region;  and  since  the  discovery  of  G.  (jahritus, 
G.  agilis,  and  G.  chrysogaster,  speckled  species  all  three,  it 
lias  been  tacitly  admitted  that  the  absence  of  the  speckling 
has  only  a  specific  importance. 

So  far,  tlien,  as  the  colour  of  the  hair  and  of  the  eyelids 
is  concornod,  a  gradation  may  be  traced  between  the  species 
debarring  generic  or  subgeneric  sub  livision  even  on  the  part 
of  those  wishing  to  attach  such  weight  to  the  particulars  in 
question;  and  it  appears  to  me  there  is  just  as  much  or  as 
little  reason  for  regarding  the  elongated  whiskers  of  G.  con- 
gicus,  or  the  brow-fringe  of  typical  G.  alhigena,  or  the  long 
and  parted  scalp-hairs  of  C.  galeritus  as  supplying  a  basis 
for  subgenera  as  for  considering  the  crown-tuft  of  C.  alhigena 
to  have  that  value.  The  truth  is,  if  the  genus  Gercocehus  be 
divided  into  subgenera  at  all,  it  may  with  as  much  justifica- 
tion be  split  into  three  or  four  as  into  two.  But  since  no 
beneficial  end  is,  in  my  opinion,  served  by  giving  subgeneric 
names  to  isolated  species  or  groups  of  species  in  so  small  and, 
comparatively  speaking,  homogeneous  a  genus  as  Gercocehus^ 
and  useful  names  are  thereby  put  out  of  court  for  other 
nomenclatural  purposes,  I  propose  to  regard  Leptocehus  as  a 
genuine  synonym  of  Gercocehus  *. 

1.  The  Sooty  Mangabey. 
Gercocehus  fuUginosus^  Geoff. 
Loc.  Sierra  Leone  and  Liberia. 

2.  The  White-crowned  Mangabey. 
Gercocehus  lunulatuSy  Teram. 

Cercocehus  tethiops,  Geoffroy,  and  of  recent  authors  ;  nee  Simla  athtops, 

Cercocebus  iuniilatus,  Temniinck,  Esquiss.  Gain.  p.  .37  (1853) ;  de  Win- 
ton,  in  Anderson's  Mammals  of  Egypt,  p.  15  (1902). 

*  The  pity  of  introducing  new  names  like  Leptocehus  into  a  catalogue 
compiled  by  an  author  who  cannot  claim  an  intimate  acquaintance  even 
■with  all  the  genera,  much  less  \\ath  all  the  species  he  records,  is  well 
exemplitied  by  the  case  under  consideration ;  for  one  of  the  alleged 
species,  Hayenbecki,  figures  in  the  subgenus  Cercocebtis,  and  another, 
agilis,  in  Leptocebus  ;  yet  the  two  names  were  in  all  probability  applied 
to  specimens  only  subspecifically  distinct  from  each  other. 


280  Mr.  R.  I.  Pocock  on 

Loc.  Gold  Coast. 

In  Trouessart's  Catalogue  (1904)  and,  I  believe,  in  all 
previous  literature  this  species  figured  as  cethiops,  Linn. ;  but 
since,  as  Mr.  deWinton  pointed  out,  this  name  was  originally- 
given  to  a  si)ecies  of  the  genus  Cercopitl/fcus,  it  cannot 
stand  for  the  mangabey  in  question,  for  which  lunulatus 
seems  to  be  the  correct  title. 

3.  The  White-collared  Mangabey. 

Cercocehus  cfifhiopicu.t,  F.  Cuv. 

Cercopithecus  (Bthiopicus,  F.  Cuvier,  Mamm.  ii.  livr.  xxxv.  (1821). 
Cercocebus  collar  is,  Gray,  List  Mamm.  Brit.  Mu3.  p.  7  (184-3)  :  and  of 
subsequent  authors. 

].oc.  Nigeria,  Cameroons,  and  French  Congo. 

Although  this  species  is  usually  known  by  the  appropriate 
title  "  coUaris^"  the  oldest  available  name  seems  to  be 

4.  The  Yellow-bellied  Mangabey. 

Cercocebus  chrysogaster,  Lydd. 
Cercocebus  chrysogaster,  Lydekker,  Novit.  Zool.  vii.  p.  279,  pi.  iii.  (1900). 

Loc.  Congo  :  exact  area  unknown. 

1   have  seen  a  few  living  specimens  of  this   species,  but 
Mr.  Rothschild  has   kindly  afforded   me  the  opportunity  of 
examining  the  type,  whicli  lived   for  about  one  year  in  the 
Zoological  Gardens.     This  may  account  for  certain  discrep- 
ancies between  the  description  and  the  s[)ecimen.     Between 
the  drawing   up  of  the  description  which  was  published  on 
Aug.  20th,  19U0,  and  the  death  of  the  specimen  in  February 
1901  certain  colour-changes    must    presumably  have    taken 
place  in  the  hair,  tor  it  is  asserted  that  the  s[)eckling  disappears 
on  the  flanks  and  outer  sides  of   the  limbs,  whicii  tend  to 
slate-grey,  and  that  the  inner  surface  of  the  limbs  is  rather 
paler  than  the  outer  surface.     In  the  specimen  at  the  present 
time   the  flanks  and   outer  sides  of  the  limbs  down  to  the 
hands  and  feet  are  distinctly  speckled,  though  not  so  strongly 
as  the  head  and  back,  and  the  inner  surface  of  the  limbs  is 
orange  like  the  lower  surface  of  the   head  and  bod}',  though 
paler.     The   describer's   statement    that    this    species    ditfors 
from  all  other  species  of  Cercocebus  as  M'ell  as  from  all  species 
of  Cercopithecus  in  the  bright  orange  coloration  of  the  under 
surface  was  made  in  forgetiulness  of  the  fact  that  Pousargues 
had  already  ascribed  a  similar  coloration    to   tlie    belly   of 

the  Oenus  Cercocebus.  2S1 

Cercocehus  agilis,  aiul  that  Cercopithecus  Wolfi,  Orayi,  pogo- 
nius,  and  ni(jrij)es  have  been  known  for  many  years  to  be  so 
coloured  beh)W  *.  j\Iy  oidy  reason  for  commenting  now  on 
the  fact  is  the  p;reat  interest  attaching  to  the  simihirity  in  the 
colouring  in  the  lower  parts  in  all  these  monkeys,  which 
inhabit,  broadly  speaking,  the  same  area  of  tropical  West 
Africa,  namely  the  Congo.  There  must  be  an  explanation  of 
this,  but  I  am  unable  to  suggest  what  it  may  be. 

5.  Hagenbeck's  Mangabey. 
Cercocehus  Uagenhecki,  Lydd. 

Cercocehus  Haqenbecki,  Lvdekker,  Novit.  Zool.  vii.  p.  594  (lOOO) ;  id. 
op.  cit.  Tiii.  pi.  i.  fig.  1  (1901). 

Loc.  Upper  Congo  :  exact  area  unknown. 

I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Rothschild  for  the  chance  of  seeing 
the  type  of  this  species.  On  the  forehead,  rather  less  tlian  an 
inch  behind  the  brow,  there  is  a  very  conspicuous  parting, 
whence  the  hairs  radiate,  those  directed  forwards  forming  a 
conspicuous  postsuperciliary  fringe.  This  important  feature, 
attesting  close  relationship  between  C.  Ilagenhecki  and 
C.  agilisy  is  not  mentioned  in  the  description  and  only  im- 
perfectly suggested  in  the  figure.  The  prevailing  colour  is  a 
smoky  grey  above,  relieved  on  the  head,  whiskers,  neck, 
shoulders,  and  fore  {)art  of  the  back  by  the  yellowish  annula- 
tion  o£  the  hairs.  These  annuli  practically  die  out  on  the 
sides  of  the  body,  the  outer  sides  of  the  legs,  and  on  the  tail, 
which  is  merely  indistinctly  speckled  in  its  basal  portion 
above.  The  throat,  chest,  belly,  and  the  inner  sides  of  the 
limbs  are  dirty  greyish  white.  There  is  a  complete  absence 
in  the  hair  of  the  brown  or  fawn  or  rusty  yellow  hue  men- 
tioned by  the  two  principal  describers  of  C.  agilis.  It  is 
solely  on  this  account  that  1  separate  the  two  forms  specifi- 
cally, altbough  strongly  suspecting  they  will  ultimately  prove 
to  be  at  most  merely  local  races  (tliat  is  to  say,  subspecies)  of 
one  and  the  same  species.  But  of  this  there  is  as  yet  no 

According  to  Mr.  Lydekker,  the  eyelids  were  black  in  the 
living  type  specimen,  whereas  another  example  living  in  the 
Gardens  at  the  same  time  had  them  flesh-coloured.  In  the 
living  specimens  I  have  seen  they  are  neither  flesh-coloured 
nor  black,  but  somewhat  greyish — that  is  to  say,  decidedly 
darker  than  in  C.  (cthiopicuSy  for  example.  I  suspect  they 
are  pale  in  the  young  and  gradually  darken  with  age, 

*  The  rufous  belly  of  C.  erythrorjaster  must  also  be  remembered  in 
this  conuexiou. 

282  Mr.  E.  L  Pocock  on 

In  tlie  speckling  of  the  coat  and  the  appearance  and 
gradual  extension  of  the  yellow  of  the  underside  a  gradation 
may  be  traced  in  the  order  named  between  C.  fuliginosus, 
Tlagenlecki,  agilis,  and  chr ijsog aster j  whereas  in  the  direction 
of  growth  of  the  hairs  on  the  head  C.  chrysogaster  resembles 

G.  Agile  Mangabey. 

Cercocehus  agilis,  A.  Riviere. 

Cercocehus  ac/ilis,  A.  Riviere,  Rev.  Sc.  s^r.  3,  xii.  p.  15  (1886) ;  Pou- 
sargues,  Ami.  Sci.  Nat.,  Zool.  (8)  iii.  pp.  229-235  (1896)  ;  Trouessart^ 
Le  Natui-aliste,  1897,  p.  9. 

Log.  French  Congo  :  confluence  of  the  Oubangui  and  the 
Congo  ;  "  Poste  des  Ouaddas"  (according  to  Pousargues). 

The  specimen,  now  in  the  Paris  ]\Iuseuni,  to  which  Riviere 
gave  the  name  Cercocehus  agilis,  without  adequate  diagnosis, 
was  subsequently  described  by  both  Pousargues  and 
Trouessart.  I  have  not  seen  any  specimen  which  exactly 
fits  the  descriptions,  though  the  latter  apply  pretty  closely  to 
niangabeys  we  commonly  receive  from  the  Congo  and  call 
C.  Hagenbechi.  The  arrangement  of  the  hairs  on  the  fore- 
head is  the  same  and  the  speckling  of  the  fur  also,  but  the 
general  tint  is  apparently  different  in  the  two ;  for  example, 
Trouessart  says  that  the  hairs  of  the  head  and  back  are  more 
distinctly  annulated  than  those  of  the  sides,  so  that  the  tint 
passes  insensibly  into  fawn-brown  (*' fauve-brun '^),  then  into 
clear  fawn,  then  into  white  under  the  belly.  And  according 
to  Pousargues  the  hairs  of  the  u])per  parts  are  dark  brown 
("  brun  sombre")  and  marked  on  the  distal  third  with  two 
yellowish-green  annuli  especially  distinct  upon  the  head, 
neck,  and  arms,  much  less  defined  upon  the  cheek,  shoulders, 
back,  sides,  and  outer  face  of  the  legs  ;  the  hairs  of  the  chest 
and  belly  are  scanty  and  yellowish  red  at  the  extremity,  but 
the  throat  and  the  inner  sides  of  the  arms  and  legs  are  silvery 
grey.  The  discrepancies  between  the  two  descriptions  taken 
by  two  authors  of  repute  from  the  same  specimen  are  difficult 
to  reconcile.  They  are  also  highly  instructive  as  emphasizing 
the  magnitude  of  the  personal  equation  to  be  reckoned  with 
in  judging  of  species  from  published  diagnoses.  The  reddish- 
yellow  ("jaune  roussatre  ■'^)  hue  of  the  chest  and  belly  must 
be  very  faint,  one  would  imagine,  to  admit  of  Trouessart^s 
failing  to  detect  it  and  describing  the  belly  as  white,  unless 
his  examination  was  made  by  gas-  or  candle-light.  That 
Pousargues  was  probably  correct  may  be  inferred  from  the 
circumstance  that  he  saw  four  specimens  in  addition  to  the 

the  Genus  Cercoccbus.  283 

type,  makin;^  a  total  of  two  adult  males  and  one   adult    and 
two  young  feuialcs. 

7.  Helmeted  Mangabey. 

Cercocehus  galeritus^  Pet. 

Cercocebus  galeritusy  Peters,  Mon.  Akad.  Berlin,  1879,  p.  830,  pis.  i.*  & 
iii. ;  Matschie,  Saugeth.  Deutsch.  Ost-Afr.  p.  145  (1895)  ;  Pousar- 
gues,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  (8)  iii.  pp.  220-235  (1897). 

Loc.  Bilt.  E.  Africa  :  Tana  River. 

This  species  is  known  to  rae  only  from  the  figure  and 
description  published  by  Peters  and  from  the  remarks  upon 
it  Matschie  and  Pousargues  have  published. 

The  general  colour  both  above  and  below  seems  to  resemble 
that  of  C.  agilis  ;  but  the  arrangement  of  the  hair  on  the 
crown  of  the  head  is  quite  different  from  that  of  C.  afjilis  and 
C.  Hagenhccki,  Judging  from  the  figin-e,  whichj  according 
to  Matschie,  quoted  by  Pousargues,  is  correct,  the  parting  is 
not,  as  in  those  species,  a  small  circular  area  from  which  the 
hair  radiates,  but  almost  Y-shaped  ;  the  hairs  on  the  forehead 
turn  forwards  over  the  brows  and  are  separated  by  a  transverse 
parting  running  from  temple  to  temi)le  from  the  hairs  of  the 
top  of  the  head,  which  are  long  and  directed  outwards  from 
a  median  longitudinal  parting,  so  that  their  ends  overhang, 
like  a  roof,  the  tops  of  the  ears.  The  description  Pousargues 
gives  of  this  arrangement  does  not  express  at  all  clearly,  in 
my  opinion,  what  the  illustration  in  Peters's  paper  shows. 
Trouessart's  interpretation  is  much  more  in  keeping  with  the 
figure.  But  the  two  species,  C.  agilis  and  galeritus,  are,  I 
siiould  say,  much  less  nearly  related  than  these  French 
authors  believed. 

8.  The  Black  Mangabey. 

Cercocebus  albigena,  Gray. 
Preshytes  albigena,  Gray,  P.  Z.  S.  1850,  p.  77. 

Loc.  Basin  of  the  Congo  and  E.  Africa  (Uganda,  Tan- 

Mr.  Lydekker  (Xov.  Zool.  vii.  pp.  594,  596,  1900)  admits 
the  following  subspecies  of  this  form  : — 

albigena,  Gray,  P.  Z.  S.  1850,  p.  77,  pi.  xvi. 

Loc.  French  Congo. 
aterrimusy  Oudemans,  Zool.  Gart.  xxxi.  p.  267  (1890). 

Loc,  Stanley  Falls  ;  north  or  right  bank  of  Congo. 

284  Mr.  R.  I.  Pocock  on 

BothschiMi,  JjyM.  Nov.  Zool.  vii.  pp.  595-596  (1900),  and 
viii.  pi.  i.  fig.  2  (1901). 

Johnstonty  id.  loc.  cit.  pp.  595-596. 

Loc.  Lake  Tanganyika  (northern  extremity). 

Tlie  best-marked  of  these  forms  appears  to  be  Rothschildi, 
of  wliicli  I  have  seen  no  specimens. 

The  remaining  examples  examined  and  named  by 
Mr.  Lydekker  are  in  the  Natural  History  Museum,  as  well 
as  three  others  received  since  his  paper  was  written.  Two  of 
these  three  are  from  Budzi  (3000  feet)  in  Uganda  ;  the  third 
is  labelled  "  Cameroons,^^  but  this  locality  is,  I  think,  open  to 
grave  suspicion.  This  specimen  is  long-coated.  The  mantle 
on  the  nape  and  shoulders  is  brown  strongly  tinged  witii 
iron-grey.  Tliere  is  also  a  considerable  quantity  of  grey  in 
the  hair  on  the  fore  part  of  the  chest  and  outer  side  of  the 
thigh.  Except  that  there  is  more  grey  in  the  coat,  this 
example  is  very  like  the  type  of  alhigena,  which  is  young. 
I  believe  it  represents  the  adult  phase  of  that  species,  and 
JMr.  Lydekker  has  given  it  the  name  albigena.  In  its  grey- 
ness  it  differs  from  the  two  examples  from  Uganda,  in  which 
there  is  no  grey  in  the  brown  mantle  or  on  the  outer  sides  of 
the  legs,  which  are  black.  One  of  these  specimens  is  browner 
than  the  other  and  both  are  rather  browner  than  the  type  of 
Johnstoni.  Nevertheless  I  believe  the  three  specimens,  which 
appear  to  be  adult,  are  representatives  of  one  and  the  same 

From  an  examination  of  all  these  skins,  no  two  of  which 
are  absolutely  alike,  I  am  compelled  to  believe  that  two,  and 
only  two,  subspecies  are  involved,  namely  a  western  and  an 
eastern,  the  former  being  alhigena  and  the  latter  Johnstoni. 
Neumann  identified  the  eastern  form  from  Uganda  as 
aterrbnvs  ;  but  for  geogroj)hical  reasons  it  appears  to  me 
more  probable  that  the  type  of  aterrimus  was  a  young 
example  of  alhigena.  If  so,  aterrimus  falls  as  a  synonym  of 
alhigena.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  Neumann  is  right  in  his 
determination,  Johnstoni  falls  as  a  synonym  of  aterrimus. 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  Neumann  discovered  the 
young  of  the  L^^ganda  I'orm  to  be  unitbrmly  black  (Zool. 
Jahrb.  xiii.  p.  5o3,  1900).  From  this  it  may  be  inferred 
that  the  young  of  the  Congo  form  {alhigena^  is  also  black. 
The  skins  I  have  seen  bear  out  this  interence.  Hence,  so  far 
as  colour  is  concerned,  the  type  of  aterrimus  might  be  the 
voung  or  the  brown-  or  grey-mantled   race.     It  cannot,  on 

the  Genus  Ccrcoccbus.  285 

the  evitlciico,  bo  adniitted  as  tlio  lopresentative  of  a  distinct 

9.  Sclater's  Mangabey. 

Cercocebus  congicus,  Sclater. 

Cercocehns  congiciis,  Sclater,  P.  Z.  S.  1899,  pp.  827-828,  fig. 

The  diagnosis  runs  as  follows: — "Niger,  subtiis  nudi- 
iiRculus,  crista  extanto  longa  nigra  :  genaruni  pilis  productis 
albis  :  manibus  ct  pedibus  cum  facie  carneis  :  mento  et  pectore 
albis,  ventre  nigricanfe,  tibiis  albis  :  brachiis  nigris,  caudS, 
albicante.     Long.  corp.  2,  caudre  3,  tota  5  ped.  Angl. 

''Ilah.  Terra  Congica/^ 

This  species  was  based  upon  a  single  female  specimen 
living  in  the  Antwerp  Gardens  and  believed  to  have  come 
from  the  district  of  {Stanley  Falls  on  the  Upper  Congo. 

The  reproduced  photograph  published  by  L)r.  Sclater  shows 
that  the  crest  on  the  head  was  long  and  rose  nearly  vertically 
from  the  crown  like  a  column,  presenting  an  appearance 
quite  unlike  that  of  the  crest  of  (J.  albigetia  or  C.  llainlyni. 

10.  Hamlyn's  Mangabey. 

Cercocebus  Hamlynij  Pocock. 

Cercocebus  Hamlyni,   Pocock,  Aun.  &  IViag.   Nat.   Hist.  1906,  xviii. 
p.  208,  pi.  vii. 

Loc.  Congo  :  exact  locality  unknown. 

Key  to  the  Species  and  Subspecies,  showing  their  apparent 
Affinity . 

a.  No  upstanding  tuft  of  hair  on  the  posterior  por- 
tion of  the  crown  of  the  head. 
h.  Hairs   on   body    a   uniforna  blackish  grey  or 
nearly  black,  not  annulated. 
c.  No  distinct  white  collar ;  summit  of  head  not 
(/.  No  white  patch  on  summit  of  head  ;  lower 

surface  slaty  grey    fuUginosus. 

d\  A  white  patch  on  summit  of  head  ;  lower 

surface  whitish    Iu7iulutus. 

c^.  A  white  band  extending  on  each  side  from 
the  eye  beneath  the  ear  on  to  the  back  of 
the  head  and  continued  down  the  nape  of 

the  neck  ;  top  of  head  red-brown cethiopicus. 

b^.  Hairs,  at  least  on  the  head,  fore  limbs,  and 

fore  part  of  the  body,  distally  annulated  with 

yellow,  giving  a  speckled  appearance  to  the 


e.  No  parting  in  the  hairs  on  the  forehead  to 

form  a  brow-fringe  ;  throat  and  inner  side 

of  limbs  yellow  like  chest  aud  belly cltrysogaster. 

286  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on 

e\  A  parting-  in  the  hairs  on  the  forehead  to 

form  a  forwardly  directed  brow-fringe ;  at 

least  the  throat  and  the  inner  sides  of  the 

limbs  not  yellow  (?  in  C.  galeritus). 

f.  Hairs  on  crown    of  head  short,   directed 

backwards,  without  median  longitudinal 

partii]g ;  no  tail-tuft. 

g.  Prevailing  colour  smolry  grey ;  no  yellow 

on  flanks,  chest,  or  belly    Hagenbecki. 

g^.  Prevailing  colour  brown,  yellowish  on 

the  flanks,  chest,  and  belly agilis. 

f^.  Hairs  on  crown  of  liead  long,  separated 
by  a  median  longitudinal  parting,  whence 
they  diverge  to  the  light  and  left,  over- 
lapping the  tops  of  the  ears  ;  tail  apically 

tufted    galeritus. 

a\  Hair  on  summit  of  head  forming  an  upstanding 
parietal  crest  or  tuft. 
h.  Skin  of  face,  of  hands  and  feet,  and  the  nails 
black  ;  prevailing  colour  of  coat  also  black, 

though  brown  or  iron-grey  in  parts   albigena. 

i.  Whiskers  short ;  a  very  distinct  superciliary 
k.  Mantle  and  chest  and  outer  side  of  legs 

brown  with  grey  tinge    subsp.  albigena. 

k^.  No  grey  tinge  in  the  hairs  of  the  mantle, 
chest,  and  outer  side  of  legs,  the  latter 

being  black subsp.  Johnstoni. 

i'.  Whiskers  long,  partially  concealing   ears; 

no  supercihary  fringe subsp.  Rothschildi. 

h}.  Skin  of  face,  nails,  and  underside  of  hands  and 
feet  flesh-coloured,  at  least  the  cheeks,  throat, 
tail,  and  lower  half  of  legs  whitish. 

/.  Arms,  body,  and  thiglis  black    congicns. 

/'.  Arms,  body,  and  legs  mostly  greyish  white, 

the  arms  and  shoulders  partly  ashy  black . .     Hamlgni. 

XXXIX. —  On  some  Ethiopian  Rhynchota,  and  Synonymical 
Notes.    B/  W.  L.  Distant. 

The  following  descriptions  refer  to  South-African  specimens 
whicii  I  have  recently  received  from  various  sources.  Tliose 
from  the  Transvaal  will  be  subsequently  figured  in  '  Insecta 

Fani.  Pentatomidae. 

Subfam.  PEyxATOMiNJi. 

Uermolaus  Stoierstra',  sp.  n. 

Brownish   testaceous,   coarsely   punctate ;    head    with    tlie 

punctures  on  lateral  lobes  arranged  in  somewhat  lonj^itudinal 

some  Elhioptan  Rhynckuia.  287 

series,  the  central  lobe  aliiiost  impunctate,  the  outer  margins 
of  the  lateral  lobes  narrowly  olivaceous  ;  antennae  witli  the 
joints  1-3  stramineous,  4-5  darker,  first  joint  not  nearly 
reaching-  ai:)ex  of  head,  second  and  third  subequal  in  length, 
shorter  than  fourth  and  fifth  ;  pronotum  with  the  lateral 
margins  narrowly  ochraceous,  levigate  on  each  side,  bordered 
Avith  a  dark  line,  the  surface  coarsely  punctate  excepting  on 
a  transverse  anterior  and  a  central  lougitudiiial,  ochraceous, 
narrow,  levigate  fascia  ;  scutellum  coarsely  punctate,  trans- 
versely wrinkled  on  anterior  area,  its  lateral  and  apical 
margins  narrowly  ochraceously  levigate,  with  a  small  ochra- 
ceous levigate  s|)ot  in  each  basal  angle,  and  with  two  similar 
but  much  smaller  spots  on  basal  margin;  corium  coarsely 
punctate;  coiniexivum  ochraceous,  witli  large  black  spots; 
membrane  dusky  grey  ;  body  beneath  and  legs  ochraceous, 
a  broad  castaneous  fascia  near  each  lateral  margin ;  an  abdo- 
minal marginal  segmental  series  of  small  black  spots  j  rostrum 
reaching  the  third  abdominal  segment. 

Long.  5  mm. 

Hah.  Transvaal ;  Pretoria  ( G.  I.  Swierstra,  Pret,  Mus.  and 
Coll.  Dist.). 

Tills  makes  the  third  described  (and  the  first  known  Ethio- 
pian) species  of  the  genus,  the  other  two  being  //.  typicusj 
Dist.  (S.  India),  and  //.  amurensiSj  Horv.  (Siberia). 

Antestia  atrosignata,  sp.  n. 

Pale  testaceous,  more  or  less  coarsely  punctate ;  lateral 
and  anterior  margins  and  usually  anterior  disk  of  pronotum, 
base,  two  central  longitudinal  lines,  and  apex  to  scutellum 
pale  ochraceous ;  two  transverse  lines  on  anterior  disk  of 
pronotum,  two  large  spots  near  base  and  two  smaller  spots 
near  apex  of  scutellum,  and  a  longitudinal  linear  spot  on 
corium,  black;  membrane  black,  its  apex  paler;  body  be- 
neatii  ochraceous,  thickly  punctured  with  brown  ;  legs  dark 
ochraceous ;  antennge  ochraceous,  second  and  third  joints 
subequal  and  shorter  than  fourth  and  fifth,  which  are 
moderately  thickened ;  head  rugosely  punctate,  the  lateral 
margins  sinuate  ;  pronotum  with  the  anterior  and  lateral 
margins  moderately  raised  and  levigate,  coarsely  punctate, 
more  thickly  so  behind  anterior  margin  ;  scutellum  with 
coarse  scattered  punctures,  the  base  impunctate;  corium 
thickly  coarsely  punctate;  rostrum  reaching  the  posterior 
coxEe,  its  apex  black  ;  sternum  with  small  black  outer  costal 

Long.  5^-6  mm. 

288  Mr.  ^V.  L.  Distant  on 

Ilah.  S.  Africa;  no  precise  locality  (S.  Afr.  Mus.  and 
Coll.  Dist.). 

Mr.  Peringuey  sent  me  three  examples  of  this  distinctly 
marked  species.     Its  exact  locality  is  yet  to  be  determined. 

Subfam.  Asopix^. 

Dory  cor  is  Butherfordi. 

Dorycoris  Rutherfordi,  Dist.  Ent.  Montli.  Mag.  (2)  iii.  p.  187  (1892). 

In  '  Khynchota  iEthiopica/  t.  i.  p.  135  (1905),  my  friend 
M.  Schouteden  has  placed  this  species  as  a  synonym  of  the 
Pentatoma  mini'ata,  Westw.,  which  he  figures  and  enumerates 
as  a  var.  of  Dorycoris  pavoninus,  Westw.  ^I.  Schouteden 
writes  : — "  Z^.  Ilutlierfordi  est  forma  nitidissima,  niargiuibu.s 
pronoti  vix  constrictis^  a  D.  miuiato  tanien,  ut  videtur,  haud 
distinguenda.^'  So  far  from  this  being  the  case,  the  species  I 
described  as  D.  Rutherfordi  differs  from  Schouteden's  figure 
of  D.  miniatus  (lettered  as  J),  fuscosiis,  Germ.)  in  havdng 
the  head  wholly  metallic  green,  basal  half  of  scutellum 
metallic  blue,  and  a  large  transverse  spot  of  the  same  colour 
on  corium  on  each  side  of  apex  of  scutellum,  the  spot  ex- 
tending for  little  more  than  half  across  the  corium.  It  may 
be  correct  to  regard  D.  Rutherfordi  as  a  colour-variety  of 
D.  pavoninuSj  for  M.  Schouteden  has  had  a  large  amount  of 
material  through  his  hand.s,  but  it  is  incorrect  to  refer  it  to 
the  form  he  has  figured. 

Subfam.  Tessabatominje. 
Kahlamba,  gen.  nov. 

liody  subovate,  flattened  above,  beneath  slightly  convex  ; 
head  elongateiy  subtriangular,  about  as  long  as  width  at 
base  including  eyes,  lateral  lobes  much  longer  than  central 
lobe  and  meeting  beyond  it ;  antenniferous  tubercles  prominent 
and  placed  just  in  front  of  the  eyes  ;  ocelli  placed  nearer  to 
eyes  than  to  each  other  and  close  to  base  of  head;  rostrum 
just  reaching  the  intermediate  coxfe,  second  joint  long  but 
shorter  than  the  remaining  joints  together;  antenn;i3  ot  tive 
joints,  first  joint  shortest,  not  reaching  more  than  halfway 
between  basal  tubercle  and  apex  of  head,  second  and  third 
joints  subequal,  shorter  than  fourth  or  fifth,  the  latter  longest; 
pronotum  broader  at  base  than  at  apex,  frontal  margin 
straightly  truncate  except  behind  eyes,  where  it  is  a  little 
convexly  upcurved,  lateral  margins  obliquely  straight,  trun- 
cate   before    scutellum  ;      mesosternum     distinctly    centrally 

some  Ethiopian  Ehynchota.  289 

caiinatc;  Icf^s  luinrrnod,  tarsi  witli  three  joints;  .scutcUum 
inucli  longer  than  broad,  half  as  long  again  as  broad  at  base, 
a  little  shorter  than  head  and  pronotum  together ;  apical 
angle  of  cerium  subacute,  not  rounded  ;  membrane  with  a 
central  discal  areole  and  with  two  of  the  veins  forked  near 
posterior  margin  ;  abdomen  a  little  broader  than  hcmelytra 
from  a  little  beyond  base,  scarcely  wider  than  base  oi" 

Allied  to  Malgassus,  Ilurv. 

Kahlamha  typica,  sp.  n. 

Ochraccous,  above  coarsely  darkly  punctate  ;  head  with 
the  apex  acutely  rounded,  coarsely  darkly  punctate,  the 
margins  of  the  central  lobe  fuscous ;  pronotum  punctate, 
transversely  rugulose,  the  dark  punctures  forming  some 
indistinct  longitu<linal  strij«  ;  seutellum  darkly  j)unctate,  with 
a  central  pale,  lougituilinal,  levigate  line ;  corium  darkly 
punctate,  the  venation  pale,  prominent,  levigate;  membrane 
dark  grey  ;  body  beneath  very  finely  punctate,  the  punctures 
darker  and  more  confluent  on  head  beneath  and  at  lateral 
margins  of  sternum  ;  legs  somewhat  thickly  blackly  ])unctate, 
abdominal  spiracles  black  ;  apex  of  rostrum  piceous  ;  struc- 
tural characters  as  detailed  in  generic  diagnosis. 

Long.  13-15  mm. 

Hah.  Natal;  Newcastle  (S.  Afr.  Mus.  and  Coll.  DIst.). 

Mr.  Peringuey  sent  me  two  examples  of  this  species  repre- 
senting a  genus  belonging  to  the  division  Sepinaria,  Horv., 
iiitherto  represented  only  in  Madagascar. 

Fani.  CoreidsB. 
Subfam.  PsYZLOMOiiPirisju. 

Pephricus  Fryi,  sjn  n. 

Varying  in  colour  from  pale  creamy  white  to  ochraceous  ; 
head  above  behind  eyes  (excluding  a  central  longitudinal 
fascia)  black ;  pronotum  centrally  opaque,  pale  ochraceous, 
the  expanded  lateral  areas  creamy  white,  centrally  blackly 
punctate,  the  punctures  arranged  somewhat  transversely  ; 
abdomen  above  with  scattered  black  punctures  which  form  a 
prominent  transverse  black  fascia  beyond  middle,  extending 
on  each  side  through  the  principal  abdominal  lobe,  apical 
abdominal  lobes  streaked  with  black  at  apices,  anal  prolonga- 
tions with  a  central  black  line;  body  beneath  much  punctured 
with  black.     In  structure  the  species  is  allied  to  P./ragilis, 

290  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on 

Dist.,  from  wliicli  it  differs  by  the  non-truncate  long  concave 
apices  to  the  two  longest  abdominal  lobes  ;  basal  joint  of 
antennae  stoutest  and  very  longly  spined,  a  little  longer  than 
second,  which  is  about  hulf  as  short  again  as  third,  fourth 
joint  shortest,  incrassate,  brownish  ochraceous. 

Long.  10  mm. 

Ilab.  Transvaal ;  Pretoria^  Aapies  River. 

A  specimen  was  kindly  sent  to  me  by  Mr.  H.  Fry,  of 
Johannesburg,  after  whom  I  have  named  the  species. 

Fam.  Lygseidae. 
Subfam.  IIetemoqa-Steinje. 

Masoas,  gen.  nov. 

Subelongate;  head  a  little  longer  than  broad,  strongly 
sinuately  narrowed  in  front  of  eyes,  tlie  anterior  lateral 
margins  straight  and  ridged;  anteniice  four-jointed,  first  joint 
scarcely  reaching  apex  of  head  and  almost  as  long  as  second, 
third  and  fourth  thickened,  pilose,  third  longest ;  rostrum 
reaching  the  anterior  coxa?,  first  joint  not  reaching  base  of 
head;  eyes  projecting  a  little  beyond  anterior  margin  of  pro- 
notum,  which  is  about  as  long  as  broad  at  base,  a  little 
narrowed  anteriorly,  centrally  transversely  impressed  ;  scu- 
tellum  subtriangular ;  membrane  with  several  basal  cells; 
anterior  femora  somewhat  strongly  thickened,  beneath  near 
apex  with  a  distinct  spine,  followed  by  a  few  very  small 
sj)ines,  anterior  tibise  a  little  shorter  than  the  femora. 

The  incrassated  and  spined  anterior  femora,  together  with 
the  short  rostrum,  give  this  genus  a  resemblance  to  the 
Pachygronthinaj ;  but  the  basal  cells  to  the  membrane  prompt 
its  insertion  in  the  Heterogastrinae. 

Masoas  transvaaliensisj  sp.  n. 

Head  black,  coarsely  punctate,  anterior  lateral  ridges 
brownish  \  imVyinffi  ochraceous,  first  joint  and  base  of  third 
io''^-'""  Dlack,   fourth  ^oint  piceous    brown;    pronotum    black, 

3ome  Ethiopian  Rhi/ncJiola.  291 

spot ;  niembrano  greyish  white  ;  coiinexivum  black,  spotted 
■with  ochraceous  ;  bodj'-  beneath  black  ;  coxic  and  posterior 
margins  of  pro-  and  metastcrna  ochraceous  ;  legs  ochraceous, 
femora  (excluding  apices)  ajid  bases  and  apices  of  tibiie  black  ; 
rostrum  brownish  ochraceous,  apex  of  first  joint  black,  apices 
of  remaining  joints  pale  ochraceous  ;  abdomen  with  a  lateral 
margin  of  ochraceous  spots. 

Long.  3^  mm, 

J/ab.  Transvaal  ;  Pretoria  [G.  I,  Swierstra,  Pret.  Mus. 
and  Coll.  Dist.). 

Tamasanka,  gen.  no  v. 

Broadly  subelongate ;  head  broad,  subtriangular,  longer 
than  broad,  narrowed  in  front  of  eyes  ;  ocelli  placed  near 
eyes  ;  antennae  four-jointed,  first  joint  robust  and  reaching 
apex  of  head,  second  and  third  joints  subequal  in  length,  each 
a  little  shorter  than  fourth  ;  rostrum  mutilated  in  type,  eyes 
projecting  a  little  beyond  anterior  margins  of  ])ronotum,  which 
is  not  longer  than  broad  at  base,  deflected  and  narrowed 
anteriorly,  its  posterior  margin  a  little  sinuate;  scutellum 
broad,  subtriangular,  about  as  broad  at  base  as  long  ;  corium 
very  slightly  laterally  ampliate;  membrane  a  little  longer 
than  abdomen  and  with  several  basal  cells;  anterior  femora 
incrassate,  slightly  longer  than  the  anterior  tibiae. 

Tamasanha  limhata)  sp.  n. 

Head  above  dark  ochraceous,  punctate,  shaded  with  piceous 
at  basal  margin,  ocelli  red,  eyes  black;  antennae  ochraceous, 
extreme  bases  of  first  and  second  joints  black,  fourth  joint 
brownish ;  pronotura  ochraceous,  coarsely  punctate,  two 
transverse  spots  on  anterior  disk  and  six  spots  on  posterior 
margin  black  ;  scutellum  ochraceous,  sparingly  coarsely 
punctate,  with  nearly  basal  half  black  and  palely  pilose ; 
corium  ochraceous,  finely  punctate  and  pilose,  the  lateral 
margins  stramineous  and  impunctate,  and  with  a  narrow 
transverse  black  line  on  apical  margin  ;  tegmina  dark 
greyish,  paler  on  lateral  margins;  body  beneath  black,  some- 
what thickly  ochraceously  pilose,  posterior  margins  of  the 
sternal  segments  ochraceous ;  legs  ochraceous,  femora  (ex- 
cluding bases  and  apices)  and  bases  and  apices  of  tibiae  dark 

Long.  4  mm. 

Hah.  Transvaal  J  Pretoria  {G.  I.  Swierstra,  Pret.  Mus. 
and  Coll.  Dist.). 

292  Mr.  W.  L.  Distant  on 

Fara.  Tingididse. 
Piesma  bicolorata,  sp.  n. 

Head  and  antennae  ocliraceous,  eyes  black;  pronotum 
purplisli  brown,  the  anterior  margin,  two  anterior  central 
ridges,  and  anterior  lateral  areas  stramineous,  the  latter  with 
two  small  marginal  dark  spots;  hemelytra  pale  ochraceous, 
much  spotted  with  purplish  brown  except  at  basal  and 
sutural  areas ;  body  beneath  (imperfectly  seen  in  carded 
specimen)  stramineous,  lateral  sternal  areas  purplish  brown, 
a  lateral  abdominal  segmental  series  of  purplisli- brown  spots, 
the  legs  ochraceous  ;  basal  joint  of  antennte  strongly  incras- 
sate,  mucli  longer  than  second,  which  is  short  and  moderately 
thickened,  third  joint  longest,  fourth  longer  than  second, 
thickened,  pyriform  ;  pronotum  thickly  and  coarsely  punc- 
tate except  on  anterior  marginal  and  anterior  lateral  areas, 
two  lateral  central  longitudinal  carinations  not  extending 
behind  middle,  and  on  each  side  of  these  anteriorly  an 
obliquely  transverse  foveation  ;  apex  of  claval  area  fuscous  ; 
veins  to  sutural  area  purplish  brown. 

Long.  2^  mm. 

Hab.  Transvaal;  Pretoria  (Fret.  Mus.  and  Coll.  Dist.). 

This  species  is  allied  to  P.  diluta,  Stal,  which  I  have  else- 
where figured  *.  Mr.  Swierstra  has  sent  me  a  specimen 
which  was  taken  at  Pretoria. 

Fam.  Reduviidae. 
Cerilocus  waterhcrgensis^  sp.  n. 

Body  above  black,  beneath  piceous ;  head,  anterior  lobe  of 
pronotum,  scutellum,  rostrum,  prosternuni,  coxae,  and  legs 
sanguineous  ;  antennie,  disks  of  sternum  and  abdomen  dull 
ochraceous;  connexivum  piceous  brown;  eyes,  area  of  ocelli, 
and  anterior  margin  of  pronotum  black ;  antenna  finely 
pilose,  second  and  third  joints  subequal  in  length  ;  area  of 
the  ocelli  a  little  gibbous;  pronotum  with  the  anterior  angles 
obtusely  prominent,  anterior  lobe  moderately  gibbous,  poste- 
rior lobe  with  the  lateral  angles  subacute,  both  lobes  centrally 
longitudinally  impressed,  the  impression  reaching  neither  the 
anterior  nor  posterior  margin;  scutellum  prominently  foveate 
at  base,  the  lateral  margins  broadly  ridged,  the  apex  ter- 
minating in  an  upwardly  directed  spine;  corium  and  tegmina 

*  Aun.  S.  Afr.  Mus.  ii.  t.  xv.  lig.  1. 


some  I'.thiopiuH  Ulii/tichoUt.  29.'» 

dull  opaque  ;  anterior  tibiju  and  fi'inora  (excluding  trochanters) 
of  equal  length. 

liong.  19  mm. 

Ilah.  Transvaal  ;  Waterberg  {Zatrzenha,  Fret.  Mus.  and 
Coll.  Dist.). 

Fani.  SaldidsB. 
Genus  Vallerolia. 

Vallcrnlia,  Dist.  Fiuni.  B.  I.,  Rhynch.  ii.  p.  40-5  (li)Ol). 
Leptopits,  l>cr;.'-r.   (nee  Latr.)   Wien.   entoin.   Zeit.   xxv.   p.  8  (1900)  ; 
Rent.  Die  Klassif.  der  Capsiden,  p.  3  (1905). 

The  genus  Vallerolia  was  founded  and  placed  in  the 
SaldinfB,  to  which  it  belongs  by  possessing  only  t'.vo  ocelli, 
the  Leptopime  possessing  three.  Bergroth,  in  some  miscel- 
laneous assertions  {suprh)^  has  strongly  declared  it  to  be 
congeneric  with  Leptopus^  Latr.,  and  Reuter  {supra)  supports 
this  contention  in  a  footnote  to  a  paper  defending  and  advo- 
cating his  classificatory  views  on  the  CapsidaB.  As  the 
question  has  a  remote  Ethiopian  interest  it  may  be  referred 
to  here. 

In  1878  Costa  described  a  species  as  Leptopus  assuanensis, 
which  Reuter  redescribed  as  L.  niloticus  in  1881,  and  Bergroth 
once  more  described  as  L.  strigipes  in  1891.  Both  the  two 
latter  writers  in  correcting  themselves  have  sought  to  add  my 
Vallerolia  Greeni  from  Ceylon  to  the  list  of  synonyms.  In 
describing  Vallerolia  I  gave  the  ocelli  as  only  two  in  number, 
and  fearing  (after  perusing  the  indictments  of  Bergrotii  and 
Reuter)  that  1  might  have  overlooked  a  third,  1  placed  the 
type  of  the  genus  under  a  microscope,  and,  with  these  con- 
ditions, sought  the  opinion  of  Mr.  E.  E.  Austen,  the  well- 
known  dipterist,  and  of  Mr.  E.  Waterhouse,  an  experienced 
British  coleopterist,  who  were  also  both  satisfied  that  the 
number  of  the  ocelli  was  hoo. 

It  therefore  follows  that  if  V.  Greeni  is  really  the  same 
species  as  the  synonyms  of  Leptopus  assuanensis  created  by 
Reuter  and  Bergroth,  it  is  they  who  have  failed  to  recognize 
the  proper  genus  and  have  placed  their  synonyms  in  the 
wrong  subfamily,  for  Leptopus  is  known  as  possessing  three 
ocelli,  though  neither  of  ray  critics  has  alluded  to  the  number 
of  ocelli  in  his  synonymical  descriptions. 

Ann  (fc  Mag,  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  21 

204  Mr.  0.  Tliomas  on 

XL. —  On  some  African  Bats  and  Rodents. 
By  Oldfield  Thomas. 

Kerivoula  muscilla,  sp.  ii. 

Size  very  small.  Ears  short,  laid  forward  in  the  spirit- 
specimen  they  barely  reach  to  the  tip  of  the  muzzle;  their 
breadth  equal  to  their  length  ;  inner  margin  strongly  convex, 
outer  with  a  well-marked  emargination  above,  convex  below. 
Tragus  as  in  Dobson'a  second  group,  a  small  basal  lobule 
present,  very  much  as  in  A".  Smithii ;  inner  margin  evenly 
convex,  outer  slightly  concave.  Limbs  short,  less  strikingly 
delicate  than  usual ;  upper  surface  of  forearms  and  proximal 
part  of  the  digits  and  of  hind  limbs  and  feel  clothed  with  fine 
golden-brown  hairs.  Wings  to  the  base  of  tlie  toes.  Poste- 
rior edge  of  interfemoral  with  a  fringe  of  sliort  curved  hairs 
growing  from  its  under  surface.  Prepuce  tufted  with  long 

Fur  long,  brownish  grey  above  and  below,  so  far  as  can  be 
made  out  on  a  spirit-specimen. 

Inner  upper  incisors  slender,  practically  unicuppid,  a 
rudiment  of  a  secondary  cusp  present  about  halfway  up  the 
hinder  aspect  ;  outer  incisors  long,  nearly  as  long  as  the  inner 
ones,  each  with  a  minute  external  basal  secondary  cusp. 
Two  small  upper  and  three  lower  premolars  subequal  inter  se. 
Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  on  the  spirit-specimen) : — 
Forearm  27  mm. 

Head  and  body  37  ;  tail  33;  head  1-4;  ear  10;  tragus  on 
inner  edge  6  ;  third  linger,  metararpus  26*5,  first  ])halanx 
13*5,  second  phalanx  15;  lower  leg  and  hind  foot  (c.  u.)  17  5  ; 
calcar  16. 

Hah.  Ja  River,  Southern  Cameroons. 

Type.  Adult  male.  Collected  22nd  December,  1005,  by 
Mr.  G.  L.  Bates.     One  specimen. 

This  little  Kerivoula  is  readily  distinguishable  from  any 
African  s])ecies  hitherto  described  by  its  small  size,  the 
presence  of  an  interfemoral  fringe,  and  its  long  outer  incisors. 
Dobson's  K.  a/ricana  agrees  with  it  in  some  respects,  but  is 
said  to  have  a  tragus  as  in  K.  Ilardioickei  and  ears  "  longer 
than  the  head  "  *. 

*  By  ill  is  expression  Dobson  appears  always  to  have  meant  that  the 
ears  when  laid  forward  extended  beyond  tho  tip  of  the  muzzle. 

African  Bats  and  Rodents.  295 

T/ie  Giant  Squirrels  of  JVestern  Africa, 

The  following  is  a  rougli  key  to  the  diirerent  forms  o( 
African  giant  squirrel : — 

A.  Fore  limbs  red  above,  as  well  as  hind.  .Skull 
with  very  long  muzzle,  narrow  slit-like 
anteorbital  foramina,  and  small  bulhe. 

n.  Crown  red.     (Gold  Coast.) Funisciiirus  Ehii,  Temni. 

b.  Crown  frrcy,  like  fore-back.     (Gaboon  and 

French  Congo.)    F.  Wllsoni,  l)u  Ch. 

J?.  Fore  limbs  not  red  above.     Skull  with  short 
muzzle,  large  rounded  anteorbital  foramina, 
and  large  bull;©. 
a.  General   colour   above   yellow   or  straw- 
colour  ;  hind  feet  yellow. 
d^.  Crown  hoary  grey.     (Fernando  Po  and 

Gaboon.) <S'c7'«r(('{-S')'^(H/7^/7',\Vaterh. 

(Syn.  6'.  Nonlhojfi,  l)u  Ch.) 
fc^.  Crown  yellow,  like  back.    (N.Angola.).  S.  S.  loundcejUnhs'^.  n. 
h.  General  colour  usually  blackish,  speckled 
with  yellow  or  fulvous;  hind  feet  red. 
a}.  Sides  of  neck  below  ears  white;  a  white 
line  edging  the  belly. 
a^.  Ticking    of    dorsal     hairs    fulvous. 
Inner    side    of    forearms    whitish. 

(Gold  Coast.)    S.  S.  Tcmminckii,  And. 

fc'.  Ticking   of  dorsal    hairs  yellowish. 
Inner    side     of     forearms    rufous. 

(Lower  Niger.)    S.  S.  niyerlcs,  subsp.  n. 

//■*.  Sides  of  neck  below  ears  greyish  brown ; 

line  along  sides  of  belly  hoary  grey. 

rt'.  Size  larger ;    yellowish  sult'asion  of 

back   not   extending  on  to  crown. 

(Cameroons,   Gaboon,   and   French 

Congo.) S.  S.  eborironis,  Du  Ch. 

{Syn.  S.  calliurus,  Pet.) 
b^.  Size  smaller ;  yellowish  suffusion  of 
back     extending     on     to     crown. 
(Uganda.)     S.  S.  centn'cola,  subsp.  n. 

I  can  find  no  reason  to  distinguish  Du  Chaillu^s  S.  Nord- 
ho-ffi  (tyi)e  B.M.  no.  67.  9.  5.  1)  from  the  insular  S.  Stangeri, 
though  the  form  occurring  further  south  in  Angola  seems 
separable.  But  with  regard  to  Peters's  >S'.  calliurus,  it  is  to 
be  noted  that  two  specimens  from  the  Como  River  differ  from 
the  series  from  the  Benito  by  the  larger  size  oJ  their  ante- 
orbital foramina,  which  may  indicate  that  the  more  northern 
of  the  two  should  be  separated  from  the  southern ;  Peters''s 
name  would  then  apparently  apply  to  the  former. 

With  regard  to  the  placing  of  all  these  six  true  Sciuri  as 
geographical   forms  or   subspecies   of  one  species,  the  links 


296  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on 

between  one  and  another  seem  to  be  so  complete  that  I  have 
failed  to  recognize  any  division  of  more  than  subspecific  rank. 
At  first  it  appeared  that  at  least  the  dark  forms  with  red  feet 
{eborivorus)  might  be  separated  specifically  from  the  straw, 
coloured  ones  with  yellow  feet  {Stangeri),  but  the  animal  I 
have  named  nigerice  is  really  practically  as  yellow  as 
Stcuigeri,  while  it  has  the  red  feet  of  eborivorus  and  the  white 
neck-patches  of  Temviinckii.  A^ain,  an  Eastern  Congo 
specimen  has  a  yellow  Stangeri  back  with  red  eborivorus  feet, 
but  is  without  white  neck-patches.  As  to  distribution,  there 
is  as  yet  no  evidence  that  both  Stangeri  and  eborivorus  forms 
occur  in  any  one  district,  though  the  ranges  of  the  two  types 
largely  overlap. 

The  recognition  of  Wilsoni  as  a  Funisciurus  and  of 
Stangeri  as  a  true  Sciurus  is  due  to  Mr.  de  VVinton,  who 
wrote  some  notes  on  the  group  in  1898  *. 

The  following  are  descriptions  of  the  new  subspecies  : — 

Sciurus  Stangeri  loandce. 

Size  and  general  characters  quite  as  in  true  Stangeri^ 
though  the  yellow  of  the  hinder  back  is  raiher  more  vivid. 
Head,  instead  of  turning  hoary  grey  on  the  crown,  simply 
becoming  paler  and  more  whitish  yellow  than  the  back  ;  a 
dull  yoUowish  patch  behind  each  ear,  and  the  ears  themselves 
yellow  rather  than  brown.  Cheeks  whitish  or  greyish  white. 
Line  edging  body-hairs  along  sides  of  belly  well-marked, 
white.  Feet,  especially  the  anterior,  more  strongly  sutfused 
with  yellow  above.     Other  characters  as  in  true  Stangeri. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  285  mm. ;  tail  380  ;  hind  foot  66  ;  ear  21. 

Skull:  greatest  length  68;  condylo-basilar  length  57; 
length  of  upper  tooth-series  11*5. 

Ilab.  Northern  Angola.     Type  from  Cinhoca. 

Type.  Adult  male.  B.M.  no.  4.  4.  9.  42.  Original  num- 
ber 199.  Collected  12th  December,  1903,  by  Dr.  W.  J. 

This  is  the  only  form  of  the  whole  series  which  has  not  got 
the  characteristic  contrasted  grey  head  which  caused  Tem- 
niinck  to  give  the  preoccupied  name  of  caniceps  to  the  Gold- 
Coast  animal. 

Sciurus  Stangeri  nigerice. 

Similar  to  the  Gold-Coast  form  of  this  group,  S.  S.  Tern- 
minclcii,  Anderson  t,  in  the  extension  of  the  white  throat-patch 

*  Ann.  &  Map.  Nat.  Hist.  (7)  ii.  p.  11. 
f  S,  caniceps,  Temm.,  nee  Gray. 

African  Bals  and  Rodents.  207 

on  tlie  sides  of  tlie  neck  nearly  up  to  tlie  lower  edge  of  the 
ear  and  in  the  presence  of  a  distinctly  white  line  alon^  the 
edges  of  the  bc»dy-fur  at  the  sick^s  of  the  belly,  but  distin- 
guislied  Ijy  the  li^ht  s|)eckling  ot  the  back  bein^- yellowish  or, 
at  most,  lulvoiis  instead  of  strung-  rufous  and  by  the  inner 
surface  of  the  forearms  being-  orange-rufous  instead  of 
whitish.  Patch  behind  ear  dull  orange-rufous.  Crown  dark 
hoary  grey.  Upper  surface  of  hands  blackish,  finely  ticked 
with  orange,  of  feet  orange-rufous,  becoming  rich  rufous 

Dimensions  of  the  tyjie  (measured  in  skin)  : — 

Head  and  body  310  mm.  ;  tail  (doubtfully  perfect)  300  j 
hintl  foot  6-4. 

Skull:  greatest  length  68;  condylo-basilar  length  5G'5; 
length  of  tooth-row  10"3. 

llnh.  Abutseiii,  Lower  Niger. 

Type.  Adult  male.  B.M.  no.  2.  11. 10.  10.  Collected  by 
]\lr.  Alexander  Brahum. 

In  its  yellowish  general  colour  this  animal  corresponds  with 
true  JStatigeri,  while  resembling  members  of  the  ehorivorus 
group  in  its  neck-patches  and  reddish  feet, 

Sciurus  Stangeri  centricola. 

Size,  as  judged  by  skull,  rather  less  than  in  true  western 
ehorivorus.  Colours  rich  and  bright  throughout,  the  fulvous 
suffusion  of  the  back,  often  confined  in  true  ehorivorus  to  the 
rump  and  never  extending  beyond  the  nape,  more  rufous  iu 
tone  and  carried  forward  on  the  head  to  between  the  eyes. 
Line  along  edge  of  belly  not  conspicuous,  hoary  grey. 
Yellowish  or  rufous  of  limbs  at  a  maximum  everywhere,  the 
hind  feet  especially  rich  rufous. 

Skull  similar  to  that  of  IS.  ehorivorus,  but  rather  smaller. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (taken  on  the  skin)  : — 

liead  and  body  (overstretched)  310  mm.;  tail  330;  hind 
foot  61. 

Skull :  greatest  length  Qi^b ;  condylo-basilar  length  55  ; 
Lngth  of  tooth-row  11*2. 

Hah.  Entebbe,  Uganda. 

Type.  Old  female.  B.M.  no.  6.  3.  8.  24.  Original  number 
74.  Collected  7th  October,  lUOo,  by  E.  Degen.  iSix 
specimens,  of  which  the  first  were  obtained  by  Mr.  F.  J. 
Jackson  in  1905. 

Funisciurus  paUiatus  Lastiij  subsp.  n. 
Distinguished  from  other  forms  of  F.  palUatus  by  having 
black  hands  and  teet. 

298  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on 

Size  and  general  coloin-  as  in  tlie  darker  forms  of  F.  palli- 
otus,  the  dorsal  colour  closely  matching  that  of  F,  p.  ornatus, 
■vviiile  the  belly  is  a  little  darker  and  richer  than  in  any  of 
them,  nearly  matching  the  maroon-red  of  the  tail  of  F.  p.  or- 
natus. Muzzle,  forearms,  inner  sides  of  hind  limbs,  and  end 
of  tail-hairs  all  of  the  same  rich  maroon-red  ;  but  the  upper 
surface  of  the  hands  and  feet,  instead  of  being  also  red,  are 
deep  glossy  black  without  trace  of  red,  the  change  at  the 
wrists  and  ankles  being  apparently  abrupt,  though  there  are 
micioscopic  red  tips  to  some  of  the  hairs  on  the  metapodials. 

Skull  and  dentition  as  usual,  except  that  the  top  of  the 
muzzle  is  flattir,  less  bowed  downwards,  and  the  molars 
appear  to  be  rather  narrower  than  in  the  mainland  subsiiecies. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  : — 

Hind  foot,  s.  u,,  (c.)  49  mm. 

Skull :  greatest  length  51 ;  length  of  molar  series  exclusive 
of/ 8-8. 

Jlah.  Zanzibar  Island. 

Type.  Adult  male.  B.M.  no.  6.  6.5.  21.  Collected  and 
presented  by  J.  T.  Last,  Esq. 

This  squirrel  is  so  abruptly  different  from  any  of  the  forms 
of  F.  j^aiiicitns  by  its  black  instead  of  red  hands  and  feet  that 
ii'any  naturalists  would  think  a  binomial  should  be  used  for 
it  ;  but  it  is  so  essentially  a  member  of  the  palliatus  group 
that  I  prefer  to  regard  it  as  a  subspecies,  especially  as  faint 
indications  of  red  may  be  found  on  its  feet  and  also  slight 
traces  of  black  on  those  of  F.  p.  sua/ielicus,  its  nearest 

In  Mr.  Oscar  Neumann's  account  *  of  the  subspecies  of 
F.  palliatus  he  records  F.  p.  suaheJicus  from  Zanzibar ;  but  if 
his  specimens  were  reall}' obtained  in  the  island  lie  must  have 
overlooked  the  very  material  difference  in  the  coloration  of  the 

Mus  BrocTcmaniy  sp.  n. 

A  medium-sized  pale  grey  species,  with  a  very  long 
pencilled  tail. 

Size  and  general  proportions  very  much  as  in  M.  Ver- 
rtaitxi  of  the  Cape.  Fur  of  medium  length  j  the  ordinary 
liaiis  of  the  back  about  9  mm.  in  length,  the  isolated  longer 
hairs  12  mm.  General  colour  above  pale  buffy  grey,  })aler 
than  Eidgway^s  "  drab-grey,"  the  light  rings   to  the  iiairs 

*  SB.  Ges.  nat.  Fr.  lliil.  lOOJ,  p.  17ti. 

African  Bats  and  Rodents.  299 

croaiii-l)iifl'.  Siilcs  lighter.  l^clly  wliitc,  with  a  slight 
creamy  tiii;;e,  the  hairs  ahmg  its  s'uh'.n  slaty  at  base,  those  on 
the  thiMat,  chest,  and  niichlh;  area  of  belly  white  to  the  roots. 
Ears  ahiiost  nakeil,  their  substance  greyish  brown.  Upper 
yiu-f'ace  of  hands  and  feet  i)ure  white  ;  fifth  hind  toe  witliout 
claw  reaching  to  the  end  of  the  basal  phalanx  of  the  fourth. 
Tail  very  long,  finely  scaled  (15-16  rings  to  the  cm.),  thinly 
haired  basally,  the  hairs  lengthening  on  the  terminal  half  of 
the  tail  to  form  a  distinct  pencil,  of  which  the  individual 
hairs  are  about  2^  nun.  long;  in  colour  the  tail  is  sharply 
b.color,  brown  above  and  white  beneath  for  its  whole  length. 
Skull,  as  compared  with  other  African  medium-sized 
species,  characterized  by  a  rather  flatter  brain-case  than 
usual,  the  ])arietals  being  less  markedly  convex ;  supra- 
orbital edges  TDunded  anteriorly,  square,  not  ridged,  poste- 
riorly. Palatal  foramina  widely  open,  their  posterior  end  not 
narrowed.  Mastoid  portion  of  bulla,  as  usual  in  this  group, 
well  defined  from  the  sides  of  the  supraoccipital,  with  a  fair- 
sized  vacuity  at  its  up{)er  end. 

Teeth    as  in    the   allied  species,  tlie  antero-internal    cusp 
of  ni^    large   and   well    defined,   the  antero-external  minute. 
J/'  with  \\\c  usual  trieusj)id  interior  edge. 
Dimensions  in  the  flesli  : — 

Head  and  body  108  mm. ;   tail  161  ;  hind  foot  22  ;  ear  18. 
Skull  :  greatest  length  2\)'D  ;   basilar  length  23  ;  zygomatic 
breadth  14  ;  interorbital   breadth  4'2  ;   height  of   brain-case 
from  basilar  suture  7  6  ;  palatilar  length  12*6  ;  diastema  7*6; 
j)alatal  foramina  6'2  x  2*2;   length  of  upper  molar  series  4*5. 
Iluk  Upper  Sheikh,  British  Somaliland.     Alt.  4500'. 
Tt/pe.  Adult   male.     B.M.   no.     Collected   2ord 
Kovember,  1905.     Presented  by  Dr.  R.  E.  Drake-Brockman. 
This    mouse    is    readily    distinguishable    from    all    other 
members  of  the  gnius  by  its  pale  colour  above,  whiter  belly, 
and  long  feathered  bicolor  tail. 

Of  other  hairy  tailed  species  which  may  have  a  relationship 
to  it,  31.  and  M.  albipes  have  grey  bellies,  besides 
being  darker  above,  while  J/,  auriconis,  which  has  a  white 
belly,  has  its  general  body-colour  fulvous. 

Dr.  Drake-Brockman  has  contributed  a  considerable 
number  of  interesting  Somali  animals  to  the  National 
Collection,  and  1  have  much  pleasure  in  connecting  his  name 
with  this  very  pretty  little  species. 

300  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on  neio 

XLI. — N(W  Mammals  collected  in  North-east  Africa  hif 
Mr.  Zaphiro,  and  presented  to  the  Jiritish  Museum  by 
W.  N.  M'^Miilan,  Esq.     By  Oldfield  Tuomas,  F.R.S. 

Besides  tlie  remarkable  bat,  Platymops  Macmillani,  already 
described*,  Mr.  Ph.  C  Zaphiro  obtained  during  his  trip  from 
Adis  Abbaba  to  Lake  Rudolf  the  following  new  species  of 
Mammalia.  The  type  specimens  of  all  of  them  have  been 
j)resented  to  the  British  Museum  by  Mr.  W.  N.  M'Millan,  by 
whose  generosity  Mr.  Zaphiro  was  enabled  to  make  this 
important  exploration. 

Ilelogale  Macmillani,  sp.  n. 

A  very  finely  speckled  form  allied  to  //.  undulata  and 

Size  as  in  the  two  related  species.  Fur  rather  short,  the 
longest  hairs  of  the  back  barely  attaining  13  mm.  in  lengtli 
and  the  shorter  ones  about  8  mm.  General  colour  above 
between  broccoli-brown  and  Mars  brown,  warmer  than  the 
Ibrmer,  greyer  than  the  latter  ;  finely  ticked  with  minute 
buffy  specks,  terminal  or  subterminal  on  the  dorsal  hairs,  the 
specks  far  finer  than  in  the  allied  species  and  each  measuring 
less  than  1  millimetre  in  length.  Under  surface  near 
Piout's  brown,  with  scarcely  any  speckling,  a  faintly  warmer 
linge  (Mars  brown)  on  the  tips  of  the  hairs.  Crown  finely 
ticked  Prouf's  brown,  becoming  ]\Iars  brown  or  verging 
towards  russet  on  the  sides  of  the  face,  lips,  chin,  ears,  and 
on  areas  round  and  behind  the  last-named  parts.  Limbs  to 
wrists  and  ankles  like  the  body;  upper  surface  of  hands  and 
feet  russet,  without  speckling.  Tail  speckled  bistre,  a  russet 
line  on  the  under  surface  proximally,  and  a  few  russet  hairs 
mixed  with  the  })encil  at  the  tip. 

Skull  and  dentition  as  in  the  above-named  species. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  "  182 '' f  mm.;  tail  159;  hind  foot  41 ; 
ear  20. 

iSkull :  length  of  nasals  6;  interorbital  breadth  9  ;  front  of 
canine  to  back  of  /;/"  lO'G. 

Hab.  Delbena  K.,  Konso.     Alt.  3200'. 

Tyjje.  iSubadult  male.  Original  number  1-il.  Collected 
26th  August,  11)05. 

This  species  is  intermediate  in  colour,  as   in  geograpliical 

*  Ami.  k  Mag.  Xat.  Hist.  (7)  xvii.  p.  oOO  (lOOO). 

t  Evidently  uiidermeajiuvd  ;  luust  be  at  least  2U0  or  I'J.")  mm. 

Mdiniiuds  from  Norlli-easl.  Africa.  301 

position,  between  the  ^vey  II.  Atkinsoni  of  Somaliland  and 
the  more  rufous  J  I.  xtndidata  of  British  and  German  Elast 
Al'rica  ;  but  the  unusually  fine  speekling  of  the  body-cohiur 
is  peculiar  to  it.  In  dinitition  it  corresponds  closely  with 
JI.  Atkinson  if  and  differs  equally  from  the  broad-toothed 
//.  hi r tula. 

Ictonyx  capensis  shoo;,  subs  p.  n. 

Size  largo,  sliglitly  exceeding  tliat  of  true  capensiti,  tliere- 
fore  markedly  different  from  the  small  erijthreoi,  de  Wint.,  of 
Suakin.  General  marking  normal,  the  black  lines  clearly 
defined,  little  softened  by  isolated  wiiite  hairs  or  by  the  ti[)s 
of  the  hairs  of  the  white  areas  overhanuinff  them.  Frontal 
spot  of  medium  size,  larger  than  in  true  capensis,  about  an 
inch  long  by  half  an  inch  bioad,  running  back  in  a  point 
towards  the  crown,  separated  on  each  side  from  the  post- 
orbital  white  mark  by  about  half  an  inch  of  pure  sharply- 
defined  black.  In  eri/th-ece  the  median  white  spot  more 
nearly  approaches  the  lateral  ones.  Outer  white  stripes  of 
nape  markedly  broader  than  the  inner.  Tail  rather  less 
white  than  in  other  subspecies. 

Skull  apj)areiitly  rather  more  elongate  in  general  outline 
than  in  some  of  the  allied  forms. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  395  mm.;  tail  298;  hind  foot  64;  ear  30. 

Skull  :  condylo-basal  length  69  ;  basal  length  63  ;  greatest 
breadth  45  ;  intcrorbital  breadth  DS ;  mastoid  breadth  36*3  ; 
palatal  length  32*3  ;   length  of  upper  //  on  outer  edge  7"7. 

A  younger  male  skull,  with  nasal  sutures  still  open, 
measures  66*5  mm.  in  condylo-basal  length,  and  a  female  of 
about  equal  immaturity  62*5. 

Hah.  Adis  Abbaba.     Alt.  8500', 

Ttjpe.  Old  male.  Original  number  6.  Collected  loth 
September,  1904. 

"  Trapped  in  a  Galla  house  near  the  legation." 

This  torm  of  Ictonyx  differs  by  its  larger  size  from  the 
Ked-Sea  erythrem,  while  by  the  well-marked  black  band 
separating  the  frontal  from  tiie  lateral  white  face-markings  it 
is  distinguishable  from  the  intermedia  of  Uganda  and  British 
East  Africa,  in  which  these  white  areas  are  scarcely  separated 
from  each  other  or  even  form  an  uninterrupted  band  across 
the  face. 

Xerus  ruiilus  sttpJianicus,  subsp.  n. 
General    characters   as  in    true   rutilas,   but   the   grizzled 

302  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on  new 

yellowish  grey — restricted  in  tliat  form  to  the  centre  of  tlie 
back — is  sin-ead  over  the  whole  of  the  upper  surface,  so  tliat 
the  pink  area  along  the  sides  is  reduced  to  a  narrow  strip,  or 
even  occasionally  absent,  tlie  rufous  of  the  forearms  and  hips 
being  in  sucli  cases  isolated  from  each  other.  Base  of  tail 
coloured  like  back.  Hands  slightly  suffused  with  rufous  ; 
feet  yellowisli  white. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  skin)  : — 

Head  and  body  215  mm.  ;  tail  180;  hind  foot  53. 

Skull :  greatest  length  53  ;  length  of  upper  tooth-series  9*7. 

Ilab.  Between  N.  end  of  L.  Rudolf  and  L.  Steplianie. 
Type  from  the  latter.     Alt.  2000'. 

T^j)e.  Adult  male.  Original  number  132.  Collected 
IStii  August,  1905. 

Tiiese  ground-squirrels  are  by  no  means  easy  to  sort  into 
geographical  races,  owing  partly  to  their  variability  and 
partly  to  tiieir  liability  to  bleaching,  the  black  parts  of  the 
fur  bleaching  through  rufous  and  fawn  to  pale  sandy,  so  as  to 
give  a  wholly  different  appearance  to  specimens  killed  before 
or  after  the  moult.  But  by  a  careful  comparison  of  specimens 
all  in  fresli  fur  I  find  tliat  the  series  from  the  Stephanie  area 
differ  sufficiently  on  the  average  from  those  representing  true 
rutilus  to  make  a  local  name  advisable,  though  some  examples 
show  evidence  of  intergradation.  The  other  named  forms  iu 
this  group — brachi/otus,  dahagalla,  I'ntensus^  and  saturalus — 
are  all  further  off,  both  geogra])liically  and  zoologically,  than 
the  true  rutilus  of  Eastern  Abyssinia. 

Otomys  tt/pus  fortior,  subsp.  n. 

By  the  kindness  of  Dr.  Lampert,  of  the  Stuttgart  Museum, 
I  have  been  entrusted  with  the  loan  of  the  typical  skull  of 
Hcuglin's  Ot'eomys  ti/pus,  and  I  regret  to  find  that  it  is  after 
all  ot  the  same  group  as  my  Otonii/s  JJeyeni,  Heuglin's  descrip- 
tion of  its  incisive  grooves  proving  to  be  grossly  inaccurate. 
Their  true  number  and  positions  are  as  described  in  0.  Degem^ 
and  this  latter  must,  I  fear,  be  regarded  as  a  synonym  of 
O.  typus. 

But  the  Kaffa  form  obtained  by  Mr.  Zaphiro,  thougli 
similar  to  typus  and  Dcgeni  in  all  essential  respects,  is  sutii- 
ciently  larger  to  make  me  think  it  should  have  a  special 
subspecific  name.  The  skull,  as  a  whole,  is  markedly  larger 
than  that  of  Degeni,  which  agrees  with  what  remains  of  the 
specimen  of  typus.  The  worn  surftice  of  the  upper  molars  is 
S"5  mm.  in  length,  as  compared  with  7*7  in  the  other  two. 
The  breadth  of  the  two  upjjcr  incisors,  taken  together,  is 
J.' 7  mm.  in  /ortiorj  -I'l  in  Degeni,  and  3" 7  in  typus. 

Mammals  from  Xurlh-east  Africa.  303 

There  is  no  evidence  of  any  marked  diffcronce  of  a<^e 
belweeii  the  three  skulls,  but,  it  anything,  the  type  of  typas 
is  the  oldest  of  all. 

In  colour  the  typo  o^  fort i or  is  rather  browner  tlian  tliat  of 
Decjeni,  the  feet  are  darker,  and  the  yellowish  markings  over 
the  eyes  and  on  and  behind  the  ears  are  practically  absent. 

^I'he  following  are  the  general  measuretnents  of  the  type : — 

Head  and  boily  182  mm.;  tail  97;  hind  foot  30  ;  ear  26. 

Skull:  greatest  length  39;  basilar  length  32"2;  greatest 
breadth  l'J'8  ;  jialatilar  length  18';j;  palatal  foramina  7"7  ; 
K'ni;th  of  upper  molars  (crowns)  i:)'5. 

Ilah.   Charada,  lv;iffa.      Alt.  6000'. 

Ti/pc.  Adult  female.  Original  number  102.  Collectel 
4tli"june,  1905. 

Tatera  I/arringloni,  sp.  n. 

Allied  to  T.  Enifiiij  Tlio^^.,  but  much  smaller. 

Size  very  small  for  a  Tatera.  General  colour  along  tlie 
dorsal  area  ebiy-colour,  darkened  by  the  minute  blackisli  tips 
to  the  hairs.  Sides  clearer,  more  nearly  "  pinkish  buflf,^'  the 
hairs  with  whitish  subterminal  bands.  Lower  part  of  muzzle 
pure  white,  the  same  region  in  Emini  being  more  or  less 
buffy.  A  patch  above  and  behind  each  eye  dull  whitish.  A 
white  patch  behind  each  ear.  Hands  and  feet  wdiite  as 
usual.  Soles  naked  jiosteriorly,  but  with  a  band  of  short 
hairs  crossing  them  near  the  base  of  the  hallux,  as  in  Emini 
alone  of  other  gerbilles.  Tail  unusually  well  tufted,  with 
long  brownish-black  hairs,  whicli  attain  a  length  at  the  tip 
of  about  14  mm.  ;  shorter  hairs  of  tail  dull  buHy  whitish. 

Skull  closely  similar  to  that  of  T.  Emiuij  but  conspicuously 
smaller  throughout. 

The  posterior  j)alatal  vacuities,  between  the  molars,  are, 
however,  much  narrower  than  the  anterior  palatal  foramina, 
while  in  T.  Emini  they  are  nearly  or  quite  as  broad  as  the 

Dimensions  of  the  ty[)e  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — • 

Head  and  body  96  mm. ;  tail  132  ;   hind  foot  28;   ear  19. 

Skull:  greatest  length  o0'7 ;  basilar  length  '12''6;  inter- 
orbital  breadth  6  ;  breadth  of  brain-case  14*2  ;  diastema  8*2  ; 
palatal  foramina  b'lx  2;  length  of  bulla  9  ;  length  of  upper 
molar  series  4"o. 

Hab.  Mutti  Galeh,  E.  of  Lake  Rudolf.     Alt.  2300'. 

Tyjie.  Adult  female.  Original  number  122.  Collected 
26th  July,  1905. 

"  Caught  in  dry  river-beJ." 

This  pretty  gerbiile  is  allied  only  to  T.  Emini,  with  which 

304  Mr.  0.  Thomas  on  new 

it  sliares  the  peculiar  and  liitherto  unique  character  of  the 
hairy  band  passing  across  the  sole  and  dividing  from  eacli 
other  the  smooth  posterior  part  and  the  distal  part  at  the  base 
ot"  the  toes,  where  the  tubercles  are  situated.  From  that 
species,  which  was  discovered  at  Wa  lehii  by  Emin  Pasha,  it 
is  at  once  distinguishable  by  its  much  smaller  size. 

Named  in  honour  of  Col.  Sir  Juhn  Harrington,  British 
Resident  in  Abyssinia,  without  whose  active  assistance 
Mr.  Zaphiro  would  hardly  have  b^en  able  to  carry  out  his 
successful  collecting-trip. 

Arvicanthis  rex,  sp.  n. 

A  very  large  species  without  dorsal  strlpp. 

Size  larger  than  in  any  other  species.  General  colour  of 
fore-back  between  hair-brown  and  smoke-grey,  resulting 
from  a  coarse  mixture  of  blackish  brown  and  creamy  white  ; 
posteriorly  the  light  colour  becomes  more  and  more  buffy,  so 
that  round  the  base  of  the  tail  and  on  the  lower  leg  it 
approaches  tawny  ochraceous.  Sides  lined  cream-butf. 
Under  surface  and  inner  side  of  limbs  white.  Forearms 
dull  buflfy ;  hands  pale  brown;  upper  side  of  feet  whitish 
laterally,  pale  tawny  along  the  middle  line.  Tail  blackish 
above,  dull  white  on  sides  and  below. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  :^ 

Head  and  body  212  mm. ;  tail  175 ;  hind  foot  3G  ;  ear  22. 

IJah.  Charada  Forest,  Kaffa.     Alt.  GOaO'. 

Tupe.  Adult  male.  Original  number  101.  Collected 
30th  May,  1905. 

This  is  a  remarkably  fine  species,  very  different  from 
anything  hitherto  described.  Its  colour  has  almost  a  sugges- 
tion of  silvery  blue-grey  in  it  not  easy  to  describe,  but  very 
characteristic,  while  at  the  same  time  its  unusual  size  and  the 
entire  absence  of  any  trace  of  a  darker  dorsal  band  will  distin- 
guish it  from  the  other  members  of  the  group.  Unfortunately 
the  skull  is  missing,  but  the  species  is  so  distinct  as  to  be 
readily  recognizable  by  its  external  characters. 

Lophui'omys  Zaphiri,  sp.  n. 

General  colour  above  greyish,  without  the  warmer  tones 
of  the  other  forms,  most  nearly  matching  "hair-brown''  of 
Kidgway ;  very  finely  speckled  with  buffy.  The  bases  of 
the  hairs  deep  rufous.  Under  surface  fawn,  more  or  less 
suffused  witli  butfy.  Upper  surface  of  hands  and  feet  dull 
whitish.  Tail  short,  strongly  tapering,  well  haired,  nnirkedly 
bicolor,  Ulaek  above,  whitish  below,  sharply  defined  laterally. 

^f(ll)ltn'll•i  from  Xorth-east  Africa.  305 

Skull  with  very  widely  open  palatal  foramina.  Molars 
aj)parciitly  rather  broader  than  usual. 

Dinieiisions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  139  mm.;  tail  60;   hind  foot  20;   ear  If). 

Skull :  greatest  leni;th  30  ;  basilar  leii;;th  2;j'2  ;  nasals  12  2; 
intororbital  breadth  G ;  Icni^th  of  palatal  foramina  Q-Q  ; 
lenn'th  of  upper  molar  series  5"(j. 

JIah.  Di.striet  east  of  the  Upper  Omo.  Type  from  Bodeli, 
Walamo.     Alt.  6200'. 

Type.  Subadult  male.  Original  number  145.  Collected 
15th  September,  1905. 

This  animal  may  be  distinguished  from  its  allies  by  its 
markctUy  greyer  colour  and  finer  speckling.  Ii  has  the  short 
tail  of  L.  Jlavopiinclafus. 

The  genus  Lophuromys  falls  readily  into  two  groups  of 
species — the  one  from  Eastern  Africa  (Abyssinia  to  Nyasa), 
with  speckled  fur,  and  the  other  Western  (Uganda  to  the 
Gold  Coast),  with  unspeckled  fur.  Whether  the  forms 
within  each  of  the  groups  will  be  found  to  intergrade  remains 
to  be  seen,  but  for  the  present  I  have  thought  it  best  to  use 
a  binomial  term  for  the  Eastern  Omo  animal. 

I  have  named  this  species  in  honour  of  Mr.  Ph.  C.  Zaphiro, 
the  collector,  who  deserves  the  greatest  credit  for  his  remark- 
able exploring-trip,  of  wliich  the  series  of  mammals  only 
forms  a  small  part  of  the  outcome. 

Lophuromys  aquilus  hrunneus,  subsp.  n. 

General  colour  pale  brownish,  without  the  yellowish  tone 
of  L.Jlavopunctatus,  the  liglit  rings  of  the  hairs  "  clay-colour.^' 
Under  surface  variable  as  usual,  ranging  from  pale  brown  to 
clay-colour.  Hands  and  feet  pale  brownish,  with  or  without 
a  central  dark  metatarsal  streak.  Tail  long  as  compared 
with  that  of  L.  flavopunctatus,  apparently  more  as  in  the 
East-African  aquilus,  its  colour  not  so  conspicuously  bicolor 
as  in  jlavopunctatus ,  the  under  surface  only  slightly  lighter 
than  the  upper. 

Dimensions  of  the  type  (measured  in  the  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  125  mm.;   tail  80;   hind  foot  23  ;  ear  20. 

Skull:  length  of  nasals  117;  interorbital  breadth  6"5  j 
diastema  8'5;  palatal  foramina  6'8x2'7;  length  of  upper 
molar  series  5*3. 

Hah.  District  west  of  the  Upper  Omo.  Type  from  Manno, 
Jimma.     Alt.  420o'. 

Tiipe.  Male.  Original  number  90.  Collected  13th  May, 

306  Capt.  R.  E.  Lloyd  on  the 

This  Loi>huromys  would  seem  to  be  a  paler  form  of  the 
strong-coloured  East-African  L.  aquilus.  Possibly  it  may  in 
turn  prove  to  grade  northwards  into  L.  jlavopunclatus,  but  all 
the  specimens  as  yet  available  have  longer  tails  than  that 

XLII. — JSatural  History  JSotes  from  the  R.I. M.S.  Ship 
'Investigator,^  Capt.  T.  11,  Ileminfj,  R.N.  [retired),  com- 
manding.— Series  III.,  No.  14.  Notes  on  the  Skull  of  the 
Genus  Aulastomatomor])lia,  with  Descriptions  of  some  new 
Deep-sea  Fish.  By  11.  E.  Lloyd,  M.B.,  13. Sc,  Capt. 
I. M.S.,  Surgeon- Naturalist,  Marine  Survey  of  India. 

The  genus  Aulastomatomorpha,  first  described  by  Alcock 
from  a  single  specimen  (Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.,  Oct.  1890), 
is  unique  among  the  Alepocephalidte  in  possessing  a  tubular 
snout  with  a  small  terminal  mouth. 

A  second  sj)ecimen  of  the  same  species  was  obtained  by  the 
'Investigator'  in  11)04  from  1100  fathoms  off  the  Arakaii 
coast,  and  in  the  following  year  a  new  species  of  this  genua 
was  obtained  from  1005  fathoms  in  the  Gulf  of  Oman. 

Material  has  been  thus  obtained  for  a  partial  description  of 
the  skull  of  this  genus  and  for  a  more  particular  description 
of  the  jaw  suspensory  apparatus,  which  can  be  fully  elucidated 
without  complete  disarticulation  and  destruction  of  t!ie 

A  notable  feature  in  the  structure  of  this  skull  is  the 
forward  position  of  the  quadrate  and  the  consequent  prolon- 
gation of  the  symplectic  and  prjBopercle  which  articulate 
with  it. 

The  quadrate  is  a  thin  fan-shaped  bone  situated  almost 
entirely  in  front  of  the  orbit,  articulating  with  the  pterygoid 
and  articular  in  front,  and  with  the  symplectic  and  the  pra3- 
opercle  behind.  The  large  pterygoid  is  partially  overlapped 
in  front  by  the  small  tootliless  palatine. 

The  mesopterygoid,  also  a  large  bone,  forms  most  of  the 
lower  floor  of  the  orbit ;  in  front  it  lies  to  the  inner  side  of 
and  above  the  quadrate  and  pterygoid. 

The  nietapterygoid,  a  small  bone,  lies  on  and  partially 
hides  the  symplectic. 

The  symplectic  is  of  unusual  length. 

The  maxilla,  which  is  very  loosely  connected  with  the 
snout,  consists  of  two  separate  crescentic  particles,  movable 
on  one  another. 

Shall  of  the  Genus  Aulastomatomorplia. 


Tlie  liyoiiiaiidihular  Iins  the  usual  articulations. 

Tlio  oixMcular  apparatus  consists  of  the  usual  four  bones. 
Tlie  j)r;voi)erclc  is  much  proh^nged  forward  to  articulate  with 
the  quadrate.  The  sub-  and  intcropercles  are  small  and 
linear.  The  opercle,  a  very  thin  triangular  bone,  bears  at  its 
up|)or  end  a  proji'cfing  knob,  wiiich  is  seen  externally  as  a 
well-marked  |)rominence  halfway  between  the  eye  and  the 
Uj)per  end  of  the  branchial  openint^. 

The  lower  jaw  contains  articular  angular  and  dentary 

The  upper  part  of  the  snout  is  formed  by  one  long  fibrous 
piece  of  bone  intimately  united  with  the  vomer  in  front  and 
dividing  at  the  base  of  the  snout  into  two  liml)s,  between 
which  tlie  fore  parts  of  the  frontals  fit.  This  long  bone  repre- 
sents an  ethmoid  and  two  lateral  ethmoids  ;  a  suture  separating 
these  elements  could  not  be  found. 

In  the  cranium  proper  the  supraoccipital  articulates  with 
the  frontals  and  lies  between  the  small  parietals,  separating 
them  from  each  other. 

The  frontals  are  not  fused  in  the  middle  line. 

Skull  of  Aulastomatomorpha  phosphoi-ops. 

Peference  letters. 

Q.  =  Quadrate. 

^»H.  =  nyomandibular. 


PAO.  =  Pterotic. 

^w.  =  Angular. 

£'.0.  =  Epiotic. 

i).  =  Ueutary. 

P.  =  Parietal, 

Pr.P.  =  Pterygoid. 

P'.  =  Frontal. 

Jlfs.P. =Mesopterygoid. 

S.  0.  =  Supraoccipital. 


i.JE'.  =  Lateral  ethmoid 

AS'.  =  Syinplectic. 

M.E.  =  Mesethmoid. 

P.0.  =  Prjeopercle. 

P/.  =  Palatine, 

1. 0.  =  Inter  opercle 

Mr.  =  Maxilla. 

S.  0.  =  Subopercle. 

P.Mr, =Premaxilla, 

0.  =  Opercle, 

30  8  Capt.  R.  E.  Lloyd  on  some 

Aulastoinatomorpha  cceruleiceps,  sp.  n. 

B.  D.  A.  P.  V. 

5  18  40  7  6 

Closely  resembles  A.  phosphoropsj  from  which  it  differs  In 
the  following  particulars  :  — 

1.  Tlie  premaxillary  teeth  are  fewer  in  number  and  are 
relatively  larger;  they  are  arranged  in  two  sets,  an  anterior 
closely  set  group  of  eight  or  nine,  and  a  posterior  group  of 
three  with  wide  intervals  between. 

2.  The  interorbital  space  is  wider  than  half  the  diameter  of 
the  eye. 

3.  The  head  is  covered  with  a  firm  smooth  skin  just  as  in 
A.  phosijhorops,  but  in  the  new  species  the  colour  of  this 
skin  is  a  dark  slatj^  blue.  The  colour  of  the  rest  of  the  body 
is  brownish  black.  The  bases  of  the  fins  have  a  blue  tinge. 
The  blue  colour  is  partially  preserved  in  spirit. 

4.  The  total  height  is  only  \  of  the  total  length  excluding 
the  caudal  fin,  but  as  this  specimen  is  smaller  and  younger 
than  the  type  of  A.  pihosphorops ,  this  character  does  not, 
perhaps,  constitute  a  specific  diflference. 

One  damaged  specimen,  18  cm.  long,  from  1005  fathoms 
in  the  Gulf  of  Oman. 

Tlie  wide  distribution  of  the  three  specimens  and  the  close 
similarity  in  the  depths  from  which  they  were  obtained  are 
points  worth  noting. 

Species.  Depth.  Locality. 

A.  phosphofops  (1st  specimen)  .  1000     Arabian  Sea,  oil' the  Laccadives. 

A.  pkosjjhorops  (2nd  specimen).  1100     Bay  of  Renp-al,  otf  Arakan. 

A.  ccendeiceps lOOo     Gulf  of  Oman,  off  Muscat. 

Narcetes  affinis^  sp.  n. 

B.        A.        D.        V.        P.       L.l. 
7        14        17         10        13        73        9+1+13 

Resembles  A^.  pluriseriaUs  (Gorman),  and  differs  from 
N.  erimelas  (Alcock)  in  the  following  particulars  :  — 

1.  There  are  seven  branchiostegal  rays. 

2.  The  first  ray  of  the  anal  fin  is  vertically  below  the 
eighth  ray  of  the  dorsal. 

3.  There  is  one  enlarged  tooth  on  either  side  of  the  vomer. 
In  all  its  proportions  this  species  resembles  iV.  pluriseriiUi's 

very  closely. 

It  differs  from  N.  plui'i'serialis  in  the  following  respects: — 
1.  The   teeth   in  the  maxillje  are   in   two  series,  an  outer 

series  of  small  teeth  and  an  inner  series  of  lariicr  ones. 

neiu  Defp-seu  Fish.  HOu 

2.  There  are  only  seventy-three  scales  in  the  hiteral  line. 

3.  The  anterior  of  the  two  nostrils  is  relatively  lar<^er. 
The  scales  of  the  lateral  line  are  large,  measuring  as  much 

as  i  inch  in  length. 

Ihe  total  length  of  the  single  specimen  is  14  inches. 

In  the  middle  and  hinder  parts  of  the  fish,  one  inch  of  the 
lateral  line  contains  six  scales,  hut  in  the  front  these  scales 
overlap  one  another  to  a  much  further  extent,  so  that  one 
inch  contains  eight  or  nine  scales. 

In  the  anterior  half  of  each  scale  of  the  lateral  line  is  the 
wide  opening  of  its  tube;  the  margin  of  this  opening  is 
completed  in  front  by  a  semicircular  notch  in  the  hinder  edge 
of  the  scale  which  lies  next  in  front. 

Colour  almost  black  ;   head  and  lining  of  gill  jet-black. 

One  specimen,  14  inches  long,  from  1005  fathoms  in  the 
(xulf  of  Oman. 

It  is  notable  that  N.  pluriseri'alis  (Gorm.),  which  this 
species  resembles  in  many  ways,  came  from  1010  fathoms  in 
the  Gulf  of  Panama. 

Rata  PhiJipi,  sp.  n. 

The  greatest  breadth  of  the  disk  is  equal  to  the  greatest 
length,  including  the  ventral  fins. 

The  ends  of  the  snout  and  tail  are  equidistant  from  the 
c'loacal  orifice.  The  snout  is  slender  and  prominent.  The 
interorbital  space  is  3§  in  the  length  of  the  snout,  measured 
from  an  eye  or  the  middle  of  the  mouth. 

The  anterior  borders  of  the  pectoral  fins,  which  are  some- 
what sinuous,  together  form  an  angle  of  about  85°. 

The  lateral  angles  are  rounded.  The  spiracle  is  large,  its 
greatest  diameter  equals  that  of  the  eye. 

Numerous  small  spinules  occur  on  the  upper  surface  of  the 
tip  of  the  snout  and  close  to  the  antero-lateral  margin  in  its 
posterior  half  only. 

The  superciliary  ridge  bears  four  spines  in  front  and  three 

There  are  five  mid-dorsal  spines  in  the  branchial  region. 

Between  the  ocellus  and  the  margin  of  the  pectoral  fin  is 
a  group  of  lanceolate  denticles  pointing  inwards  (probably 
characteristic  of  the  male). 

The  whole  lower  surface  of  the  snout  is  covered  with  fine 

On  the  dorsum  of  the  tail  are  three  somewhat  irregular 
rows  of  spines.  The  tail  is  naked  below,  the  sides  of  the  tail 
are  spiny. 

Ann.  tC-  Mag.  X.  Hist.  Ser.  7.    TW.  xviii.  22 

SJO  Capt.  R.  E,  Lloyd  on  some 

'i'lie  moutli  is  widely  but  distinctly  V-shaped  ;  in  width  it 
is  1|  in  the  length  of  the  snout. 

There  are  eighty  rows  of  teeth  in  the  upper  jaw  and  sixty 
in  the  lower.  Teeth  low  and  triangular,  on  a  rhomboidal 

The  edges  of  the  nasal  valves  are  deeply  fimbriated  and 
arc  united  across  the  middle  line  by  a  distinct  fold  of  skin, 
which  is  separated  from  the  upper  jaw  by  a  deep  curved 

The  dorsal  fins  are  equal  in  length  ;  the  distance  between 
them  is  greater  than  the  length  of  either.     Caudal  fin  small. 

Colour  uniform  brown  above,  with  a  dark  ocellus  at  the 
base  of  each  ]3ectoral  fin,  surrounded  by  a  paler  ring. 

Uniform  white  below;  the  tail  shows  dark  mottling  on  its 
lower  surface. 

One  small  male  specimen,  measuring  3G  cm.  in  its  greatest 
length  and  23  cm.  in  its  greatest  breadth,  was  taken  from 
130  fathoms  in  the  Gulf  of  Aden. 

Rai'a  reversa,  sp.  n. 

The  greatest  breadth  of  the  disk  is  equal  to  the  length 
from  the  snout  to  the  root  of  the  taih 

The  cloaca  is  slightly  nearer  the  end  of  the  snout  than  the 
end  of  the  tail. 

The  interorbital  space  is  ^  the  length  of  the  snout  measured 
from  an  eye  or  the  middle  of  the  moutli. 

The  anterior  borders  of  the  pectoral  fins  are  sinuous  and 
together  form  an  angle  of  about  80°. 

The  snout  is  prominent. 

The  lateral  angle  of  the  pectoral. fins  is  rounded. 

The  spiracle  is  large  ;  its  greatest  diameter  equals  that  of 
the  eye. 

The  skin  over  the  skull,  but  not  over  the  snout,  is  covered 
with  fine  denticles. 

The  anterior  half  or  more  of  the  pectoral  fins  is  covered 
witii  small  denticles. 

There  are  two  series  of  larger  spines  on  the  pectoral  iin^, 
one  series  of  about  twenty  opposite  the  shoulder-girdle  (male 
characteristic  probably)  and  another  of  about  fifteen  opposite 
the  eye. 

There  is  one  large  white  stellate  spine  in  front  of  the  eye 
and  two  or  three  smaller  ones  behind. 

'J'here  are  four  or  five  similar  spines  in  the  mid-dorsal  line. 

On  the  dorsum  of  the  tail  are  three  regular  rows  of  large 
spines,  those  of  the  middle  row  being  about  half  as  numerous 
as  those  of  the  lateral  rows. 

tieio  Decp-sed  Fish.  311 

Tlie  sides  of  llic  tail  are  apiiiy. 

Tlie  lower  surface  of  both  disk  and  tail  is  smo(;tlt  and 
devoid  of  spines. 

The  two  dorsal  fins  are  equal  in  length  and  are  in  contact 
at  their  bases ;  the  caudal  fin  is  a  minute  fold. 

The  tnoutli  is  transverse  in  its  outer  part  and  curved  in 
the  middle  ;  its  breadth  is  exactly  half  the  length  of  the 

There  are  forty-two  rows  of  teeth  across  both  upper  and 
lower  jaw. 

The  teeth  in  tlie  middle  of  the  series  are  loui;  and  curved  ; 
their  bases  are  heart-sha|)ed. 

Colours  in  the  fresh  state  : — The  upper  surface  of  the  disk  is 
pure  white,  passing  into  dark  grey  at  the  margin  of  the 
pectoral  tins.  The  upper  surface  of  the  pelvic  fins  and 
claspers  is  grey.  The  iris  is  black,  but  tlie  pupil  has  a  white 
milky  appearance  :  the  anatomical  cause  of  this  was  unfor- 
tunately not  made  out  in  the  fresh  state.  The  entire  lower 
surface  is  purplish  black.  In  consistency  the  whole  body  is 
soft  and  flabby  ;  when  taken  from  the  trawl  it  was  rolled  up 
in  a  cylindrical  posture. 

The  single  specimen  (a  male),  measuring  60  cm.  in  its 
greatest  length  and  33  cm.  in  its  greatest  breadth,  was  taken 
trom  820  fathoms  in  the  Arabian  Sea  off  the  Baluchistan 

In  the  same  trawl  was  obtained  a  black  pillow-shaped  eg^ 
with  four  hollow  horns  at  the  corners;  this  measures  2^  hy 
1^  inches.  The  horns  are  not  equal  in  length  :  those  of  one 
pair  are  2^  inches  long  and  are  separated  by  a  straight  border  ; 
those  of  the  other  pair  are  1^  inch  long  and  are  separated  by 
a  tongue-shaped  projection  of  the  border,  which  constitutes  a 
smaller  fiith  horn. 

The  most  characteristic  features  of  this  species  are  the  soft 
flabby  consistency  in  the  fresh  state  and  tlie  remarkable 
coloration,  which  suggested  the  name  R.  reversa. 

In  concluding  these  notes  I  must  acknowledge  my 
indebtedness  to  Lt.-Col.  A.  Alcock,  I. M.S.,  F.R.S.,  who  has 
kindly  given  me  much  help  and  advice  in  their  production. 

Figures  of  these  four  species  will  be  subsequently  published 
in  the  "  '  Investigator  '  Illustrations.'^ 

312  Dr.  A.  S.  Woodward— TAe  Relations  of 

XLITT. — The  Relations  of  Paheontology  to  Bioloijy'*. 
By  A.  Smith  VVooDWAiiD,  LL.D.,  F.Ll.S. 

It  is  clear  that  the  scientific  value  of  a  fossil  depends  upon 
the  exactness  with  which  the  circumstances  of  its  discovery 
are  determined  by  a  geologist.  The  briefest  experience  is 
also  enough  to  demonstrate  tliat  the  well-mineralized  remains 
of  an  organism  can  only  be  satisfactorily  interpreted  by  an 
observer  who  is  familiar  with  the  structure  of  rocks  and  their 
common  constituents.  The  student  of  fossils  needs  as  much 
elementary  training  in  the  geological  siiccession  of  the  rocks 
and  the  varied  nature  of  mineralization  as  the  student  of 
liistology  and  embryology  requires  to  locate  his  sections  with 
exactitude  and  to  understand  the  action  of  the  different  stains 
and  media  he  employs.  In  the  one  case  nature  makes  the 
preparation,  in  the  other  case  the  processes  of  laboratory 
technique  are  responsible  for  the  difficulties.  In  both  cases 
there  is  scope  for  numerous  fantastic  conclusions  if  the 
properties  of  the  preservative  medium  are  misunderstood. 

Palaeontology,  however,  is  essentially  a  department  of 
Biology,  and  it  can  only  be  prosecuted  with  success  by  a  skilled 
biologist  who  has  had  the  elementary  geological  and  raine- 
ralogical  experience  just  mentioned.  It  bears,  indeed,  the  same 
relation  to  the  whole  world  of  life  that  embryology  bears  to 
the  structure  of  an  individual  organism.  The  one  deals  with 
the  rise  and  growth  of  races  and  their  varying  relationshij)s, 
the  other  describes  and  interprets  the  evolution  of  an  indi- 
vidual and  the  processes  by  which  the  different  parts  of  its 
mechanism  are  finally  adjusted.  Both,  unfortunately,  depend 
on  extremely  imperfect  material ;  for  fossils  are  nearly  always 
mere  badly  preserved  skeletons,  and  they  represent  only  an 
infinitesimal  fraction  of  the  life  that  has  ])assed  away,  while 
enibryos  are  so  much  adapted  to  the  peculiar  circumstances 
of  their  environment  that  many  of  the  essential  stages  in  their 
growth  and  development  are  obscured  and  modified  by 
temporary  expedients. 

The  past  history  of  the  world  of  life,  as  revealed  by  fossils, 
has  long  been  familiar  in  its  general  outlines.  At  least  a 
ccntuiy  has  elapsed  since  it  was  made  clear  that  the  various 
organisms  come  into  existence  at  different  times  and  in  a 
definite  order,  according  to  their  grade  in  the  scale  of  being, 
the  lowest   first,  the  highest   latest.     Several   decades   have 

*  Extract  from  an  Address  delivered  before  the  luteniational  Congresj! 
of  Arts  and  Science.  St.  Louis,  L'.S.A.,  Sept.  :.'i>nd,  li>04;  published  in 
tlie  I'oupre^s  Kcport,  vol.  iv.,  June  lOUti. 

ralaontolotjij  to  Biology.  3115 

also  passed  away  since  it  was  reco<2;iiized  tliat  within  each 
gronj)  the  lowest  or  most  generalized  members  appeared 
earliest,  tiie  highest,  most  specialized,  or  most  degenerate 
towards  the  end  of  the  race.  Modern  research  is  concerned 
only  with  the  details  of  this  succession  and  with  the  laws 
which  can  now  be  deduced  from  the  rapidly  multiplying 
available  facts. 

Our  present  knowledge  of  the  geological  succession  of  the 
fishes  may  be  briefly  summarized  to  show  how  Palaeontology 
contributes  to  the  solution  of  the  fundamental  ])roblem3  of 
Biology.  The  earliest  recognizable  fish-like  organisms,  which 
occur  in  Upper  Hilurian  formations,  seem  to  have  been  mere 
grovellers  in  the  mud  of  shallow  seas,  nearly  all  with  incom- 
j)letely  formed  jaws  and  no  paired  fins,  devoting  most  of  their 
growth-energy  to  the  production  of  an  efliective  armour  by  the 
fusion  of  dermal  tubercles  into  plates  (^Ostracodenni).  W\\\\ 
them  were  a  'icw  true  fishes  which  had  completed  jaws,  but 
"which  possessed  a  pair  of  lateral  fin-folds,  variously  sub- 
divided, instead  ot  the  ordinary  two  pairs  ot  fins  {Diplacantk 
Acanthodii).  The  main  features  of  Silurian  fish-lite  were, 
therefore,  the  acquisition  of  dermal  armour,  definite  jaws,  and 
the  begiTuiing  of  paired  fins.  Some  of  the  lowly  tyjjes  thus 
equipped  survived  and  further  evolved  in  the  Devonian 
})eriod  ;  but  the  multitude  of  new-comers  which  then  formed 
the  majority  were  much  higher  in  the  scale  of  being  [Crosso- 
pterygii).  They  were  still  adapted  for  the  most  part  to  live 
on  the  bottom  of  shallow  water  or  in  marshes,  but  they  were 
typical  well-formed  fishes  in  respect  to  their  jaws,  branchial 
a))paratus,  and  two  pairs  of  fins.  Nearly  all  their  bones  were 
external,  very  little  of  tiieir  internal  skeleton  being  ossified, 
and  the  only  changes  they  seem  to  have  been  undergoing 
related  to  the  fusion  of  some  of  the  head-bones  and  the  more 
exact  adaptation  of  their  fins  and  tail  to  their  enviroimient. 
lishes  more  fitted  for  sustained  swimming  were  also  be- 
ginning to  appear,  and  these  i^Pcd ceo  nisei  dee)  formed  the 
large  majority  in  the  succeeding  Carboniferous  and  Permian 
jieriods.  They  were  about  equivalent  in  grade  to  the  modern 
sturgeons,  and  the  tendency  towards  change  in  their  structure 
was  in  the  direction  of  effective  swimming,  by  the  more 
intimate  correlation  between  the  fin-rays  and  their  supports 
and  by  the  shortening  of  the  upper  lobe  of  the  tail.  They 
still  exhibited  scarcely  any  ossification  of  the  internal  skeleton. 
As  soon  as  the  best  type  of  balancing  fin  and  the  most 
eftective  type  of  propelling  tail-fin  had  become  universal 
among  the  liighest  fish-life  of  the  Triassic  period  the  internal 
skeleton  began  to  ossify  and  vertebral  centra  arose.     In  fact, 

314  Dr.  A.  S.  WooJvvaiJ — The  Rdalions  of 

the  wliole  of  the  succeeding  Jurassic  period  was  spent  by  the 
liigliest  fishes  in  improving  and  fiiiisliing  their  internal 
sk-eleton,  while  their  external  bony  armour  began  almost 
universally  to  degenerate.  Thus,  by  tlie  early  part  of  the 
Cretaceous  ])eriod  the  most  advanced  members  of  the  class 
had  already  become  true  bony  fishes  or  Tel-osteans.  Having 
attained  that  stage  o£  complexity,  they  admitted  of  much 
more  variation  than  formerly,  and  then  arose  the  immense 
host  of  fishes  which  characterize  the  Tertiary  period  and  the 
present  day.  For  the  first  time  in  fish-history  there  were 
fundamental  changes  in  the  head.  First,  in  some  genera 
the  maxilla  began  to  slip  behind  and  above  the  premaxilla, 
so  that  it  was  excluded  from  the  gape.  Next,  in  these  and 
most  other  fishes,  the  ear-capsules  began  to  enlarge  to  such 
an  extent  that  the  original  roof  of  the  brain-case  eventually 
formed  only  an  insignificant  part  of  the  top  of  the  skull.  At 
the  same  time  the  lateral  muscles  of  the  trunk  extended 
forward  over  the  cranial  roof,  and  various  crests  arose  between 
them.  Finally,  it  was  quite  common  for  the  pelvic  fins  to  be 
displaced  forward  beneath  the  pectoral  fins,  while  the  vertebrae, 
as  well  as  some  of  the  fin-rays,  were  usually  reduced  to  a 
definite  and  fixed  number  for  each  family  or  genus.  Simul- 
taneously many  of  the  fin-rays  were  modified  into  spines,  and 
there  was  a  constant  tendency  for  the  external  bones  ami 
scales  to  become  spinose.  At  all  stages  of  tliis  progress  there 
were,  of  course,  stragglers  left  by  the  way;  and  the  modern 
fish-fauna  is  therefore  a  mixture  of  slightly  modified  survivors 
of  many  periods  in  the  earth's  history. 

To  state  this  brief  summary  in  more  general  terms,  fossils 
prove  that  the  earliest  known  fish-like  organisms  strengthened 
their  external  armour  so  long  as  they  remained  compara- 
tively sedentary;  that  next  the  most  progressive  members  of 
the  class  began  to  acquire  better  powers  of  locomotion,  and 
concentrated  all  their  growth-energy  on  the  elaboration  of 
fins  ;  that,  alter  the  perfection  of  these  organs,  the  internal 
bony  skeleton  was  completed  at  the  sacrifice  of  outer  plates, 
because  rapid  movement  necessitated  a  flexible  body  and 
rendered  external  armour  less  useful ;  that,  finally,  in  the 
highest  types  the  vertebra?  and  some  of  the  fin-rays  were 
reduced  to  a  fixed  and  practically  invariable  number  for  each 
family  or  genus,  while  there  was  a  remarkable  development 
of  spines.  As  survivors  of  most  of  these  stages  still  exist, 
the  changes  in  the  soft  parts  which  accompanivid  the  succes- 
sive advances  in  the  skeleton  can  be  inferred.  Hence  Paheon- 
tology  furnishes  a  sure  basis  for  a  natural  classification  m 
complete  accord  with  the  develo[)ment  of  the  group. 

Pahfiontohgij  lo  Bivlogy.  315 

Now  fi-slies  are  uquatic  animals,  and  nearly  all  the  fo.ssili- 
fcrons  rocks  were  deposited  in  water.  The  past  history  of 
this  chain  of  lite  ou^lit  therefore  to  Ijc  almost  conij)letely 
revealed  by  the  geological  records.  ]\Iaking  due  allowance 
for  the  imperfection  of  collections  and  the  accidental  nature 
of  the  discovery  of  fossils,  the  general  outlines  of  this  history 
may  indeed  be  considered  as  tolerably  well  ascertained.  Thus 
the  facts  of  Paleontology  not  ordy  aid  the  biologist  in 
discovering  the  true  relationships  of  the  fishes  ;  at  the  same 
time  they  afford  a  definite  means  of  determining  with  certainty 
some  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  organic  evolution 
illustrated  by  them.  As  identical  principles  may  be  deduced 
from  other  departments  of  Pakeontology,  most  of  them  are 
}iot  likely  to  be  altered  in  any  essential  respects  by  future 

It  must  suffice  here  to  allude  only  to  a  few  of  these  general 
results  which  seem  to  be  of  far-reaching  importance,  omitting 
details  which  may  be  obtained  from  special  treatises.  Fore- 
most among  them  is  the  demonstration  that  the  evolution  of 
the  animal  world  has  not  proceeded  uniformly,  but  in  a 
rhythmic  manner.  As  soon  as  fishes  had  acquired  the 
})addle-shapetl  paired  fins,  they  suddeidy  became  the  special 
leature  of  the  Devonian  period  in  all  parts  of  the  globe  that 
have  hitherto  been  geologically  examined,  and  they  attained 
their  maximum  development,  being  more  numerous  and  more 
diverse  in  form  than  at  any  subsequent  time.  None  of  these 
paddle-finned  fishes  [Crossopterygii)  in  the  course  of  their 
varied  development  made  much  approach  towards  passing 
into  the  next  grade  of  fish-life  with  short-based  paired  fins 
and  a  heterocercal  tail  [Chondrostei)  ;  but  among  their 
earliest  representatives  there  was  at  least  one  member  of  the 
higher  group,  which  suggests  that  the  latter  arose  when  the 
previous  group  was  just  becoming  vigorous.  At  the  be- 
ginning of  the  Carboniferous  period  the  higher  grade  of  fish- 
life  just  mentioned  suddenly  became  the  dominant  feature, 
and  during  the  Carboniferous  and  Permian  it  attained  its 
maximum  development.  Towards  the  close  of  the  Permian 
period  the  next  higher  group  was  heralded  by  only  one 
representative,  but  as  soon  as  it  arose  in  the  Trias  it  resembled 
its  predecessors  in  becoming  immediately  dominant,  sur- 
passing all  contemporary  races  of  fishes  both  in  the  number 
of  individuals  and  in  the  variety  of  genera  and  species.  In 
the  Cretaceous  period  the  highest  bony  fishes  appeared,  and 
at  the  end  of  that  period,  with  the  dawn  of  the  Tertiary,  they 
suddenly  diverged  into  nearly  all  the  subdivisions  which 
characterize  the  existing  fish-fauna,  accomplishing  much  more 

316  Dr.  A.  S.  Woodsvaid— r//e  Pidatlons  of 

evi  lution  in  a  brief  interval  tlian  has  taken  place  during  the 
whole  of  the  succeeding  Tertiary  time.  In  short,  the  funda- 
mental advances  in  the  grade  of  fish-life  have  always  been 
sudden  and  begun  with  excessive  vigour  at  the  end  of  a  long 
period  of  apparent  stagnation,  while  each  advance  has  been 
marked  by  the  fixed  and  definite  acquisition  of  some  new 
character — an  "  expression  point,^'  as  Cope  termed  it — which 
seems  to  have  rendered  possible,  or,  at  least,  been  an  essential 
accompaniment  of,  a  fresh  outburst  of  developmental  energy. 
As  we  have  seen,  the  successive  "  expression  points'^  among 
fishes  were  the  acquisition  of    (1)   paddle-like    paired    fins, 

(2)  shortened    fin-bases     but    persistent    heterocercal    tail, 

(3)  completed     balancing    fins    and     homocercal     tail,    and 

(4)  completed  internal  skeleton. 

When  fossils  are  examined  more  closely,  it  is  interesting 
to  observe  that  the  geological  record  is  most  incomplete 
exactly  at  these  critical  points  in  the  history  of  each  race. 
There  are  abundant  remains  of  the  families  and  genera  which 
are  definitely  referable  to  one  or  other  order  or  suborder ;  but 
■with  them  there  are  scarcely  any  of  the  links  between  these 
major  divisions  which  might  have  been  expected  to  occur. 
It  must  also  be  confessed  that  repeated  discoveries  have  now 
left  faint  hope  that  exact  and  gradual  links  will  ever  be 
forthcoming  between  most  of  the  families  and  genera.  The 
''  imperfection  of  the  record,^""  of  course,  may  still  render 
some  of  the  negative  evidence  untrustworthy ;  but  even 
approximate  lirdis  would  be  much  commoner  in  collections 
than  they  actually  are  if  the  doctrine  of  gradual  evolution 
were  correct.  Paleeontology,  indeed,  is  clearly  in  favour  of 
the  theory  of  discontinuous  mutation,  or  advance  by  sudden 
changes,  which  has  lately  received  so  much  support  from  the 
botanical  experiments  of  H.  de  Vries. 

Further  results  obtained  from  the  study  of  fossils  have  a 
bearing  even  on  the  deepest  problems  of  Biology,  namely, 
those  connected  with  the  nature  of  life  itself.  For  instance, 
it  is  allowable  to  infer,  from  the  statements  already  made,  that 
the  main  factor  in  the  evolution  of  organisms  is  some  inherent 
impulse — the  "  bathmic  force  ^'  of  Cope — which  acts  with 
unerring  certainty  whatever  be  the  conditions  of  the  moment. 
So  far  as  human  judgment  can  decide,  the  varied  assemblage 
of  fishes  at  each  stage  of  the  earth's  history  was  always  in 
perfect  accord  with  its  environment  and  displayed  very  few- 
signs  of  waning,  even  at  the  time  when  a  new  race  suddenly 
took  its  place  and  provided  every  kind  of  fish  once  more  on  a 
higher  plane  or,  so  to  speak,  in  a  later  fashion.  The  chang? 
was   inevitable   and  according  to  some  fundamental   law  of 

Palccontology  to  Biology.  317 

lifii  wliosc  influence  is  independent  of  temporary  equilibrium. 
Equally  inevitable  and  irreversible  are  the  essential  cliaiif^es 
which  may  be  observed  during  tlio  evolution  of  each  family 
of  organisms.  As  the  late  Professor  Bcechcr  pointed  out  *, 
all  animals  with  skeletons  tend  to  produce  a  superfluity  of 
dead  matter,  wliich  accumulates  in  the  form  of  spines  as 
soon  as  the  race  to  wliicli  they  belong  lias  passed  its  prime 
and  begins  to  be  on  the  downgrade  ;  all  vertebrates  tend  to 
Jose  their  teeth  when  they  reach  the  culmination  of  tlicir  life- 
history  ;  nearly  all  groups  of  fishes  end  their  career  with 
eel-shaped  representatives ;  and  when  a  structural  character 
has  been  definitely  lost  in  the  course  of  evolution  it  never 
reappears,  but,  if  actually  wanted  again,  is  reproduced  in  a 
secondary  makeshift.  Finally,  and  perhaps  most  important 
of  all,  there  is  in  tlie  course  of  evolution  of  all  groups  of 
animals  to  their  prime  a  tendency  towards  fixity  in  the 
number  and  regularity  (or  symmetry)  in  arrangement  of 
their  multiple  parts.  The  assumption  of  a  fixed  number  of 
vertebrse  and  fin-rays  in  the  latest  and  highest  families  and 
genera  of  bony  fishes  has  already  been  mentioned.  An 
irregular  cluster  of  grinding-tccth  characterized  the  Pycnodont 
fishes  of  the  Lower  Lias,  while  these  teeth  began  to  be 
disposed  in  definite  regular  rows  in  some  of  the  Bathonian 
forms,  and  such  a  symmetrical  arrangement  henceforth 
pervaded  the  highest  members  of  the  family.  Many  of  the 
lower  vertebrates,  both  living  and  extinct,  have  teeth  with 
multiplied  cusps,  and  in  some  genera  the  number  of  teeth 
seems  to  be  constant  ;  but  in  the  history  of  the  vertebrates 
the  tooth-cusps  never  became  fixed  individual  entities,  strictly 
homologous  in  whole  races,  until  the  highest  or  mammalian 
grade  had  been  attained.  Moreover,  it  is  only  in  the  same 
latest  phase  that  the  teeth  themselves  can  be  treated  as 
definite  units,  always  the  same  in  number  (44),  except  Avhere 
modified  by  degeneration  or  special  adaptation.  The  number 
of  vertebra?  in  the  neck  of  the  lower  vertebrates  depends  on 
the  extent  of  this  part,  whereas  in  the  mammal  it  is  almost 
invariably  seven  whatever  the  total  length  may  be.  Equally 
constant  in  the  artiodactyl  ungulate  mammalia  is  the  number 
of  nineteen  vertebra}  between  the  neck  and  the  sacrum. 

In  short,  the  biologist  equipped  with  an  adequate  know- 
ledge of  Paleontology  cannot  fail  to  perceive  that  throughout 
the  evolution  of  the  organic  Avorld  there  has  been  a  periodical 
succession  of  impulses,  each  introducing  not  only  a  hio^her 
grade  of  life,  but  also  fixing  some  essential  characters  that 

*  C.  E.  Beeclier,  "  The  Origin  and  Significance  of  Spines,"  Amer. 
Journ.  Science,  [4]  vol.  vi.  (1898),  July  to  October. 

Ann.  &  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  23 

318  Bihliog^-apliical  Notices. 

]iad  been  variable  in  tlie  grade  immediately  below.  He  must 
also  realize  that  in  the  interval  between  these  impulses  some 
minor  characters  in  the  families  similarly  acquired  fixity  ia 
iheir  prime,  until  old  age  and  extinction  approached.  The 
.aeneral  conclusion  is,  that  if  the  unknown  influence  -which 
Cope  has  termed  "  bathmic  force  ^^  were  able  to  act  without 
a  succession  of  checks  from  the  environment  and  Natural 
Selection,  animals  would  form  much  more  symmetrical 
(groups  than  we  actually  find,  and  their  ultimate  grades  would 
display  still  more  instances  of  numerical  fixity  in  multiple 
parts  than  can  be  observed  under  existing  circumstances. 

This  result  almost  tempts  a  ])ala3ontologist  to  risk  the 
])itialls  of  reasoning  from  analogy  and  to  compare  organic 
evolution  with  some  purely  physical  processes.  It  has  already 
been  pointed  out  more  than  once  that  the  initial  stages  of 
animal  races  resemble  the  nascent  states  of  chemical  elements 
in  their  particular  intensity  of  vigour  and  unwonted  suscepti- 
bility to  influence  ;  while  Cope  himself  has  hinted  that  the 
"  expression  points  "  in  the  evolution  of  races  may,  perhaps, 
be  compared  with  the  phenomena  of  latent  heat  in  the  inorganic 
Avorld.  It  now  seems  reasonable  to  add  that  each  "  phylum/' 
or  separate  chain  of  life,  bears  a  striking  resemblance  to  a 
crystal  of  some  inorganic  substance  which  has  been  disturbed 
by  impurities  during  its  growth,  and  has  thus  been  fashioned 
Avith  unequal  faces,  or  even  turned  partly  into  a  mere  con- 
cretion. In  the  case  of  a  crystal  the  inherent  forces  act 
solely  upon  molecules  of  the  crystalline  substance  itself, 
collecting  them  and  striving,  even  in  a  disturbing  environment, 
to  arrange  them  in  a  fixed  geometrical  shape.  In  the  case  of 
an  organic  phylum,  the  inherent  forces  of  the  colloid  germ- 
plasm  act  upon  a  consecutive  series  of  temporary  outgrowths 
or  excrescences  of  colloid  substance  (the  successive  individual 
bodies  or  "son:ata''),  struggling  not  for  geometrically 
arranged  boundaries,  but  towards  various  other  symmetries 
and  a  fixity  in  number  of  multiple  parts.  Palaeontology  thus 
contributes  to  Biology  by  placing  the  oft-repeated  comparison 
cf  life  with  crystallization  in  an  entirely  new  light. 

A  Descriptive   CUaJor/Kc  of  the  Tertiary  Verfelrata  of  the  Faifihn, 
Egypt.     By  Chakles  AYilliam  Andrews,  D.Sc.     Pp.  5sxvii-f-'324, 
l)ls.  2Q,   and  text-figures,     London  :    Printed  bv  Order  of   the 
Trustees  of  the  British  Museum.     lUOG.     Price  'Sbs. 

Dr.  Andrews  is  a  zoologist  in  the  widest  sense  of  the  term,  and 
hence  it  is  that  this  bulky  volume  is  soinethuig  more  than  a  mere 

Bibliographical  Notices.  319 

catalogue  of  dry  bones  ;  though  even  liad  it.  been  no  more  than 
this,  from  the  extraordinary  character  of  these  bones  the  1)ook  he 
has  just  finished  would  have  been  one  of  exceptional  importance  : 
and  this  because,  for  the  most  ])art,  the  remains  which  he  describes 
are  missing  links  for  which  palieontologists  and  students  of  phylo- 
geny  have  long  been  seeking,  desiring  without  hope. 

Though  Dr.  Andrews  had  not,  in  many  cases,  the  good  fortune 
to  unearth  the  first  specimens  of  these  remains  to  be  discovered,  it 
is  to  him  tluit  we  owe  their  determination  :  to  him  that  the  credit 
belongs  of  interpreting  the  true  nature  of  the  puzzles  they  presented. 
But  he  has  himself  done  much  work  in  the  burning  deserts  of 
Egypt,  and  many  of  the  most  important  remains  described  here  are 
due  to  the  masterly  intuition  he  displayed  in  the  arduous  w^ork  of 
fossil-hunting ;  many  of  the  biggest  prizes  were  obtained  from 
ground  that  others  on  the  same  quest  had  already  surveyed  and 
pronounced  barren  ! 

The  grealer  part  of  this  volume  is  concerned  with  that  most 
important  group,  the  Ungulates ;  and,  undoubtedly,  the  most 
striking  of  these  is  the  bizarre  creature  which  lias  been  named 
Arsciioitlierium.  A  considerable  number  of  bones,  including  skulls, 
of  tiiis  animal  have  been  obtained,  representing  different  ages,  so 
that,  as  Dr.  Andrews  remarks,  "  this  extraordinary  mammal  is  now 
almost  completely  known,  so  far  as  this  is  possible  from  the  bones 

In  general  appearance  somewhat  resembling  a  large  and  heavily 
built  rhinoceros,  it  differed  therefrom  in  having  an  enormous  pair 
of  horns  placed  side  by  side  above  the  nose  and  a  smaller  pair 
above  the  eyes.  From  the  corrugations  on  the  surfaces  of  these 
cores  it  would  seem  certain  that  they  were  ensheathed  in  horn  ; 
and  in  (his,  of  course,  ArsinoitJieriam  differed  fundamentally  from 
the  lihinoceros ;  while,  from  their  dentition  and  other  cranial 
characters,  it  would  ajipear  that  these  ponderous  animals  are 
descended  from  the  same  ancestral  stock  as  the  Hyracoidea. 

The  great  feature  of  this  Catalogue,  and  of  Dr.  Andrews's  work, 
is,  however,  the  section  devoted  to  the  Troboscidea.  Hitherto  the 
origin  and  evolution  of  this  group  has  been  shrouded  in  mystery  : 
to-day  the  veil  is  lifted.  It  is  no  small  thing  to  have  done  this  ; 
and  those  who  will  turn  to  the  pages  of  this  work  will  find  that 
Dr.  Andrews  has  brougbt  to  bear  upon  his  task  a  subtilty  of 
analysis  and  a  grasp  of  complicated  facts  that  most  of  us  can  but 

Till  now  one  of  the  strongest  and  most  telling  object-lessons  in 
the  Evolution  Theory  has  been  furnished  by  the  Horse ;  but 
Dr.  Andrews  has  now  provided  an  even  more  striking  piece  of 
evidence.  To  attempt,  even  in  outline,  to  describe  the  nature  of 
this  evidence  would  be  impossible  in  the  space  at  our  disposal ;  for 
the  author's  discoveries  do  not  end  here,  and  of  these  other  achieve- 
ments we  must  also  speak.  The  most  important  of  these  concerns 
his  contentions  with  regard  to  the  origin  and  evolution  of  the 
Sirenia,  which  he  holds  are  to  be  regarded,  as  De  Blainville  sug- 
gested years  ago,  as  intimately  related  to  the   Proloscidea.     But 

320  Bihliographical  Notices. 

while  Dc  Blamville  advanced  this  view  rather  as  a  pious  opinion, 
Dr.  Andrews  has  brought  forward  a  mass  of  skilfulh-  marshalled 
facts  which  leave  but  little  room  for  doubt  on  the  question. 

"With  regard  to  the  question  of  the  descent  of  the  Cetacea,  he 
shows,  conclusively,  that  these  most  remarkable  mammals  are 
derivatives  of  that  primitive  group  of  Carnivora  known  as  the 

The  bird-remains  found  by  Dr.  Andrews  in  the  beds  (Lower 
Tertiary)  which  furnished  the  materials  for  this  Catalogue  were 
scantj',  though  in  their  way  important,  inasmuch  as  among  them 
he  found  remains  apparently  of  a  Ratite  {Eremopezus)  ^hich  lived 
in  this  district  during  the  Upper  Eocene  period.  But  since  neither 
skull,  pelvis,  nor  sternum  has  so  far  come  to  light,  there  is  no 
evidence  to  show  whether  this  was  really  a  "  Eatite  "  (Palaeo- 
gnathine)  form ;  nor  can  much  that  is  profitable  be  said  as  to  whether 
it  was  more  nearly  allied  to  the  Struthiones  or  ^pyornithes. 

With  regard  to  the  Reptilia,  little  of  phylogenetic  importance 
has  come  to  light ;  but  from  a  distributional  point  of  view  some  very 
significant  facts  will  be  found  recorded.  Thus,  giant  Land-Tortoises 
near  akin  to  the  recent  Mascarene  forms  were  found,  as  well  as 
remains  of  pleurodiran  species  ;  and  since  these  last  are  now  con- 
fined to  the  Southern  Hemisphere  this  discovery  is  of  very  great 
significance — tending  as  it  does,  Dr.  Andrews  believes,  to  support 
the  view  that  during  Jurassic  times  Africa  and  S.  America 
formed  a  continuous  land- mass. 

But,  surely,  enough  has  now  been  said  to  show  that  this 
"  Catalogue  "  may  be  said,  without  exaggeration,  to  mark  an  epoch 
in  the  history  of  Vertebrate  Zoology.  "W.  P.  Pycbaft. 

Die  TieriscJien  Gifte.     Yon  Edwix  Stanton  Faust, 
Braunschweig,  1906.     Pp.  xiv,  24S. 

This  is  a  comprehensive  treatise  on  animal  poisons,  dealing  both 
with  those  animals  which  bite  or  sting,  those  the  flesh  of  which  is 
poisonous,  and  those  from  which  poisonous  drugs  or  arrow-poisons 
are  obtained.  The  structure  of  the  poison-glands  is  described  and 
the  various  symptoms  produced  by  the  poisons,  and  their  chemical 
characters  are  also  discussed.  The  greater  portion  of  the  volume  is 
devoted  to  Ophidia,  Amphibia,  Pisces,  Arthropoda,  Vermes,  &c., 
and  certain  portions  of  the  subject  seem  to  have  been  purposely 
excluded.  Thus,  Platiqms  is  the  only  poisonous  mammal  included, 
and  we  do  not  notice  anything  about  hydrophobia  or  glanders,  on 
the  one  hand,  or  the  carriage  of  infection  by  rats  &c.,  on  the  other. 
The  carriage  of  infection  by  mosquitoes  and  the  tsotze-flies  is  only 
briefly  alluded  to,  nor  are  parasitic  insects  noticed.  Within  the 
limits  which  the  author  seems  to  have  imposed  upon  himself,  his 
book  will  be  found  very  useful  to  those  interested  in  animal 
poisons  from  a  medical  and  chemical  point  of  view.         "NV.  F.  K. 




No.  107.  NOVEMBER  1906. 

XLIV. — Brachiopod  Nomenclature. 
Bj  S.  S.  BucKMAN,  F.G.S. 

The  following  remarks  are  presented  in  the  hope  that  thej 
may  be  of  assistance  in  clearino;  up  various  clifEculties 
connected  with  the  names  of  some  Brachiopod  genera. 

Epithyris,  Htpothyeis,  Cleiothtris,  Phillips,  184:1. 

According  to  Dall  *  these  genera  are  indeterminable  from 
what  Phillips  has  said  about  them,  and  so  he  establishes  two 
of  them  on  King\s  authority.  Schuchertt  does  the  same, 
definitely  stating  that  King's  genera  are  not  Pliillips's.  But 
this  arrangement  can  only  be  accepted  as  a  temporary  expe- 
dient. The  generic  names  must  stand  or  fall  by  what  Phillips 
lias  done,  and  if  they  fall  they  cannot  be  revived  in  another 
sense.     "  Once  used,  always  used/' 

However,  I  do  not  accept  the  dictum  that  Phillips's  genera 
are  indeterminable,  or  that  Phillips  did  not  sufficiently  indicate 
his  types,  so  that  a  subsequent  author  was  free  to  select — 
though  this  would  make  them  still  Phillips's  genera,  not 
King's.  Phillips,  to  my  reading,  indicated  the  types  which 
he  had  in  mind — not  so  definitely  as  he  might  have  done, 
perhaps;  but  still  he  did  indicate  them.     He  says  of  the  first 

*  Index  Bracli.,  Bull.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  1877. 

t  Sjn.  Am.  Brack.,  Bull.  U.S.  Geol.  Survey,  1897, 

Ann.  &  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.  Vol.  xviii.  24 

?>22  Mr.  S.  S.  Buckman  on 

two  : — "  Whoever  will  carefully  examine  the  '  Terehratulfe* 
of  tiie  strata  behjw  the  Lias  will  find  but  few  which  can  be 
supposed  to  exhibit  a  distinct  oval  or  circular  opening  below 
the  beak  (such  as  belongs  to  T.  concinna,  for  example),  and 
perhaps  none  which  show  a  truncate  perforate  beak  (as,  for 
example,  in  T.  maxiUata)"  '^. 

Then  he  further  says  (p.  55)  :  "  Epithyris  .  .  .  beak 
truncate,  perforate/'  "  Uypotliyris  .  .  .  beak  acute,  perfora- 
tion below  it/'  Putting  tliese  statements  with  those  on  the 
preceding  page,  it  seems  to  be  obvious  that  Phillips  regarded 
as  typical  of  his  genera  Ilyjyothyris  a.\\A  Epithyris  T.  concinna 
and  T.  maocillata  respectively. 

Therefore  one  can  say 

Genus  Epithyris,  Phillips,  1841. 

Type  Terebratula  maxiUata,  Sowerby. 
Nou  Epithyris,  King,  uec  Deslongcliamps. 

This  may  stand  as  the  generic  name  for  a  small  but  very 
distinct  series  of  Jurassic  Terebratulids.  It  includes  T.  suh- 
niaxiUata,  Morris,  T.  marmorea,  Oppel,  T.  leniiformis, 
Upton,  T.  pernio xillata,  S.  Buckman,  and  another  form  which 
requires  a  new  name.     This  may  be  called 

Epithyris  hathonica,  nom.  nov. 

As  type  may  be  taken  the  specimen  figured  as  Terebratula 
maanllata,  Davidson,  Brit.  Ool.  Brach.  (Pal.  Soc.)  1851, 
pi.  ix,  fig.  3  only.  It  is  a  larger  and  more  massive  shell 
than  T.  niaxiUaia,  Sowerby,  properly  represented  in  Davidson 
(pi.  ix.  fig.  1),  and  it  grows  to  a  much  larger  size  before  it 
begins  to  show  plications.  It  is  characteristic  and  fairly 
abundant  in  the  Great  Oolite,  whereas  E.  maxiUata  charac- 
terizes the  Bradford  Clay  below  and  E.  marmorea  the  Forest 
]\Iarble  beds  above ;  so  that  the  distinction  is  of  strati- 
graphical  value. 

Genus  Hypotiiyeis,  Phillips,  1811. 
Type  Terebratula  coticinna,  Sowerby. 

The  name  Ilypothyris  cannot  be  used,  as,  according  to 
Scudder,  it  is  preoccupied — for  a  genus  of  Lepidoptera  by 
Hiibner  in  1822. 

The  terms  epithyrid  and  hypothyrid  will  be  found  extremely 
useful    for    describing    the   beak-characters    which     Philli[)3 

*  Pal.  Foss.  Ooru.  Devon,  p.  5i  (Mem.  Gool.  Surv.  1811). 

Brachiopod  Nomenclature.  323 

iiotod.  ]\rost  Terebratulids  are  epitliyrid,  but  Strinrjocephalus 
is  liypotliyrid ;  most  Rliynchonollids  are  liypotliyrid,  but 
Terehraiidoidea  is  epitliyrid — in  other  words,  it  is  a  Rliyncho- 
ncllid  with  a  truncate  perforate  beak. 

The  case  rejj^ardinp;  Cle'wthyris  is  hardly  so  satisfactory  as 
the  others.     Phillips's  two  statements  are  : — 

"Cardinal  area  obsolete;  beak  incurved  over  a  minute 
perforation,  which  is  often  obtect  or  merely  serves  to  receive 
the  be-ak  of  the  smaller  valve — CJeiothyris. 

"  Under  the  licad  of  Terehratida  1  shall  include  many  of 
the  Ati'Tjpw  of  Dalman  and  Sowerby,  givin;^  this  term  and 
Cleiothyris  as  synonyms  of  a  part  of  that  great  group.  Strigo- 
cephaliis,  Ortliis,  and  Spiriftra  will  be  separated.  In  this 
latter  genus  1  include  the  analogues  of  Spirifera  lineata,  and 
which  seem  to  conduct  naturally  to  the  smooth  terebratuli- 
form  species  now  ranked  as  Atrypa  by  Mr.  Sowerby  "  (p.  55). 

"The  iffect  of  introducing  the  classification  of  Brachiopoda 
presented  on  pp.  54,  55,  would  be  a  modification  of  Spirifera 
and  Terehratula  by  transferring  a  part  of  the  species  here 
included  in  these  groups  to  Cleiothyris  and  Hypothyris. 
Until,  however,  the  foramen  of  the  larger  valve  is  more 
carefully  examined,  in  the  plaited  species  analogous  to 
Terehratula  pleiirodon,  T.  pugnus,  &c.,  in  the  smooth  species 
allied  to  Terehratula  concentrica  (von  Buch)  and  Spirifera 
imhricata  (Sowerby),  and  in  those  which  rank  with  Tereh. 
prisca,  it  seems  not  desirable  to  disturb  too  much  the  existing 
methods  of  classification ''  (p.  92). 

The  first  of  these  two  statements  signifies  that  Cleiothyris 
is  not  to  replace  Atrypa,  but  is  to  be  used  by  the  side  of  it, 
for  "the  smooth  terebratuliform  species  now  ranked  as 
Atrypa  by  Mr.  ISowerby.^'  In  the  next  statement  there  are 
three  divisions  made: — (1)  '^  plaited  species";  (2)  "smooth 
S})ecies " ;  (3)  "  [species]  which  rank  with  Tereb.  prisca." 
Obviously,  then,  Cleiothyris  is  the  term  for  division  2,  and  in 
this  are  mentioned  T'erebratida  concentrica  (von  Buch)  and 
Spirifera  imhricata  (^owQvhy).  It  may  be  argued  that  by 
saying  Spirifera  imhricata  Phillips  expressed  his  opinion  as 
to  its  probable  position,  and  so  he  left  Terthratula  concentrica 
to  be  the  type  of  his  genus. 

There  is  further  evidence  for  this  in  the  footnote,  p.  55. 
Phillips  says  "  Cleiothyris  ....  with  the  terms  Epithyris 
and  hypothyris  might  console  us  for  the  loss  of  Terthratula^ 
which  in  von  Buch's  view  includes  the  three  groups.'' 
Evidently,  then,  Cleiothyris  included  a  species  called  by 
von  Buch  a  Terehratula. 


324  Mr.  S.  S.  Buckman  on 

Tlie  conclusion  arrived  at  is  that  Cletotliyr is  cannot  ha  used 
on  King's  autliority  at  all,  and  if  it  be  used  on  PliiHij)s's 
foundation  it  takes  ))riority  of  Ath/ris.  ]\I'Coy,  indeed, 
admits  as  much  when  he  says  of  Athyris  (p.  146)  : — "  Prof. 
Phillips  is  the  only  author  wlio  has  recognized  the  group  ;  he 
forms  of  it  his  last  division  of  the  genus  t^infera." 
Pliillips^s  last  division  of  the  "  Delthyridaj  or  Spirifers" — 
M'Coj  uses  this  phrase — is  Cle'iothyru  (Pal.  Foss.  p.  55). 

As  IJypothyris  cannot  be  used  for  the  Atrypa  {Rhyn- 
clionella)  cuhoides  series — first  because  it  does  not  belong 
there,  and  second  because  it  has  been  preoccupied, — it  becomes 
necessary  to  name  afresh.  It  is  desirable  to  make  as  little 
change  as  possible,  so  there  may  be  suggested 

Genus  IIypothyridina,  nom.  no  v. 

Genotj'pe  Atrj/pa   cuhoides,   Sowerby,  =  Hypothyris,  King,   Hall  & 
Clarke,  Schuchert  et  al.  (non  Phillips). 

As  Cleiothyris  is  not  available  on  King's  autliority,  and  as 
it  seems  to  be  generally  agreed  that  the  A.  Royssii  scxitB 
requires  a  separate  name  from  A.  concentrica,  then  a  new 
term  must  be  used  : 

Genus  Cleiothyeidina,  nom.  no  v. 

Genotype  AtJiyris  Hoyssii,  Davidson,  Mon.  Garb.  Brach.  pi.  xviii.  fig.  8. 
Syn.   Cleiothyris,  King  et  auctt.  (non  Phillips). 


The  first  of  these  generic  designations  has  been  entirely 
overlooked,  yet  it  must  be  confessed  that  its  author,  Capt. 
Thomas  Brown,  has  done  his  work  much  more  accurately 
than  his  ))rofessorial  contemporaries;  he,  at  any  rate,  has 
definitely  fixed  and  described  his  type  thus: — "Genus  Com- 
2:)0sita,  Brown.  Shell  somewhat  pentangular  ;  hinge-line  very 
short  ;  beak  of  the  larger  valve  produced,  with  a  small 
circular  perforation  ;  inside  furnished  with  si)iral  apjiendage.'^. 

"  This  genus  is  founded  upon  the  ISpirifer  anibiguiis  of 
Sowerby  and  is  intermediate  between  that  genus  and  Tere- 
hrahda.  'J'he  ])erf'orated  beak  removes  it  from  Spirifer,  and 
the  internal  spiral  a)i))end;igcs  never  exist  in  the  genus  Tere- 
hratula,  but  are  peculiar  to  the  geim-?  Spirifer.  1.  Composite 
amhigua,  Spirifer  amhiguus,  Sowerby  "  *. 

The  date  is  given  by  Mr.  C.  Davios  Sherborn  in  a 
pamphlet,  "  Conch.  Writings  of  Capt.  Thomas  Brown,"  Proc. 

*  Brown  lilust.  Foss.  Conch.  Gt.  Britain  and  Trehmd,  p.  131  (1845). 

Bruchiopod  Nomenclature.  32-5 

]\Ialacol.  Soc.  vi.  p.  358  (1905),  aiul   lie  it  was  who  directed 
my  attention  to  this  work  of  Brown's. 

Davidson  remarks  (Carb.  Uracil.,  Pal.  Soc.  1S57,  j).  78  n.) 
"  tiiat  Sftirifer  umbiyaus  lias  received  no  less  than  six 
difVcrent  generic  a|)|)ellations.'''  He  overlooked  Brown'd 
term,  whicli  niakes  seven  ;  and  it  had  not  then  been  given 
the  name  (the  eighth)  it  now  passes  by — Seminula — for 
M'Coy  did  not  mention  it  as  one  of  his  types. 

It;  is,  then,  necessary  to  consider  what  is  the  type  of 
M'Coy's  genus  Seminula.  Dall  merely  cites  the  three  species 
mentioned  by  M'Coy.  Hall  and  Clarke  say  "  '\^y\iQ  Seminula 
amhijua,  Sowerby,  sp.,''  which  M'Coy  did  not  mention. 
Sehuehert  says  "Genotype  Terehratulu  pentcedra,  Phillips,  = 
Athijris  ambi<)ua  (Phillips),''^  which  may  be  a  lapse  for 
(JSowerby).  Now  M'Coy  has  definitely  indicated  his  own 
genotype  by  giving  a  figure  (p.  150,  fig.  31),  and  this  figure 
is  certainly  T.  pentaedra,  Phillips.  But  Davidson,  who  was 
more  ready  to  combine  than  to  separate,  only  united  2\  jjent- 
oedra  to  T.  amhigua  with  a  query.  One  may  reasonably  feel 
much  doubt  about  the  association  when  it  is  remembered 
that  Phillips  kept  the  two  species  distinct  and  that  M'Coy 
classed  with  T.  pentaedra  as  belonging  to  his  Seminula  two 
species  which  are  recognized  now  as  Camarophoria.  Further, 
M'Coy  says  in  regard  to  Seminula  (p.  150)  "  perforation 
minute."  This  is  not  a  description  that  could  be  applied  to 
T.  aiublgua. 

A  glance  at  Phillips's  original  figure  shoAVs  that  T.  pent- 
aedra is  rightly  described  by  M'Coy,  and  that  it  is  quite 
different  trom  T.  ambiyua.  T.  pentaedra  has  a  rhyncho- 
nelliform  beak — it  is  evidently  hypothyrid  ;  but  T.  amhigua 
has  a  terebratulilbrm  beak — it  is  epithyrid.  Phillips's 
descriptions  fully  bear  this  out.  Of  T.  pentaedra  he  says 
''Perforation  of  the  beak  minute'"';  he  applies  the  same 
description  to  T.  rhomboidea  and  to  T.  aeminula,  but  of 
T.  ambigua  he  says  "  beak  with  a  large  round  aperture" — in 
comparison  with  T.  pentaedra  it  is  "  large." 

Therefore  the  type  of  Seminula  is  really  a  hypothyrid 
rhynchonelloid,  congeneric  with  T.  seminula  and  T.  idiom- 
boidea,  which  at  present  are  called  Camarophoria,  and  it  has 
nothing  to  do  with  1\  ambigua. 

Therefore  it  must  be  said  : — 

Genus  Seminula,  M'Coy,  181:4. 

Genotype,  species  figured  by  M'Coy,  fig.  31,  j).  150,=  T.  jjentacdra, 

Non  Seminula,  Hall  &  Clarke,  Schuchert  et  al. 
Syu.  Camarophoria  (pars),  Davidson  et  auctt. 

32G  On  BracMopod  Nomenclature. 

Shells  vliynclioiielllform,  hypothyrid,  with  the  surface 
sinuate  or  feebly  semiplicate. 

The  genus  is  nearest  to  Camarophoria ;  it  is  not  one  of  the 
Athyridse,  but  belongs  to  the  family  Pentameridae.  The 
later-named  Camarophoria  may  probably  be  distinguished 
from  it,  as  containing  shells  more  transverse,  more  fully  and 
more  numerously  plicate. 

The  species  placed  in  it  by  M'Coy  are  rightly  classed. 
Their  distinction  as  three  species  of  Seminula  seems  to  be 
justifiable  ;  but  three  names  will  be  S.  jientaedra  (Phill.), 
S.  seminula  (Phill.),  ^S'.  rhomhoidea  (Phill.).  The  last  is 
probably  quite  distinct  enough  from  the  Permian  T.  globulina, 
which  is  also  a  Seminula. 

What  has  hitherto  been  called  Seminula  must  be  altered, 
thus : — 

Genus  COMPOSITA,  Brown,  1845. 

Type  Spirifer  ambiguus,  Sowerby. 

Syn.    Seminula,    Hall  &   Clarke,    Schuchert   et   al. ;    non    Seminula, 

Leptodus,  Ltttonia. 

In  systematic  works  the  generic  name  Leptodus,  Kayser,  is 
placed  as  a  synonym  of  Lyttonia,  Waagen ;  but  this  is 
not  justifiable.  Waagen  had  no  right  to  give  a  new  name 
because  Kayser  happened  to  place  his  genus  among  the  fishes. 
So  we  must  record  thus  : — 

Genus  Leptodus,  Kayser,  1883. 

Genoholotype  L.  Richthofeni,  Kayser. 
Syn.  Lyttonia,  Waagen. 

Genus  Cyclothyeis,  M'Coy,  1844. 

Type,  the  species  figured  by  M'Coy,  Carb.  Foss.  p.  150,  fig.  29,=  Terebr. 
latissima,  Sowerby. 

Dall  says  that  M'Coy's  figure  is  indeterminable;  but  this 
is  not  justified.  It  is  obviously  a  multiplicate  lihynchonella, 
and  Davidson  is  quite  correct  in  mentioning  Eh.  latissima  as 
type.  Thus  it  will  be  more  correct  at  present  to  turn  over  to 
Cyclothyris  the  bulk  of  the  present  Mesozoic  BhynchonelUv — 
all  those  which  are  multiplicate  and  hypothyrid  ;  leaving  in 
true  l\hi/nchonella  only  the  species  which  are  ]iauciplicate 
and  hypothyrid,  congruous  with  li.  lo.iia — such  series  as  the 
Ji.  acuta  group. 

On  the  Flying-fish  Problem.  327 

However,  furtlier  division  of  tlio,  Me'^ozoic  Rhynclioncllids 
is  imperativo,  if  only  for  the  sake  of  cla.ssificatory  conve- 
nience ;  for  the  present  genus  is  quite  unwieldy,  and  therefore 
very  troublesome  for  any  systematic  arrangement. 


[New  names  in  heavy  type.] 

Cleiothyridina,  =  Cleiothyris,  auctt. 

C'leiot/ii/rix,  1841,  =  T.  concentrica  series. 

Cumposita,  1845,  =  Seminula,  auctt. 

Ci/chthyns,  1844,  =  T.  lotissima  series. 

J'jpithyriK,  1 84 1 ,  =  T.  tna.dllata  series. 

L))it/ii/iis  bathonica,  =  T.  ina.iillata  (pars). 

Hypothyridina,  =  Hypothyris,  auctt. 
liypothyris,  1841,  preoccupied. 
Leptodus,  1883,  precedes  Lytfonia. 
Lyifonia,  1883,  syn.  of  Leptodus. 

Seminula,  1844,  =  Camarophoria  (pars). 

XLV. — The  Flying-fish  Problem. 
By  Lieut. -Colonel  C.  D.  Durnfokd, 

In  a  paper  published  in  these  'Annals'  for  January  1906 
tl)e  impossibility,  from  a  mechanical  point  of  view,  of  a 
fiying-fi:vh  accomplishing  sailing  flight  was  shown.  The 
argument  was  based  upon  the  fact  that  as  a  flying  animal 
the  flying-fish  is  equipped  with  wings  of  a  fractional  sailing 
value  compared  with  those  of  a  sailing  bird.  Also  that  if 
the  wings  were  many  times  larger,  so  as  to  bring  the  fish  on 
an  equality  with  the  bird  in  this  respect,  it  could  only  sail 
with  the  bird's  limitations  as  regards  direction  of  the  wind, 
and  with  the  bird's  frequent  assistance  from  rowing  flight. 
Also  that  if  the  figures  (which  can  be  easily  verified  or,  if 
wrong,  refuted)  are  correctly  given  in  the  article,  the 
accepted  aeroplane  flight  is  miraculous,  unless  a  new  law  of 
Nature  be  discovered. 

It  is,  then,  perhaps  advisable,  if  the  present  curious  con- 
dition of  the  question  is  to  be  understood,  to  examine  how  it 
has  come  about. 

The  flying-fish  problem  is  a  very  odd  one  in  many  ways, 
of  which  the  most  striking  is  the  unexplained  power  therein  of 
the  negative  to  quench  the  positive.  Throughout  we  find  the 
aeroplanist's  '' I  cannot  see  the  wing-movement"  smothering 
a  fairly  equal  bulk  of  ''  I  can,  and  have,  and  do  see  it." 

Let  us  create  a  parallel  instance,  for  a  real  parallel  does 

328  Lieut.-Col.  C.  D.  Darnford  on 

not  perhaps  exist : — Many  people  can  see  bullets  in  their 
liight.  ]\Iany  others  uith  equally  good^  or  even  better,  sight 
cannot  pick  up  the  flying  bullets.  Now  it"  those  who  fail 
to  see  them  said,  and  if  all  books  and  papers  on  shooting 
supported  them  in  so  saying,  "  I  cannot  see  the  bullets, 
therefore  you,  and  all  those  who  do  see  them,  do  not  see 
theni,'^  we  should  have  a  parallel  to  the  current  odd  mode  of 
conducting  the  flying-fish  problem. 

It  is  in  consequence  of  this  supremacy  of  the  negative 
that  the  flying-fish  problem  has  earned  for  itself  the  name 
of  "  eternal/^  for  as  soon  as  one  new  witness  can  see  the 
flight,  either  another  new  one  fails  to  do  so,  or  a  reference  is 
made  to  some  observer  who  has  formerly  so  failed ;  and  this 
is  equally  satisfactory,  for,  in  the  problem,  even  an  old  ''I 
did  not "  is  better  than  a  new  ^'  I  do,^^ 

It  might  naturally  be  supposed  that  there  must  be  an 
overAvhelming  backing  of  probability,  both  mechanical  and 
natural,  to  the  negative  evidence  in  order  to  justify  such 
dogged  denial  to  the  affirmative  of  its  common  value.  So  far, 
however,  from  this  being  the  case,  it  is  a  second  odd  fact 
that  but  one  seemingly  practical  eS'ort  at  proof  has  been 
made,  and  with  this  one  exception  aeroplane  flight  rests 
wholly  upon  the  flat  negative. 

Let  us  examine  this  solitary  attempt  at  proof. 

I  requote  from  an  article,  which  may  be  taken  as 
typical  of  the  system,  in  the  '  Annual  Report  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution,'  1904,  p.  498,  by  Dr.  Theodore 
Gill,  an  emphatic  aeroplanist : — "  Mobius  (1878,  1885)  con- 
tended that  *  Flying-fish  are  incapable  of  jbjing  [the  italics 
are  his],  for  the  simple  reason  that  the  muscles  of  the  pectoral 
fins  ai-e  not  large  enough  to  bear  the  weight  of  their  body 
aloft  in  the  air.'  "  If  undisputed  that  is,  without  doubt,  a 
most  poAverful  argument — decisive,  in  fact.  But  mark  ! 
almost  immediately  Prof.  AVhitman,  a  high  authority,  denies 
its  accuracy.  In  the  same  article  we  find  that  this  state- 
ment is  "vigorously  objected  to  by  C.  O.  AYhitmau  (1880), 
who  urged,  'Admitting  that  in  form,  size,  length,  and 
structure  the  pectoral  fins  of  Exocoetus  are  less  well 
adapted  to  flight  than  the  Mings  of  most  birds,  there  is  still 
am})lc  room  to  believe,  on  anatomical  and  physiological 
grounds  alone,  that  they  are  capable  of  executing  true 
flight.'''  This  is  a  ])lain  statement  moderately  worded 
by  a  distinguished  physiologist  and  naturalist,  and  it  is 
interesting  to  note  that  it  is  answered,  as  though  by  con- 
vincing argument,  by  the  old  irritating  impasse — the  re- 
ference to  views  of  distinguished  naturalists  as  to  whether 

the  Flying -fish  rrollem.  329 

flyiug-fisli  fly  or  do  not  fly,  and  entirely  ignoring  the  new 
muscle  aspect  opened  l)y  Whitman, 

Among  the  distinguished  naturalists  thus  referred  to  iu 
support  of"  Miiljius's  theory,  Prol".  ]NJose!ey,  as  being  of  the 
'  Challenger'  Expedition,  and  ]\Ir.  lioulcnger  are  prominently 
mentioned.  Jiut  Moseley,  who  cannot  see  the  Exocoetus 
flap[)ing,  eau  see  the  Dactylopterids  doing  so  (p.  512)  :  the 
possibility  of  which  act  is  denied  by  Mobius  from  personal 
observation  as  strongly  as  iu  the  ease  of  E.vocoetas  !  Whilst 
Boulenger  merely  quoted  the  verdict  of  others,  he  himself 
retained,  then  as  now,  as  he  informs  me,  an  open  mind 
upon  the  question. 

It  is  surprising  how  largely  this  "  general  verdict  "  is 
influenced  by  the  researches  of  ]\i6bfus,  the  very  Professor 
whose  solitary  so-called  proof  is  questioned  by  Whitman  ; 
so  we  will  examine  more  closely  what  he  says  about  the 
muscles.  The  quotation  is  continued  from  " '  aloft  iu  the 
air/  "  above. 

"  '  The  pectoral  muscles  of  birds  depressing  their  wings 
weigh,  on  an  average,  one  sixth  of  the  total  weight  of  the 
body,  the  pectoral  muscles  of  bats  one  thirteenth,  the  muscles 
of  the  pectoral  fins  of  Hying-fish  only  one  thirty-second.' " 

If  this  proves  anything — Mhich  to  the  purpose  it  does 
not — it  may  prove  that,  as  flying-fish  have  somewhat  less 
than  half  the  comparative  muscle  of  bats,  and  (aceordiiig  to 
aeroplanists)  cannot,  for  this  reason,  fly,  therefore  biits, 
which  have  somewhat  less  than  half  the  comparative  muscle 
of  birds,  cannot  fly. 

Or,  the  other  way  about  : — Birds  can  fly.  Bats,  having 
rather  less  than  half  the  comparative  muscle  of  birds,  can  fly ; 
therefore  flyiug-flsh,  having  rather  less  than  half  the  com- 
parative muscle  of  bats,  may  ^\. 

Those  are  reasonable  deductions,  but  "  therefore  flying- 
fish  cannot  fly  "  is  an  unreasonable  one. 

It  is  quite  clearly  a  question  of  degree,  and  the  true 
deduction  is  that  bats,  if  they  can  fly,  cannot  be  expected  to 
fly  like  birds,  and  flying-fish,  if  they  can  fly,  cannot  be 
expected  to  fly  like  either  bats  or  birds  ;  and,  I  may  add,  no 
one  thinks  or  claims  that  they  do  so  fly. 

But  an  even  greater  claim  is  made  by  aeroplanists.  It  is 
recognized  that  there  are  two  kinds  of  bird-flight,  "  sailing" 
and  "  rowing,"  the  sailing  being  greatly  the  superior  form. 
Sailers  can  always  row,  but  rowers  cannot  prop  rly  sail  on 
account  of  their  low  wing  to  weight  ratio  ■^.     Mow  flying-fish 

o.   rr    i-       .    p  1       A/wirio^-surface  in  sq.  cm.        ,  .  ,  , ,  . 

*  Hartiugs    formula     -  .^,      .        .  — >  which  governs  this 

>/ weight  iu  grammes. 

330  Lieut.-Col.  C.  D.  Durnford  on 

have  a  ratio  of  the  lowest  class  in  comparison  with  hirds 
(see  'Annals/  Jan.  1906,  p.  102)  ;  yet  tliey  are  credited 
by  aeroplanists  with  sailing  of  a  higher  form  than  that  of  the 
best-equipped  sailing-birds — sailing,  without  even  occasional 
rowing  assistance,  at  a  slow  speed,  regardless  of  the  direction 
of  the  wind  !  Such  a  feat — one  utterly  impossible  for  an 
albatross  *,  an  eagle,  a  vulture,  kings  of  fliglit — is  given  to 
this  last  poor  dabbler  in  the  art  upon  persistently  contradicted 
negative  evidence,  two  im])ossible  parallels,  and  the  one 
discredited  proof. 

I  have  endeavoured,  in  the  foregoing  to  show  how 
observers  have  been  weighted  and  clogged  hy  the  unique 
system  of  handling  an  admittedly  difficult  question — 
how  a  very  able  man,  Prof.  Mobius,  years  ago  undertook 
a  research  which  required  a  very  special  knack  of  eyesight 
in  the  observer.  Probably  the  majority  of  men  are  without 
this  knack,  and  do  not  know  it.  Firmly  believing  what 
I  have  endeavoured  to  sliow  must  have  been  the  false 
view  presented  to  his  retina,  to  be  a  true  view,  he  wrote, 
with  the  cleverness  that  belonged  to  him  and  the  dog- 
matism of  the  believer,  the  text  of  the  faith  which  has  guided 
and  misguided  scientists  for  over  a  quarter  of  a  century.  His 
reputation  was,  and  is,  deservedly  great — so  great  that  his 
word  was  practically  law,  and  it  came  about  that  if  other 
scientists  possessed  the  knack  of  sight  and  differed  from  hiui 
so  much  the  worse  for  them  ;  they  must  be  either  ignored, 
or  explained  away,  any  or  no  explanation  being  sufficient 
for  such  a  proper  purpose.  This  is  not  a  hard  judiiment. 
Anyone,  who  is  free  from  the  superstition,  on  reading  an 
ordinary  aeroplane  article  will  recognise  its  justice. 

Take  a  quite  typical  example  of  the  common  aeroplane 
blindfold  acceptance  from  writer  to  writer  of  palpable 
impossibilities  as  guiding  facts.  In  the  article  that  we  have 
been  quoting  from  we  may  note  the  following  (p.  500)  : 
"  The  best  estimate  has  been  that  an  ordinary  flight  may 

ratio  in  birds,  is  impugQed  by  li.  von  Lendeufeld  iu  the  volume  that 
we  have  been  quoting  from  (Ann.  Kep.  Smith.  Inst.  1904,  p.  li>y).  The 
figures  of  his  example  in  proof  will  not,  Iiowever,  bear  examination. 

/  v^33(3 
Correctly  calculated  they  strongly  support  Hartings  (  -—  ^  =  268,  and 

\  \'  o'-O 

not  4'03  as  given  by  Von  Lendeufeld  as  the  ratio  of  the  partridge  J. 

*  Some  notes  by  Prof.  Moseley  ("  Notes  by  a  Naturalist  on  the 
*  Challoiiger,'"  p.  571,  1874)  upon  the  small  amount  of  true  soaring 
performed  even  by  the  albatross  are  instructive.  Our  eyesight  misleads 
us  airain  in  this  matter. 

the  Flying-Jlsh  Problem. 


extend  from  30  to  50  yards  in  less  than  twenty  seconds."  la 
order  to  get  working  figures  we  may  call  "30  to  50  yards  ^' 
403'ards,  and  "  less  than  twenty  seconds"  15  seconds.  This 
gives  a  rate  of  5i  miles  an  hour  ! 

Note  this,  you  who  watch  the  fish  fleeing  before  a  14-knot 

Such  statements  are  the  habit  of  the  problem.  Just  in 
the  same  way  is  it  its  recognized  habit  to  quote,  un- 
questioned, as  "  sailing "  parallels  to  the  heavy  smali- 
winged  fish,  the  f-oz.  large-winged  swallow,  and  the  parachute 
whose  work  is  falling  only  ;  or,  again,  to  faithfully  reproduce 
over  and  over  again  pictures  of  impossible  air-currents 
performing  feats  also  impossible  ;  or  to  continue  to  ascribe 
the  frantic  eflbrts  at  flight  of  a  fish  fallen  on  deck  to  natural 
spasms,  although  it  is  not  credited  with  active  use  of  its  wings 
either  in  air  or  sea ;  and  so  on.  It  is  the  way  of  the 
problem,  and  no  one  is  to  blame. 

Perhaps  the  odd  unsuitability  of  the  swallow  comparison 
may  be  brought  more  fully  home  by  a  sketch. 

The  ratio  (Hartings'  formula)  of  a  swallow  (house-martin) 
is  4*2,  and  its  wing-area  120  sq.  era.  The  flying-fish  ratio  is 
2*6.  If  we  reduce  the  swallow  to  a  2"6  ratio,  its  wing-area 
becomes  about  47  sq.  cm. 

W//\IG     /}/?£/} 

Sc/iL€  ^ 



iV/A/C      /)/?£/) 

This  reduction  to  flying-fish  ratio  is  shown  by  the  shaded 
parts  of  the  sketch. 

Could  anyone  contend  that  a  swallow  could  sail  even  in  its 
present  poor  and  much-assisted  way  (for  it  is  far  from  being 
a  first-class  sailer)  if  the  unshaded  parts  of  the  wing-areas 
were  removed  ? 

Opinion  is,  however,  undoubtedly  changing.  Many  of  the 
old  shibboleths  are  fast  becoming  discredited.  The  great 
distances  that  the  fish,  under  favouring  conditions,  fly  clear 

332  Lieut.-Cul.  C.  D.  Dimdovd  on 

of  the  water  ^ — the  fact  that  they  fly  in  calms  as  iu  winds — 
that  they  come  on  board  ships  from  lee  and  weather  bides 
indifferently — that  they  can  and  do  turn  in  airf — that  they 
often  lose  and  often  gain  speed,  both  from  simple  causes,  on 
meeting-  a  wave  or  on  tail-dipping — that  they  can  and  do  at 
times  gain  speed  whilst  still  in  air — that  they  make  for  lights 
deliberately — that  they  rise  and  fall  of  set  purpose  while  in 
the  air  :  all  these  and  much  more  that  has  been  under  the 
ban  are  being  witnessed  and  certified  to  so  incessantly  that 
soon  only  the  high-priests  of  aeroplane  will  be  left  contra- 
dicting them. 

F.  G.  Aflalo  ('Natural  Hist,  of  Australia':  ^Mucmillan 
&  Co.,  1896)  writes:  "I  have  watched  these  beautiful 
creatures  by  the  hour  and  in  all  weathers,  ....  but  after 
having  closely  watched  thousands  of  them  through  strong 
glasses,  1  cannot  give  as  emphatic  an  opinion  as  1  shouhl 
like  on  the  oft-discussed    question  of    whether    the    wings 

vibrate  like  those  of  birds If  the  pectoral  tins  are  so 

constituted  as  to  be  capable  of  vibration,  then  1  would  say 
as  the  result  of  my  own  observations  that  to  some  slight 
extent  they  do  flap,  not  like  those  of  birds,  perhaps,  certainly 
not  like  those  of  the  bat." 

1  have  quoted  the  above  as  it  expresses  markedly  two 
common  difficulties:  (1)  the  real  difficulty  in  discerning  the 
movements  ;    (2)  the  pre-acquired  idea  that  the  wings  arc 

*  It  is  difficult  to  judge  distance  at  sea.  Tlie  tendency  is  to  under- 
estimate it.  Many  observers  testify  to  having  seeu  Hights  of  more  than 
a  quarter  of  a  mile.  Frank  Bullen,  in  his  article  upon  flying- lish  in 
'  Creatures  of  the  Sea,'  insists  that  he  has  seeu  flights  of  over  "a  mile.  He 
has  had  exceptional  opportunities  for  observing  them,  and  I  see  uo  reasou 
for  thinking  that  he  is  mistaken. 

t  With  reference  to  their  turning  powers.  I  mentioned  iu  the  former 
papor  a  hsh  which  I  had  seeu  to  turn  back  in  air.  I  then  restricted 
myself  to  the  bare  facts  required  for  the  argument.  It  had  interested 
me,  however,  much  at  the  time,  not  only  because  it  was,  to  me,  a  rare 
occurrence,  but  also  because  the  controlling  cause  of  the  fish's  remaining 
and  turning  iu  air  was  quite  evident.  The  sea  was  rather  calm  and  the 
ship  was  throwing  out,  with  each  gentle  roll  and  dip,  those  broad  hissing 
tallies  of  white  foam  which  spread  away  for  many  feet  from  lier  sides, 
and  die  in  a  mass  of  struggling  bubbles,  to  reappe'tr  as  the  white  broad 
rushing  table  of  the  next  dip.  The  fish  had  risen  independently  of  the 
ship,  and  was  flyin«r  towards  us  at  full  speed,  when  a  sudden  slow  down 
marked  its  perception  of  the  advancing  monster.  There  was  no  time, 
however,  for  it  to  decide  whether  water  or  air  was  the  less  perilous  before 
it  was  over  an  unusually  broad  table  of  boiling  foam.  The  hidden  and 
fearful  possibilities  of  this  evidently  decided  it,  jind  tlien  ensued  its  slow- 
but  successful  struggle  to  turn  and  get  clear  of  the  concealed  horrors. 
This  it  did  with  what  must  have  beeu  a  terrific  eflfurt,  but  it  got  quite 
round  and  well  awav  out  into  the  blue  water  before  it  dived. 

the  Fh,ui<j-Ji^h  Prulh'i,},  X\?> 

not  fitted  for  flapijiiig,  an  idea  wliicli  naturally  greatly  in- 
creases (lilliculty  (I).  Had  Mr.  Aflalo  been  certain  of  the 
two  facts  that  tlie  wings  were  fitted  for  flapping  and  that 
"sailing"  was  for  tlie  fish  ordinarily  iiiipossible,  it  cannot 
he  doubted  that  his  views  would  have  been  stronger  and 
expressed  very  difl'erently. 

Among  quite  recent  papers  upon  this  question,  two  should 
be  especially  noted.  Lionel  E.  Adams,  B.A.,  writes  in  the 
'Zoologist'  (April  4th,  llJOC))  an  article  interesting  through- 
out.    1  quote  from   p.  1 IG  :   "  ....  I  was  often  al)le  to  see 

them  against  the  sky I  could  see  quite  distinctly  that 

their  tails  were  vibrating  very  rapidly  from  side  to  side 
during  the  whole  flight,  and  that  the  wings  would  vibrate 
with  an  intensely  rapid  shivering  motion  for  a  second,  tlien 
remain  outspread  motionless  for  one  or  two  seconds,  and 
then  vibrate  again.  This  vibration  of  the  wings  is  not 
up  and  down  as  in  the  case  when  birds  fly,  but  in  an 
almost  horizontal  direction." 

That  is  a  quite  possible  explanation  of  tlie  mode  of  flight, 
provided  that  a  sufficient  speed  be  acquired  in  the  inter- 
mediate flappings,  but  this  the  known  speed  of  the  fish  shows 
to  be  not  commonly  the  ease. 

Again,  on  p.  148:  "I  am  perfectly  well  aware  that  a 
casual  glance  at  flying-fish  from  the  lofty  deck  of  a  liner 
gives  the  impression  that  they  soar  like  birds  with  motionless 
wings,  but  watch  them  at  close  quarters  from  the  deck  of  a 
low-wnisted  tramp  and  the  vibratory  motion  of  the  tail  and 
fins  will  be  quite  plain." 

Interesting  as  is  Mr.  Adams's  paper,  T  cannot  but  think  that 
he  is  partly  mistaken  in  his  view  s,  and  that  the  wing-vibration 
which  he  discerned  was  really  less  rapid  than  the  movement 
in  the  period  following  which  he  believed  to  be  one  of 
stillness,  just  as  the  liner-passengers  mistook  his  vibrations 
for  stillness.  I  do  not  say  that  the  fish  could  never  arrive 
at  a  speed  by  which  a  very  short  aeroplane  flight  could  be 
attained  even  with  their  low  ratio ;  but  I  do  say  that 
such  is  not  their  common  speed,  and  that  in  any  case  their 
disregard  of  wind-direction  disproves  such  flight. 

Therefore  another  way  must  be  looked  for,  and  we  are 
driven  back,  perforce,  to  continuous  wing-action,  the  manner 
of  which  may  be  here  examined  as  carefully  as  our  information 

Premising  that  the  flight  varies  greatly  on  different  days 
and  under  difterent  conditions,  the  following  is  pj-obably  a 
iair  description  of  their  methods  in  an  ordinary  flight : —  ' 

1.  The  tail-impelledj  visibly  (to  many)  wing-assisted  jump 

334  Lieut. -Col.  C.  D.  Duinfovd  on 

from    tlic  water   to    a  height   where    the    wings    can    work 

2.  The  flight  continued  by  an  intensely  rapid  and  laboured 
wing-movement  —  one  easily  mistaken  for  stillness,  and  usually 
seen,  if  at  all,  as  blurr. 

3.  Sliort  periods  of  slowing  down  of  wing-speed,  during 
which  the  wing-movement  becomes  again  visible.  (These  are 
the  "  vibration ^^  periods,  representing  to  aeroplanists  loose 
wing-trailing,  or  dragging  like  a  flapping  flag — an  impossi- 
bility ;  and,  to  Mr.  Adams,  periods  of  wing-assistance — with 
limitations  a  possibility.)  These  periods  often  precede  a 
special  spurt  such  as  is  required  to  lift  the  fish  over  au 
oncoming  wave. 

4.  Either  sudden  cessation  of  wing-movement  and  con- 
sequent immediate  drop  into  the  sea  or  a  short  slow  down 
into  visibility  (No.  3j  previous  to  such  drop. 

It  is  to  be  noted  that  this  vibration  so  often  seen  before 
the  fish  enters  the  water  is  one  of  the  many  pointers  to 
continuous  wing-movement,  for  such  a  time  is  a  proper  one 
for  slowing  down,  but  an  absurd  one  for  renewal  of  wiug- 

To  return  to  Mr.  Adams's  paper.  He  notes,  as  have  others, 
the  vibration  of  the  wings  as  being  in  "  an  almost  horizontal 
direction."  This  horizontal  movement,  if  it  exists,  as  is 
probal)le,  may  afford,  as  I  hoi)e  to  show,  a  looked  for  key  to 
the  fish's  action. 

According  to  Pettigrew,  it  is  a  necessity  of  flight,  where 
wing-beats  are  in  a  more  or  less  vertical  direction,  that  tlie 
up-beat  should  meet  with  little  and  the  down-beat  with 
much  resistance  from  the  air.  This  is  arranged  for  in  the 
case  of  bats,  birds,  and  certain  insects  by  means  of  special 
muscles  and  ligaments  which  automatically  Hex  the  wing  for 
or  during  the  up-stroke  and  extend  it  for  or  during  the 
down.  (Pettigrew,  'Animal  Locomotion/  Lit.  Science 
Series,  vol.  vii.  pp.  122,  182,  191,  &c.  :   1891.) 

]\Iarey  ('Animal  Mechanism,'  p.  263  &c. :  Lit.  Science 
Scries,  1893)  equally  recognizes  the  necessity  for  a  diminished 
wing-area  in  the  up-stroke,  but  lielicvcs  it  to  be  obtained 
in  birds  through  the  natural  elasticity  of  the  feathers,  wIulIi 
enables  them  to  return  to  their  ordinary  position  when  the 
resistance  of  the  air  in  the  down-stroke  ceases  to  raise  them. 

The  flying-fish's  wing,  as  is  known,  is  formed  on  quite  a 
different  principle  from  that  of  a  bird  or  bat.  It  opens  and 
closes  somewhat  like  a  fan.  A  partial  automatic  clo>iiig  of 
this  fan  at  the  foot  of  the  downward  stroke  in  flight  and 
opening  at  the  top  of  the  rising  stroke  would  both  give  the 

tlie  Flijii\(j-jhh  Prohlcin.  ?>'-^'i 

npi)C'aranc(;  of  horizontal  vil)i'atioii  wlicn  seen  cither  from 
iiljovc  or  below,  and  would  turn  a  soincwliat  diflicult  question 
of  the  nicclianics  of  the  flight  into  a  very  simple  one. 
Indeed  we  have  here  Hying  aetiou  on  the  same  general 
prineiple  as  that  shown  by  Pettigrew  and  Marey  to  be 
iiceessarily  provided  for  in  the  case  of  bats  and  birds,  but 
the  working  details  of  which  arc  differei\t  and  simpler,  as 
becomes  a  simpler  form  of  wing. 

Perha|)s  that  is  the  ex[)lauation.  There  must,  of  course, 
be  some  explanation,  and  that  is  not  only  the  natural  deduc- 
tion from  the  peculiar  i'ormation  of  the  wing,  but  it  also  fits 
everything  in. 

The  known  (but  indistinct)  visibility  of  the  larger  rays  of 
the  wings  at  times  during  flight  points,  perhaps,  to  a  compa- 
rative pause  with  wings  full  open  before  beginning  the 
down-stroke.  Such  pause  would  give  the  open  position, 
and  with  it  the  wing-tracery  prominence. 

The  form  of  these  fishes^  wings  points  to  this  fan-action 
rather  than  to  other  known  horizontal  wing-actions  of  the 
nature  of  that  of  certain  insects — the  common  fly,  for  instance 
(Marey,  loc.  cit.  pp.  204,  20G). 

The  second  quite  recent  and  very  important  observer  and 
writer  on  this  subject  is  convinced  of  the  flight-action.  He 
writes  also  from  personal  observation,  and  is  as  free  from 
proper  mechanical  bias  as  from  the  improper  follow-my- 
leader  habit.  One  of  his  remarks,  "  It  is  by  no  means 
impossible  that  flying-fish  may  soar,  as  ei'en  [my  italics] 
birds  do  this,^'  shows  his  mechanical  freedom.  In  a  paper 
dated  Oct.  28th,  1905,  Brig  '  Galilee/  North  Pacific  Ocean, 
Dr.  J.  Ilobart  Egbert,  Carnegie  Expedition,  writes  {'  Forest 
and  Stream/  Jan.  27th,  190G)  :  "Though  still  denied  by 
some  observers,  tlie  power  of  propulsion  through  the  air  by 
means  of  its  fin-wings  is  generally  accorded  the  flying-fish  *. 
During  months  at  sea  in  the  tropics  the  writer  has  almost 
daily  watched  the  flying-fishes  and  studied  their  flight  through 

the  air The  difficulties  of  assuring  oneself  that  the 

flving-fish  moves  its  wings  during  its  flight  through  the  air 
are  well  understood,  and  also  the  fact  that  these  difficulties 
are  generally  removed  when  opportunity  is  aftbrdcd  of 
observing  the  flight  of  certain  of  the  larger  species  under 
favourable  conditions.  That  flying-fishes  use  their  wings 
after  the  manner  of  birds,  at  least  upon  emerging  from  the 
water,  can  hardly  be  denied,  since  from  the  fo^'c'sMe  head  of 
a  ship  plying  the  waters  of  the  lower  latitudes  this  wide  bird- 

*  A  little  premature,  if  Natural  Histories  and  Encyclopaedias  are  any 
indication  of  sreneral  accord. — C.  D.  D. 

•336  Lieut.-Oul.  C.  D.  Diiinfoid  on 

like  motion  of  the  fin-wings  may  be  easily  observed  as  the 
large  flying-fishes  break  water  almost  under  the  vessel's  bow. 
This  flapping  motion  of  the  fin-wings  is  not,  however,  long 
maintained,  but  as  soon  as  the  fish  is  well  started  in  the  air 
apparently  passes  into  a  vibratory  motion  of  the  appendages 
so  rapid  as  to  be  almost  beyond  human  visual  perception." 

Quite  so.  That  is  the  to-be-expected  flight  of  an  cx- 
ce])tionally  low-ratio  flyer  having  special  added  natural 
disabilities.  Before  long  it  will  be  the  accepted  one  for 

More  about  the  Pectoral  Muscles. 

Since  writing  the  foregoing  I  have  received  a  communi- 
cation from  Prof.  C.  Stewart,  F.R.S.,  Conservator  of  the 
^fuseum  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  who  kindly 
gives  me  permission  to  use  the  results  of  a  dissection  made 
at  the  ]Museum  for  ihe  purpose  of  compariug  the  pectoral 
muscles  of  the  flying-fish  with  those  of  a  nearly  related  non- 
flying  fish. 

I  quote  from  the  letter  of  Mr.  Burnc,  who  made  the 
dissection  : — 

"  Royal  College  of  Surg-eons  of  England, 

Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 

London,  W.C,  I'^th  June,  1900. 

"Dear    Sir, — I    have    made    a   dissection    of   the 

pectoral  muscles  of  a  flying-fish  {Exoco^tus  sp.)  and  of  a 
nearly  related  fish  of  much  the  same  build,  but  without  the 
enlarged  pectoral  fins  {Hemiramphus).  Both  were  speci- 
mens from  our  store-room,  and  although  in  pretty  good 
condition  had  evidently  been  in  spirit  for  a  considerable 
time.  I  enclose  you  tracings  of  the  drawings  I  made.  The 
two  of  the  external  view  were  drawn  with  a  camera,  and  the 
Hemiramphus,  which  was  rather  less  in  girth  than  the 
Exoccctus,  was  so  much  enlarged  as  to  have  the  same  girth 
about  an  inch  behind  the  pectorals.  I  thought  that  body- 
srirth  sufficiently  far  behind  the  fins  not  to  be  influenced  bv 
their  degree  of  development  was  the  best  standard  of  size  to 
take — better  than  length,  for  instance.  As  a  matter  of  fact, 
the  fish  were  very  much  the  same  length,  the  Exoccetus  being 
rather  the  longer. 

"The  drawings,!  think,  explain  themselves.  The  flying-fish 
muscles  were,  as  you  see,  considerably  larger,  both  in  area  and 
in  thickness,  th&nm Hcniira/up/ius,  and  the  same  was  the  case 
with  the  muscles  on  the  deep  surface  of  the  fin.  In  their 
arrangement  they  were  much  the  same  in  both  fish  and  the 

the  Flying-jUli  Prohlcm. 


same  as  in  other  bony  fislics  (the  cotl,  for  instance;).  Tiic 
nuinljcrs  ou  the  siu-race  ot"  the  litis  arc  tlie  points  where  I  took 
the  thickness  of  the  luusclc  by  plunging  a  needle  into  it  and 

in  ofepoi/i. 

Shoulder  airdU 

measuring  the  depth  to  which  the  needle  entered, 
notice  the  great  length  of  the  muscles  in  Exocoetus 

You  ^vill 
a  longr 

muscle  means  a  proportionate  length  of  contraction. 

" there  is  a  very  marked  difference  in  the  size  of 

the  muscles  of  these  two  fishes 

."  Believe  me,  yours  faithfully, 

R.  H.  BURNE 

{Assistatit  in  Museum)." 

The  above  tracing  seems  to  give,  roughly,  about  4i  times 
greater  bulk  of  muscle  to  the  Exocoetus  than  to  the  Hemi- 
ramphus.  With  this  light  it  will  not  be  out  of  place  to 
requote  and  amplify  the  one  ''  proof,^'  distinguishing  the 
addition    by    italics : — "  The     pectoral     muscles    of    birds 

Ann.  S  Mag.  N.  Hist.  Ser.  7.    Vol.  xviii.  25 

338  On  a  nev)  Race  o/Sciurus  lokriodes. 

depressing  their  wings  weigh  on  an  average  one  sixth  the 
total  weight  of  their  body,  the  pectoral  muscles  of  bats  one 
thirtcentli,  the  muscles  of  the  pectoral  fins  of  flying-fish  .... 
one  thirty-second,"  cmd  the  muscles  of  a  nearly  related  non- 
fiyiriy  ftsli  only  one  hundred  and  fifty -fourth. 

As  before,  it  does  not  prove  that  bats  or  flying-fish  flap  or 
do  not  flap  their  wings,  but  it  gives  a  difl'crcnt  and,  I  iiope, 
a  proper  aspect  to  the  figures  which  have  done  duty— of  a 
kind — for  so  many  vears. 

XLVI. —  On  a  new  Race  q/ Sciurns  lokriodes/row  Burma. 
By  J.  Lewis  Bonhote,  M.A. 

A  SMALL  collection  of  mammals,  recently  brought  home  from 
Bangoon  by  Capt.  A.  Mears,  contains  four  specimens  of  a 
squirrel  closely  allied  to  S.  lokriodes,  Ilodg.s.,  but  so  distinct 
as  to  be  entitled  to  subspecific  rank.     I   propose  for  it  the 

Sciurus  lolcriodes  Mearsi,  subsp.  n. 

Similar  in  size  and  general  characters  to  S.  lokriodes, 
Hodgs.,  but  much  paler  and  greyer  than  examples  from  the 
typical  locality.  General  colour  above  gre3'ish  green,  ratlier 
darker  on  the  back  and  paler  on  the  flanks,  and  especially 
over  the  thighs.  Tail  ringed  with  black  and  grey  and  with 
no  black  lip.  Ears  covered  with  short  fulvous  hairs. 
Underparts  dull  white,  purest  on  the  chin,  duller  on  the  body  ; 
on  the  inner  side  of  either  thigh  is  a  patch  of  pale  orange, 
and  similar  patches,  though  of  a  paler  tint,  are  situated  on 
the  inner  sides  of  the  arms  and  at  the  root  of  the  tail,  while 
in  some  specimens  the  yellowish  tinge  tends  to  cover  the 
whole  of  the  underparts  between  the  limbs. 

The  skull  shows  no  marked  differences  from  that  of 
S.  loh-iodes  except  in  being  slightly  smaller,  but  in  its  general 
characters  it  closely  resembles  that  of  the  typical  race. 

Dimensions  (of  type  in  flesh)  : — 

Head  and  body  185  mm. ;  tail  172  ;  hind  foot  40  ;  ear  19. 

Skull:  greatest  lengtii  4.6-5;  length  of  palate  from  hen- 
selion  20 ;  zygomatic  breadtii  27'5 ;  greatest  breadth  of 
brain-case  20  ;  length  of  nasals  15  ;  length  of  niolar  series 
(alveoli)  10. 

J/ab.   L.  Chindwin,  Burinn. 

On  new  A/riain  Lppidoptera.  339 

Tjipp.  B.M.  6.  7.  5.  10  ( c^  ad.) .  Collected  by  Capt.  M.iar.s 
at  ("liinlijit,  L.  Chiiulwin,  on  llltli  January,  lOO(J. 

The  very  much  greyer  general  coloration  of  this  race  will 
enable  it  to  be  easily  recognized. 

XLVII. — Descriptions  of  African  Lepidoptera. 
By  George  T.  Betiiune-Baker,  F.L.S,,  F.Z.S. 

Family  Lycsenidae. 
Pentila  Catori,  sp.  n. 

($ .  Head,  antennoe,  and  prothorax  black;  metathorax 
brownish  ;  abdomen  ochreous.  Botli  wings  straw-colour : 
primaries  with  tlie  costa  dark  brown  nearly  to  the  costal  vein, 
conHnent  with  the  very  broad  blackish  apex  and  terraen ;  a 
small  black  spot  above  the  cell  in  front  of  vein  11,  with  one 
behnv  it  in  the  cell;  these  spots  are  inclined  to  be  fugitive  ; 
a  black  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell :  secondaries  with  a  small 
blackish  spot  above  the  cell  near  its  middle  ;  a  black  spot  at 
the  end  of  the  cell ;  termen  broadly  brown  from  vein  6  to 
vein  3.  Underside  with  the  spots  and  markings  sliowin''- 
through,  and,  in  addition,  the  secondaries  have  a  spot  below 
the  angle  of  vein  3  and  a  subterminal  curved  series  of  seven 
black  spots  which  show  through  slightly  on  the  upper  surface. 
?  .  Like  the  male,  but  whiter.  In  the  secondaries  the 
subterminal  series  of  spots  are  as  prominent  on  the  upperside 
as  on  the  underside.  Under  surface  as  in  the  male,  but  with 
a  postmedial  series  of  five  or  six  spots  which  show  slightly 
through  the  dark  area  of  the  upper  surface. 

Expanse,  $  44,   ?   48  mm. 

Huh.  Kabba  Province,  N.  Nigeria ;   September. 

Type  in  Cator^s  collection. 

Liptena  lihyssa  orientalis,  subsp.  n. 

(J .  Similar  to  L.  lihyssa  on  the  upperside.  Underside 
with  the  secondaries  blackish  spotted  with  cream-colour, 
instead  of  cream  spotted  with  black  ;  a  large  irregular  creamy 
basal  blotch,  followed  by  another  large  spot  in  the  radial  area, 
above  which  is  a  round  costal  spot,  and  below  it  two  spots 
(one  at  its  inner  and  the  other  at  its  outer  angle)  extendins 
nearl}'  to  the  inner  margin ;  an  obscure  series  of  postmedial 
dots  ;  a  largish  terminal  spot  below  the  apex,  below  wiiicli  are 


340  Mr.  G.  T.  Betliune- Baker  on 

three  smaller  terminal  spots,  the  first  bein^  nearly  linear 
and  the  third  smaller  than  the  second. 

Expanse  32  mm. 

Hah.  Uganda  ;  March. 

Type  in  my  collection. 

This  is  probably  the  Eastern  form  of  L.  Uhyssa,  Hew. ;  all 
my  specimens  from  Uuanda  are  similar,  so  that  it  probably 
forms  a  distinct  local  race. 

Liptena  suhpunctata,  sp.  n. 

($ .  Upperside  :  both  wings  spotless  white;  primary 
broadly  bLnckish  from  three  quarters  the  costa  to  just  below 
vein  3  on  the  tcrmen ;  base  of  wing  very  slightly  ochreous, 
with  the  costa  dark  grey  to  one  third :  secondaries  with  the 
termen  having  a  band  of  fine,  sparingly  scattered,  brownish 
irrorations.  Underside  :  primaries  wiiite,  with  a  dark  line 
closing  the  cell ;  costa  slightly  dusted  with  fine  brown  irrora- 
tions ;  apical  area  creamy  white,  with  a  short,  curved,  in- 
ternal, serrate  line  of  pale  brown  to  below  vein  5 ;  a  short, 
subterminal,  fine  brown  line  to  vein  4;  termen  cream-colour, 
with  a  distinct  fine  brown  internal  edge  to  vein  5 ;  fringes 
dark  brown  to  vein  3,  white  below  :  secondaries  pale  straw- 
colour,  with  numerous  pale  brown  markings;  a  very  fine 
and  scattered  basal  dusting  ;  a  more  plenteous  dusting  on  the 
inner  margin  ;  a  spot  near  the  centre  of  the  cell,  preceded  by 
a  small  fugitive  dot  ;  above  and  below  the  cell-spot  is  a 
smaller  dot;  cell  closed  by  a  fine  line  ;  an  obscure  trace  of  a 
median  interrupted  line ;  a  postmedian  curved  line  of  serra- 
tions interrupted  at  the  veins,  followed  by  a  fine  scalloped 
line;  termen  creamy,  with  a  fine  dusting  more  or  less  ou 
each  side  ;  fringes  creamy  white. 
?  .  Just  like  the  male. 

Expanse  39  mm. 

Hah.  Kabba  Province,  N.  Nigeria ;  September. 

Type  in  Gator's  collection. 

Hypolyccena  aureolmeata^  sp.  n. 

(^ .  Antennae  brown,  with  white  segmental  divisions. 
Both  wings  brown,  with  a  jnuplish-mauve  lustre,  in  a  side 
light  the  colour  is  much  brighter;  termen  tinely  black: 
secondaries  with  three  bhu  k  anal  spots,  the  lobe-spot  and  the 
second  edged  slightly  internally  with  whitish,  the  third  with 
an  internal  orange  spot  adjoining  it.  Under  surface :  both 
wings  warm  stone-grey,  with  rich  golden-orange  spots  and 
fasciae  edged   finely  with    black    and   white.     Primaries  with 

new  African  Lepidopiera.  ^>H 

ihe  cell  closed  with  an  orange  spot  whose  black  edging  is 
barely  tracealtle;  postniedial  fascia  broad,  erect,  increasing 
in  width  slightly  from  the  costa  to  vein  2,  then  rapidly 
decreasing  and  becoming  dusky  ;  subtcrminal  line  much  liner, 
the  radial  area  between  these  lines  whitish  ;  termen  finely 
orange :  secondaries  with  a  subbasal  spot  and  one  closing 
the  cell  ;  pcstmedial  fascia  broad,  angled  above  vein  lb  and 
ascending  to  beyond  the  middle  of  tlie  inner  margin;  sub- 
ti'rminal  line  narrow,  following  the  whole  course  of  the  post- 
medial,  but  broken  at  the  angle  ;  area  between  these  two 
lines  whitish;  a  dark  band  of  shading  between  the  latter 
(subterminal  line)  and  the  termen ;  termen  orange.  Lobe-spot 
black,  with  metallic  scales  and  a  golden-orange  internal  spot  ; 
an  orange  spot  wath  a  black  external  dot  on  the  termen 
between  veins  2  and  3  ;   both  tails  fine. 

Expanse  28-32  mm. 

Uab.  Toro. 

Type  in  my  collection. 

Family  Hesperiidae. 
Sarangesa  tsava,  sp.  n. 

(J.  Head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  brown;  antennae  white, 
witli  a  very  fine  interrupted  line  above  and  below,  tipped 
with  brown  below.  Both  wings  dark  brown  ;  primaries  with 
a  tawny-brown  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell ;  median  area 
blackish  and  a  blackish  patch  beyond  the  tawny  spot,  with  four 
small  hyaline  spots  at  its  costal  extremity  just  below  the  costa, 
two  small  hyaline  spots  below  the  costa  at  the  end  of  the 
cell,  tlie  lower  one  touching  the  tawny  spot ;  in  the  angle  of 
vein  3  another  hyaline  spot,  below  which  is  a  second  larger 
one,  terminal  area  slightly  ochreous  :  secondaries  with  a  trace 
of  a  postmedian  dark  line,  beyond  which  the  terminal  area  is 
broadly  slightly  ochreous.  Underside  :  primaries  paler  than 
above,  with  the  tawny  spot  of  the  upperside  ochreous  yellow  : 
secondaries  ochreous  yellow,  with  the  base  and  costa  greyish 
and  a  dark  greyish  apical  patch ;  an  obscure  interrupted 
median  line  and  an  indefinite  dark  greyish  postmedian  line  ; 
termen  with  a  dark  line ;  fringes  pale,  with  a  dark  central 

Expanse  31  mm. 

Hob.  Tsavo  River. 

'J'ype  in  my  collection. 

342  Mr.  G.  T.  Betliune-Bakei-  on 

Sarangesa  suhalhicans ,  sp.  ri. 

Primaries  ))ale  brownish  ;  a  small  hyaline  dot  in  the  cell 
in  front  of"  vein  3  and  one  above  it  outside  the  cell;  a  small 
similar  costal  s|)ot  well  in  front  of  tiie  apex  ;  a  hyaline  spot 
near  the  angle  of  vein  3,  with  a  large  quadrangular  one 
below  it  and  two  small  spots  below  it  ;  a  dark  indefinite  sub- 
terminal  band  angled  below  the  spot  in  front  of  the  apex : 
secondaries  rather  darker,  with  a  trace  of  a  dark  median  band 
and  a  curved  postmedian  spotted  band.  Underside  :  second- 
aries white,  with  costa  brownish;  a  small  brown  dash  above 
tiie  cell,  followed  by  a  large  brown  spot,  with  a  curved  spotted 
line  from  this  spot  to  vein  1^;  a  small  spot  closing  the  cell; 
two  large  confluent,  brown,  apical  spots,  with  a  trace  of  a 
subterminal  brown  spotted  line  below. 

Expanse  40  ram. 

Hah.  Kisumu  district. 

Type  in  my  collection. 

This  sjiecies  is  close  to  S.  thecla,  Plotz,  but  tlie  hyaline 
spots  of  the  primaries  and  the  position  of  the  markings  on 
the  under  surface  of  the  secondaries  are  decidedly  different. 

Pardaleodes  kaniagamba,  sp.  n. 

Primaries  blackish,  with  a  very  broad  orange  band  across 
the  outer  half  of  the  cell,  expanding  suddenly  along  vein  3  to 
vein  1  ;  two  small  yellowish  subapical  costal  dots  and  two 
subterminal  small  yellowish  dots  at  vein  5  :  secondaries 
uniform  blackish  brown. 

Expanse  38  mm. 

Uab.  Kamagambo. 

Ty[)e  in  my  collection. 

Pardaleodes  torensh,  sp.  n. 

c? .  Head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  dark  brown,  the  latter 
with  yellow  segmental  divisions  except  on  the  dorsum.  Both 
wings  darkish  brown,  with  considerable  areas  of  orange- 
}cllow  :  primaries  with  the  base  brown,  the,  median  area  to 
vein  1  orange,  invaded  with  brown  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  and 
rather  further  invaded  on  the  costa  ;  the  end  of  the  cell  has 
two  subovate  sjiots  of  yellowish  hyaline;  the  spaces  between 
veins  2  and  3  and  3  and  4  ocen})ied  by  yellowish  hyaline  for 
half  their  length,  so  that  the  latter  extends  further  out  thau 
the  former,  and  above  it  is  a  small  orange  spot ;  a  larger 
orange  spot  is  nearer  the  costa  and  nearer  the  cell:  second- 
aries with    area   from   vein  2  to  0  clear  orange  ;   the  brown 

7iew  African  Lepidoptera.  .'*»  13 

groniul-colonr  of  vein  2  is  also  iiivailctl   with  orange  about   a 
quarter  near  flie  centre  to  vein  1  ;   ternien  narrowly  brown. 

Kxpanse  39  mm. 

llah.  'J'oro,  E.  Africa. 

Type  in  my  collection. 

Tliis  may  jxwsibly  be  the  Eastern  form  of  P.  Eeichenowi, 

Ceratrichia  hrunnea,  sp.  n. 

Both  \vin,2,s  unitorm  dark  umber-brown  without  any 
markings.  Underside  :  secondaries  white,  tinged  with  olive 
at  the  outer  edge  ;  costa  brown  to  vein  8  ;  a  very  large  brown 
patch  occupies  the  whole  of  the  termen,  with  a  curved  inner 
margin,  thus  giving  the  white  area  a  creseentic  form  at  the 
apex ;  the  brown  area  is  broken  outwards  along  vein  4, 
terminating  at  vein  2  ;  in  the  white  area  is  a  dark  spot  in 
the  middle  of  vein  8,  Avith  two  dots  obliquely  placed  before  it 
and  (wo  small  spots  below  vein  2. 

Expanse  34  mm. 

Hab.  Nandi  Country. 

Type  in  Jackson  Coll. 

Oxyhadistes  ardea,  sp.  n. 

Head  and  thorax  black,  mixed  with  orange  hairs;  abdomen 
black,  orange  ventrally.  Primaries  black,  with  a  large  wedge- 
shaped  orange  patch  from  the  base  of  the  costa  to  beyond  the 
cell,  extending  to  the  lower  margin  of  the  cell,  at  the  lower 
extremity  of  which  it  is  slightly  excised;  a  broad  postmedial 
orange  band,  produced  forwards  and  reduced  above  vein  4, 
with  an  internal  orange  spot  above  it  close  to  the  costa  ; 
inner  margin  slightly  orange  to  the  postmedial  band:  second- 
aries black,  with  a  very  broad,  irregular,  postmedian  band 
extending  in  a  fine  line  along  the  fold  to  tiie  base;  fringes 
orange  slightly  intersected  with  black.  On  the  under  surface 
the  markings  of  both  wings  are  somewhat  reproduced,  but 
there  is  a  large  apical  orange  suffusion  of  the  primaries,  and 
the  secondaries  are  yellowish. 

Expanse  24  mm. 

Hab.  Fak-Fak,  Dutch  New  Guinea. 

Type  in  Coll.  Kenrick. 

Family  Zygsenidae. 
Levuana,  gen.  nov. 

Antennjebipectinated  in  both  sexes.     Palpi  minute,  porrect. 
Mid  and  hind  tibia?  with  minute  spurs.     Wings  moderately 

344  Mr.  G.  T.  Bethune-Baker  on 

broad,  expanding  in  the  primary  slightly  out-wards.  Neura- 
tion  :  cell  very  long  to  nearly  three  quarters  of  the  wing  in 
both  wings :  })rimaries,  vein  3  given  off  from  the  angle,  4 
and  5  above  the  angle,  6  and  7  stalked  from  above  the  middle 
of  the  cell ;  8  given  off  from  7  close  to  the  termen,  9  from 
tlie  angle,  10  midway  between  9  and  11,  11  from  beyond  the 
centre  of  the  cell :  secondaries,  vein  2  from  well  in  front  of 
the  angle  strongly  bent  downwards,  3  from  the  angle,  4 
absent,  5  from  the  centre  of  the  cell,  7  absent,  8  connected 
with  the  cell  by  a  short  bar. 

Type,  Levuana  iridescens,  B.-B. 

Levuana  iridescens,  sp.  n. 

^  $  .  Head  and  thorax  steel-blue  ;  abdomen  and  legs 
ochreous.  Primaries  deep  unicolorous  steely  blue,  without 
any  markings :  secondaries  iridescent  steely  blue,  semi- 
hyaline,  especially  from  vein  1  c  to  vein  5. 

Expanse  16  mm. 

Hab.  Fiji  Islands  (Viti  Levu). 

Type  in  my  collection. 

The  larva  of  this  species  has  been  doing  great  harm  to  the 
cocoa-nut  palms  in  the  islands,  mining  in  the  leaves  and 
committing  considerable  destruction.  Its  life-history  may 
])rovc  to  be  of  exceptional  interest  if  the  information  that  I 
have  at  present  proves  to  be  correct  in  all  its  details.  1  am 
hoping,  however,  to  clear  one  or  two  doubtful  matters  up  in  a 
few  months,  wiien  I  may  biing  the  species  forward  again. 

Family  Lasiocampidae. 
Taragama  hutiti,  sp.  n. 

$  .  Head  and  collar  pinkish  brown ;  patagife  rufous  edged 
with  whitish.  Primaries  rufous,  wnth  a  single  whitish, 
slightly  curved  postmedian  line  from  near  the  apex  to  near 
the  middle  of  the  inner  margin  :  secondaries  uniform  pinkish 
rufous,  somewhat  diaphanous. 

Expanse  62  mm. 

Hab.  Butiti,  Toro. 

Type  in  my  collection. 

The  species  is  allied  to  T.  carinata,  WUgr. 

Family  Noctuidae. 
Cafepliia  aclwli,  sp.  n. 
Head  and  thorax  rusty  brown  ;  abdomen  dark  brown,  with 

7iew  African  Lepidoptera.  345 

rusty  brown  dorsal  tut'tri,  whitish  hiterully;  pectus  rusty 
brown,  thickly  haired.  Prinuuies  witii  basal  area  rusty 
brown,  with  a  ^rey  basal  tuft;  antcincdial  line  black,  broad, 
twice  anghd  below  the  cell,  preceded  by  a  grc^dsh-brown 
triangular  area;  area  beyond  the  line  greyish  brown,  strongly 
irrorated  with  ochreous-brown  rough  scales,  especially  in  the 
U])per  median  area  ;  median  black  line  somewhat  obscure, 
edged  laterally  with  ochreous  ;  postmedian  lino  black,  broad, 
waved,  interru[)ted  between  veins  8  and  4  ;  beyond  this  line 
the  irroration  ceases  ;  subtermiiuil  line  interrupted,  composed 
of  ochreous  rough  scales,  somewhat  fugitive  ;  terinen  irrorated 
with  lavender-grey  at  the  apex  and  tornus ;  reniform  repre- 
sented by  two  black  spots,  edged  internally  with  pink  and 
followed  by  a  pink  spot  nearer  the  postmedian  line;  veins 
somewhat  outlined  with  rusty  brown  :  secondaries  white,  with 
a  broad  black  termen  ;  fringes  tessellated  blackish  and  rusty 
brown.  Under  surface :  primaries  suffused  with  whitish 
except  in  the  fold  up  to  the  radial  area :  secondaries  with  a 
black  spot  closing  the  cell. 

Expanse  72  mm. 

Hab.  Patigo,  North  Uganda  Protectorate. 

Tj'pe  in  my  collection. 

Family  Geometridae. 
-  Pakamilionia,  gen.  no  v. 

cJ  .  Palpi  small  :  second  segment  curved  over  the  face  ; 
third  segment  porrect.  Antennae  serrate.  Legs  long, 
smoothly  scaled;  mid  tibial  with  one  jjair  of  minute  terminal 
spurs  ;  hind  tibiae  with  two  pairs  of  small  spurs.  Neura- 
tion :  primaries  with  vein  3  from  before  the  angle,  4  from 
the  angle,  5  from  the  centre  of  the  discocellulars,  but  rising  as 
an  aborted  vein  at  the  base  of  the  cell,  6  from  the  angle,  7,  8, 
and  9  stalked,  9,  10,  and  11  anastomosing  with  12,  forming 
a  spurious  areole  over  the  cell  and  a  very  long  narrow  true 
areole  :  secondaries  with  vein  3  from  before  the  angle,  4  from 
the  angle,  5  from  the  middle  of  the  discocellulars  but  rising 
from  the  base  of  the  cell  as  an  aborted  vein,  6  and  7  from  the 
upper  angle. 

Type,  ParamiUonia  ruhroplagata,  B.-B. 

Faramilionia  ruhroplagata^  sp.  n. 

^ .  Thorax  and  abdomen  steely  blue,  the  latter  with  a 
lateral  bright  red  narrow  stripe.  Both  wings  blackish,  with 
a  strong  deep  blue  metallic  lustre  over  nearly  all  the  wing  : 


On  a  new  Chameleon  from  Mashonaland. 

primaries  with  a  large,  oblique,  oblong,  bright  red  patch  at 
the  end  of  the  cell  from  tlie  areole  to  near  vein  2.  Under- 
side :  both  wings  sooty  brown  :  primaries  with  the  red  patch 
showing  through  as  deep  orange;  secondaries  with  the  costa 
broadly  bright  red  to  beyond  its  centre,  the  space  between  all 
the  veins  streaked  with  bright  red  and  also  in  the  cell. 

Exi)anse  50  mm. 

J/ab.  Sierra  Leone. 

Type  in  my  collection  ;  two  specimens. 

XLVIII. — Description  of  a  npw  Chameleon  of  the  Genus 
^\\(\\r\]i\io\eon  from  MashonaUind.  By  G.  A.  BOULENGER, 

EhamphoJeon  MarshalU. 

No  spine  on  the  inner  surface  of  the  digits,  but  each  claw 
with  a  strong  secondary  cusp.  Head  once  and  two  thirds  as 
long  as  broad,  very  feebly  raised  behind;  no  parietal  crest; 
large  tubercles  on  the  occipital  region  ;  a  tubercular  ridge  on 
the  temple,  terminating  in  a  subconical  bony  knob;  no 
prominent  supraciliary  ridge  ;  a  small,  soft,  granular  rostral 
appendage  in  the  female  * ;  no  gular  crest ;  a  series  of 
enlarged  tubercles  on  each  side  below  the  lower  jaw,  from 
the  cliin  to  the  arm.     B(  dy  granular,  with  scattmed  larger 

Rhampholeon  MarshaUi,  uatuiai 

tubercles  on  the  sides ;  a  series  of  widely  spaced  subconical 
tubercles  along  the  spine ;  no  ventral  crest.  Tail  about 
three  fifths  the  length  of  head  and  body.  The  specimen,  as 
preserved  in  spirit,  is  brownish  on  the  body,  variegated  with 

*  It  is  probably  iiuicli  larger  in  the  male. 

On  a  7iew  Sihirid  Fish  from  Angola.  347 

Mackisli,   wliitish   on   the  belly  and  uiKlcr  the   limbs;  head 
blackish  above  and  l)eneatli. 


Total  lonjrth 88 

Lcn^rth  of  head     16 

Width  of  lioad 10 

l?ody 41 

lore  limb 2o 

Hind  limb 25 

Tail    yl 

A  single  specimen,  a  gravid  female,  was  found  in  the 
Chirinda  Forest,  S.E.  Mashonaland,  altitude  4500  feet,  by 
]\Ir.  Guy  H.  K.  Marshall,  and  presented  by  him  to  the 
British  Museum. 

The  discovery  of  a  species  of  the  genus  Rhampholeon  south 
of  the  Zambesi  is  one  of  very  great  interest.  The  Chiriuda 
Forest,  ]\Ir.  Marshall  informs  me,  has  a  tropical  insect-fauna 
quite  dif^tinct  from  that  of  the  surrounding  districts.  Its 
reptile  and  batiachian  fauna,  when  explored,  is  likely  to  afford 
further  startling  additions  to  South-African  herpetology. 

XLIX. — Description  of  a  new  Silurid  Fish  of  the  Genus 
Doumea,  Sauvage,  from  Angola.  By  G.  A.  BOULENGER, 

Doumea  angolensis. 

Depth  of  body  about  |  its  width,  10^  times  in  total  lengtii. 
Head  strongly  depressed,  smooth  above,  once  and  I.  as  long 
as  broad,  O:^  times  in  total  length  ;  snout  obtusely  pointed, 
projecting  beyond  the  mouth,  once  and  |-  as  long  as  post- 
orbital  part  of  head  ;  internarial  space  a  little  nearer  the  eye 
than  the  end  of  the  snout ;  diameter  of  eye  8  times  in  length 
of  head,  twice  in  interorbital  width ;  maxillary  barbel  ^ 
length  of  head,  mandibular  barbels  a  little  shorter  still;  lips 
and  barbels  covered  with  large  round  papillaj.  Occipital 
process  narrow,  half  length  of  snout,  widely  separated  from 
interneural  shield.  Dorsal  I  7,  first  ray  nearly  as  long  as 
head.  Anal  I  7.  Pectoral  not  longer  than  head,  widely 
separated  from  the  ventral,  wliieh  just  reaches  origin  of  anal. 
Caudal  peduncle  ^  of  the  total  length.  Yellowish  brown 
above,    whitish    beneath;    ill-defined    dark    bars    across    the 

3i8  On  l^wo  Species  of  A ivdh as. 

back  ;  a  dark  streak  from  the  end  of  the  snout  to  the  eye  ; 
two  dark  transverse  bars  on  tlie  dorsal,  pectoral,  and  ventral 

Total  length  70  mm. 

A  single  sj^ecimen  from  tbe  interior  of  Benguella,  at  an 
altitude  of  4000-5000  feet.  Presented  to